"Third Fort Union Hospital1" by Fort Union National Monument , public domain

Fort Union

National Monument - New Mexico

Fort Union National Monument is located north of Watrous, Mora County, New Mexico, USA. The site preserves the second of three forts constructed on the site beginning in 1851, as well as the ruins of the third. Also visible is a network of ruts from the Mountain and Cimarron Branches of the old Santa Fe Trail. There is a visitor center with exhibits about the fort and a film about the Santa Fe Trail. A 1.2-mile (1.9-kilometre) trail winds through the fort's adobe ruins.

maps

Official Visitor Map of Santa Fe National Historic Trail (NHT) in Colorado, Kansas, Misouri, New Mexico and Oklahoma. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Santa Fe - National Historic Trail

Official Visitor Map of Santa Fe National Historic Trail (NHT) in Colorado, Kansas, Misouri, New Mexico and Oklahoma. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/foun/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Union_National_Monument Fort Union National Monument is located north of Watrous, Mora County, New Mexico, USA. The site preserves the second of three forts constructed on the site beginning in 1851, as well as the ruins of the third. Also visible is a network of ruts from the Mountain and Cimarron Branches of the old Santa Fe Trail. There is a visitor center with exhibits about the fort and a film about the Santa Fe Trail. A 1.2-mile (1.9-kilometre) trail winds through the fort's adobe ruins. Exposed to the wind, within a sweeping valley of short grass prairie, amid the swales of the Santa Fe Trail, lie the territorial-style adobe remnants of the largest 19th century military fort in the region. For forty years, 1851-1891, Fort Union functioned as an agent of political and cultural change, whether desired or not, in New Mexico and throughout the Southwest. Fort Union National Monument is located in the Northeastern portion of the state of New Mexico. 8 miles off of Interstate I-25 on State Highway NM 161. New Mexico: From Albuquerque (156 miles), Santa Fe (94 miles) or Las Vegas, NM (28 miles) take I-25 North, exit 366 at Watrous, 8 miles on NM 161. Colorado: From Denver (313 miles), Colorado Springs (243 miles) or Raton (95 miles) take I-25 South, exit 366 at Watrous, 8 miles on NM 161. Fort Union National Monument Visitor Center The Visitor Center is currently open 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Handicapped parking spaces for standard sized vehicles are available in the Visitor Center parking area. Several "oversized" parking spaces in the parking lot can accommodate campers, buses, and large RV's. Brochures are available outside the visitor center doors from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Fort Union National Monument is located in the Northeastern portion of the state of New Mexico. 8 miles off of Interstate I-25 on State Highway NM 161. New Mexico: From Albuquerque (156 miles), Santa Fe (94 miles) or Las Vegas, NM (28 miles) take I-25 north, exit 366 at Watrous, 8 miles on NM 161. Colorado: From Denver (313 miles), Colorado Springs (243 miles) or Raton (95 miles) take I-25 south, exit 366 at Watrous, 8 miles on NM 161. Big Skies Over Officers Row Panorama of Officers Row Blue skies and billowing clouds frequently add to the incredible viewshed that surrounds the monument grounds. Freezing Fog in Mechanics Corral Wagons encrusted in frost One of the most photographed areas of the monument, the Mechanics Corral onced serviced wagons that travelled along the Santa Fe Trail. Sunflower in Enlisted Barracks Sunflower in Enlisted Barracks Located deep within the Mora Valley, Fort Union National Monument contains a vast array of plant and animal life. Remnants of the Past Moon in sky above adobe remnants Located on the monument grounds is the world's largest collection of Territorial-Style adobe remanants. Fort Union NM Visitor Center Fort Union Visitor Center Sign Completed in 1960, the Visitor Center at Fort Union was one of the first built during the "MIssion 66" program for the National Park Service. It was designed by the internationally known architect Cecil Doty. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Fort Union National Monument, New Mexico Fort Union sits on the High Plains of northern New Mexico near where the plains meet the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Fort Union NM is situated within a landscape of great geological diversity that is also essential to the character of the historic site. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. adobe ruins The War and Westward Expansion With Federal resources focused on waging the war farther east, both native tribes and the Confederacy attempted to claim or reclaim lands west of the Mississippi. The Federal government responded with measures (Homestead Act, transcontinental railroad) and military campaigns designed to encourage settlement, solidify Union control of the trans-Mississippi West, and further marginalize the physical and cultural presence of tribes native to the West. Painting Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way showing settlers moving into the American west Forts and Park Units along the Trail The U.S. opened military forts along the route of the Santa Fe Trail to protect trail travel and trade. The first military fort, Fort Leavenworth, was established in 1827 in eastern Kansas and is not a national park site. Fort Union and Fort Larned followed. Bent’s Fort, not a military fort but a trading post, was built in 1833. The trail also passed along the ancient pueblo of Pecos, now a part of Pecos National Historical Park. Fort ruins in the snow at Fort Union National Monument Fort Union Breeding Bird Inventory The New Mexico Natural Heritage Program conducted the bird inventory at Fort Union National Monument in 2002. Small brownish bird with a narrow beak Exotic Plants Monitoring in the Southern Plains and Chihuahuan Desert National parks, like other publicly managed lands, are deluged by new exotic species arriving through predictable (e.g., road, trail, and riparian corridors), sudden (e.g., long distance dispersal through cargo containers and air freight), and unexpected anthropogenic pathways (e.g., weed seeds mixed in with restoration planting mixes). Landscape with a uniform, green foreground consisting of invasive kochia Climate Change in the Southern Plains Network Climate change may have direct and/or indirect effects on many elements of Southern Plains network ecosystems, from streams and grasslands to fires and birds. Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) is an invasive plant that has invaded the Southern Plains Trail Beginnings & Geographic Setting Covering approximately 800 miles, the Santa Fe Trail extends from Independence, Missouri to present day Santa Fe, New Mexico. The Trail originally began in Franklin, Missouri, but the trail head was moved to Fort Osage and, by 1827, to Independence. Map of the Santa Fe Trail and National Park Units along its route. Notable People of the Trail Prior to use of the Trail by white traders and settlers, it was a part of the Native American trade network. It was also used by Spaniards of New Mexico for exploration and trade with the Plains Indians. Soldiers also used the Trail throughout its 60-year history. Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site, including a reconstructed tipi Management & Preservation of the Santa Fe Trail The Santa Fe Trail became a part of the National Trails System in 1987. The National Park Service works in cooperation with the Santa Fe Trail Association, a nonprofit organization, to coordinate the preservation and use of the Trail. Inner courtyard of the reconstructed fort at Bent’s Old Fort NHS More Trail Facts & the Decline of the Santa Fe Trail More than 60 years of life on the Santa Fe Trail ended when the first steam engine reached Santa Fe in February of 1880. Goods such as weapons and cooking supplies at the reconstructed fort at Bent’s Old Fort NHS Santa Fe Trail Links & Literature More information about the Santa Fe Trail is available on the web, and via a list of literature cited throughout the chapters above. Santa Fe Trail reenactment with oxen and horses drawing a cart and a wagon The Changing War Begun as a purely military effort with the limited political objectives of reunification (North) or independence (South), the Civil War transformed into a social, economic and political revolution with unforeseen consequences. As the war progressed, the Union war effort steadily transformed from a limited to a hard war; it targeted not just Southern armies, but the heart of the Confederacy's economy, morale, and social order-the institution of slavery. Woodcut of spectators watching a train station set fire by Sherman's troops Climate Monitoring in the Southern Plains, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert Climate is one of many ecological indicators monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Climate data help scientists to understand ecosystem processes and help to explain many of the patterns and trends observed in other natural-resource monitoring. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor climate using the scientific protocol described here. Kayaking across a fl ooded parking lot, Chickasaw NRA, July 2007. Southwestern Plains The Plains of the Southwest include the southern Great Plains, the High Plains, Llano Estacado (Staked Plains), and Edwards Plateau. Sunset lights up the grass at Capulin Volcano National Monument Mission 66 Visitor Center Site Cultural Landscape The Visitor Center and landscape is significant for its association with noted National Park Service architect Cecil Doty, who designed the building from 1956 through 1958; and as an example of New Mexico Territorial Style architecture adapted to the “modern” philosophy of design. Locating centers as close to the resources was done to strengthen the interpretive message and provide impressive views. Entrance of Mission 66 Visitor Center (Mission 66 Visitor Center Site: CLI, NPS, 2010) Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Series: The Santa Fe Trail In its day, the Trail served primarily as a commercial highway. The military used the trail to haul freight to supply the southwestern forts. The Trail was also used by stagecoach lines, those seeking gold in California and Colorado, fur trappers, and emigrants. The Trail in effect brought together Spanish and American cultures and. Many interactions, both amicable and contentious, between settlers and soldiers and the Plains Indians also occurred along the Trail. A small amount of snow fills the ruts that mark where the Santa Fe Trail passed through Pecos NHP Series: Southern Plains Bird Inventories Birds are a highly visible component of many ecosystems and because they respond quickly to changes in resource conditions, birds are good indicators of environmental change. Bird inventories allow us to understand the current condition, or status, of bird populations and communities in parks. These data are important for managing birds and other resources and provide baseline information for monitoring changes over time. Violet-green swallow Students Help Preserve Fort Union National Monument on the Santa Fe Trail Nothing lasts forever, especially not 130-year old adobe. The adobe walls of Fort Union National Monument, a military post on the Santa Fe Trail, have stood unprotected in the short grass prairie, subject to wind, solar gain, rain, and snow since the fort ceased operations in 1891. Professors and students from the University of Pennsylvania have been investigating preservation techniques to help understand the fort’s vulnerability to deterioration. Read more about their on Ruins of adobe building in a short grass prairie
Fort Union UnionNational NationalMonument Monument TheFort official newsletter National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior The official newsletter Vol. I No. 2 2016 FortUnion PostReturn Fort Union Marching to 100 by Ranger Greg Baker The National Park Service will soon be celebrating its 100 year anniversary as the steward of America’s treasured national parks. In preparation for this tremendous accomplishment, Fort Union National Monument has embraced the Call to Action initiative that will ready the National Park Service for its second century, and beyond. The initiative is built around securing the foundation of the mission of the National Park Service and its future by: fostering the connection between people and the extraordinary parks near their homes and communities, advancing the NPS Education Mission by getting the park into the classrooms and the students out in the park, continuing to preserve the special places the public has entrusted to the NPS, and by enhancing professional and organizational excellence for a stronger National Park Service for the future. Fort Union National Monument continues to pursue these goals through a number of ways, including the park’s special events and continued outreach efforts. Fort Union National Monument has already participated in more than a dozen events in our surrounding communities. These events included participation in fairs, local parades, working with schools, educational partners, and working with other units of the National Park Service. This can be seen through our partnership with the Citizens Committee for Historic Preservation in hosting our monthly Glimpses of the Past presentation series in Las Vegas, New Mexico, and also in our continued participation in established community events such as the Fiestas de Las Vegas and the Cleveland Mill Fest. The park has also established new partnerships as opportunities, such as our involvelment in a historic dutch-oven cook off at the reemerging Castaneda Hotel. 2015 has brought success in many of our annual events, such as Candlelight Tours and Junior Ranger Camps. They focused on the often forgotten history of the “Indian Wars,” and Fort Union’s impact on the Southwest and the people who called it home. Fort Union’s events not only serve to share the incredible history made here, and create new memories and connections Education Corner to the park. In this effort, Fort Union National Monument had the privilege of presenting eleven During the 2014-2015 people their U.S. Scholastic year, Fort citizenship. The park Union National Monument reached over 1,000 students, teachers, and parents from hosted its second Naturalization Cer- the nearby communities by providing numerous school visits and onsite tours. emony with the help Thanks to Disney Inc. and National Park of 15 honor students Foundation’s “Ticket to Ride” grant hunfrom Springer High dreds of thousands of students explore School. This event the outdoors. “Ticket to Ride” assists in paying the transportation costs to and created a very special from national park sites. and memorable conGreat News! Starting with the 2015nection to the park 2016 school year, the “Every Kid in a for these individuals Park” national program begins. During this time, all 4th grade students and their as well as the stufamilies will have free admission to any dents who helped National Park for a full year! More information on this program can be found at : make it a success. These are the kinds http://www.nationalparks.org/ook/ of connections that every-kid-in-a-park (See page 4 for more will last a lifetime, information). For more information about the eduand will insure a cational opportunities and programs at stronger National Fort Union National Monument contact Park Service as we Megan Urban at (505) 425-8025 Ext 221 step into or by Email at megan_urban@nps.gov. our second century of stewardship. It is through our outreach and events that we share these stories, and inspire future generations to support their local National Parks, and discover their own history. FortUnion PostReturn 1 Nature Watch h by Michelle Gonzalez, NMHU Intern As you walk through Fort Union, your eyes may be fixed on the historic structures and amazing landscape of the area, however in the short prairie grass there is a well camouflaged resident of the fort. Blending into its surroundings and moving slowly through the ruins is the prairie rattlesnake. It is distinguished by its triangular shaped head, slit shaped eyes, thin neck, blotched pattern markings, and rattle tail. by Ranger Greg Baker The prairie rattlesnake is venomous and generally preys on small rodents, other snakes, and birds. They are cold-blooded reptiles and cannot regulate their body temperature internally. This means that on cooler days you may find these rattlers stretched out on the trail trying to warm up, and on hot summer days hiding within the ruins. During your visit to Fort Union if you happen to encoun
Fort Union National Monument The official newsletter National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Vol. I No. I 2015 FortUnion PostReturn Superintendent’s Welcome by Charles Strickfaden Superintendent Welcome friends and neighbors to the first edition of our newsletter, the Fort Union Post Return. You are invited to discover the role Fort Union played in shaping the culture and society of the American Southwest. It is my hope that this newsletter will expand your view of our many Fort Union stories, and help make your visit an enjoyable and recurring event! Southwest are the stories we tell at Fort Union. It is a great honor to manage a dedicated and highly skilled staff in preserving the historic remnants of Fort Union for future generations, and educating the public of today about its amazing stories. At Fort Union National Monument community members and visitors like you have an opportunity to take a glimpse into the past, and reflect on the lives of the people and communities that lived in Northeast New Mexico. We follow in the footsteps of thousands of years of inhabitation by Native Americans, followed by exploration and settlement by Spanish Conquistadors, the farmers and ranchers of Nuevo Mexico, Civil War soldiers, and the communities of the New Mexico Territory. The preservation of this important place is a joint venture between the National Park Service, our communities, and our visitors. We are all stewards of these irreplaceable places and resources so we can share them with our children, and their children… Their stories, lives, hardships, and interactions with each other, as well as their contributions to the diverse culture and history of the American As Superintendent of one of over 400 units of the National Park System the staff of Fort Union recognizes that there are difficult stories from the past that must be, and should be, told. We are dedicated to sharing these stories in a fair and respectful manner. I hope you will join us as a volunteer during one of our special events, or in our educational outreach, as we plan for and carry out the 100th Anniversary of the National Park Service in 2016. We hope you will join us during this exciting time, and we look forward to your visit soon! Junior Ranger Camp Photo credit: Lorenzo Vigil Education Corner Beginning in the Fall of 2013, Fort Union National Monument introduced curriculumbased programs that have educated and challenged hundreds of school children throughout northern New Mexico. The ranger-led lessons highlight the unique historical development of New Mexico and the pivotal role that Fort Union played in the American Southwest during the 1800s. These ranger-led education programs introduce students to the rich history of the Santa Fe Trail, Fort Union’s role in the Indian Wars and Civil War, and what life was like for a variety of people during this time period including women, children, and Hispanic and AfricanAmerican soldiers. Many of the programs focus on the intimate connections Fort Union has with the local surrounding communities. For more information on or to organize an educational ranger led activitiy either at the fort or in the classroom, contact Education Specialist Amy Jewell at: Phone: (505) 425-8025 Ext 221 Email: Amy_Jewell@nps.gov 1 National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Union National Monument From 1851-1891, Fort Union was the largest frontier military post and supply center of the Southwest. The National Park Service preserves and protects the historic Fort Union and ruts of the Santa Fe Trail. Superintendent Charles Strickfaden Mailing Address P.O. Box 127, Watrous, New Mexico 87753 Kiowa ledger of Buffalo Wallow battle Website www.nps.gov/foun Join the Conversation Find us on Facebook www.facebook.com/FortUnionNM Phone 505-425-8025, Ext 0 E-mail FOUN_interp@nps.gov To learn more about Fort Union visit our WNPA Park store at the Fort or online. Park Store www.wnpa.org Nature Corner During your visit with us you may regularly see a herd of 20 or more North American Pronghorn grazing the prairie in and around the fort. As the fastest free roaming distance land mammal in North America it can average sustained speeds of 35 mph for up to four miles. Surprisingly, its closest living relative is the giraffe, and it shares a convergent evolutionary path with the antelope. 2 Photo courtesy Texas Memorial Museum Red River War In late August of 1874, over 40 military wagons laden with supplies, left Fort Union and headed east towards Texas. Over 200 soldiers under the command of Major William R. Price (8th US Cavalry) escorted the wagon train and its contents. They monitored the 60,000 rounds of ammunition and 80,000 pounds of black powder that had been carefully packed in the wagons. Within weeks, these men and their cargo would become heavily involved in what historians would eventually coin the “Red River War”. Lasting between 1874-1875, the “Red River War” began as members of t

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