"Third Fort Union Hospital1" by Fort Union National Monument , public domain

Fort Union

National Monument - New Mexico

Fort Union National Monument is located north of Watrous, Mora County, New Mexico, USA. The site preserves the second of three forts constructed on the site beginning in 1851, as well as the ruins of the third. Also visible is a network of ruts from the Mountain and Cimarron Branches of the old Santa Fe Trail. There is a visitor center with exhibits about the fort and a film about the Santa Fe Trail. A 1.2-mile (1.9-kilometre) trail winds through the fort's adobe ruins.

location

maps

Official Visitor Map of Santa Fe National Historic Trail (NHT) in Colorado, Kansas, Misouri, New Mexico and Oklahoma. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Santa Fe - National Historic Trail

Official Visitor Map of Santa Fe National Historic Trail (NHT) in Colorado, Kansas, Misouri, New Mexico and Oklahoma. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/foun/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Union_National_Monument Fort Union National Monument is located north of Watrous, Mora County, New Mexico, USA. The site preserves the second of three forts constructed on the site beginning in 1851, as well as the ruins of the third. Also visible is a network of ruts from the Mountain and Cimarron Branches of the old Santa Fe Trail. There is a visitor center with exhibits about the fort and a film about the Santa Fe Trail. A 1.2-mile (1.9-kilometre) trail winds through the fort's adobe ruins. Exposed to the wind, within a sweeping valley of short grass prairie, amid the swales of the Santa Fe Trail, lie the territorial-style adobe remnants of the largest 19th century military fort in the region. For forty years, 1851-1891, Fort Union functioned as an agent of political and cultural change, whether desired or not, in New Mexico and throughout the Southwest. Fort Union National Monument is located in the Northeastern portion of the state of New Mexico. 8 miles off of Interstate I-25 on State Highway NM 161. New Mexico: From Albuquerque (156 miles), Santa Fe (94 miles) or Las Vegas, NM (28 miles) take I-25 North, exit 366 at Watrous, 8 miles on NM 161. Colorado: From Denver (313 miles), Colorado Springs (243 miles) or Raton (95 miles) take I-25 South, exit 366 at Watrous, 8 miles on NM 161. Fort Union National Monument Visitor Center The Visitor Center is currently open 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Handicapped parking spaces for standard sized vehicles are available in the Visitor Center parking area. Several "oversized" parking spaces in the parking lot can accommodate campers, buses, and large RV's. Brochures are available outside the visitor center doors from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Fort Union National Monument is located in the Northeastern portion of the state of New Mexico. 8 miles off of Interstate I-25 on State Highway NM 161. New Mexico: From Albuquerque (156 miles), Santa Fe (94 miles) or Las Vegas, NM (28 miles) take I-25 north, exit 366 at Watrous, 8 miles on NM 161. Colorado: From Denver (313 miles), Colorado Springs (243 miles) or Raton (95 miles) take I-25 south, exit 366 at Watrous, 8 miles on NM 161. Big Skies Over Officers Row Panorama of Officers Row Blue skies and billowing clouds frequently add to the incredible viewshed that surrounds the monument grounds. Freezing Fog in Mechanics Corral Wagons encrusted in frost One of the most photographed areas of the monument, the Mechanics Corral onced serviced wagons that travelled along the Santa Fe Trail. Sunflower in Enlisted Barracks Sunflower in Enlisted Barracks Located deep within the Mora Valley, Fort Union National Monument contains a vast array of plant and animal life. Remnants of the Past Moon in sky above adobe remnants Located on the monument grounds is the world's largest collection of Territorial-Style adobe remanants. Fort Union NM Visitor Center Fort Union Visitor Center Sign Completed in 1960, the Visitor Center at Fort Union was one of the first built during the "MIssion 66" program for the National Park Service. It was designed by the internationally known architect Cecil Doty. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Fort Union National Monument, New Mexico Fort Union sits on the High Plains of northern New Mexico near where the plains meet the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Fort Union NM is situated within a landscape of great geological diversity that is also essential to the character of the historic site. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. adobe ruins The War and Westward Expansion With Federal resources focused on waging the war farther east, both native tribes and the Confederacy attempted to claim or reclaim lands west of the Mississippi. The Federal government responded with measures (Homestead Act, transcontinental railroad) and military campaigns designed to encourage settlement, solidify Union control of the trans-Mississippi West, and further marginalize the physical and cultural presence of tribes native to the West. Painting Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way showing settlers moving into the American west Forts and Park Units along the Trail The U.S. opened military forts along the route of the Santa Fe Trail to protect trail travel and trade. The first military fort, Fort Leavenworth, was established in 1827 in eastern Kansas and is not a national park site. Fort Union and Fort Larned followed. Bent’s Fort, not a military fort but a trading post, was built in 1833. The trail also passed along the ancient pueblo of Pecos, now a part of Pecos National Historical Park. Fort ruins in the snow at Fort Union National Monument Fort Union Breeding Bird Inventory The New Mexico Natural Heritage Program conducted the bird inventory at Fort Union National Monument in 2002. Small brownish bird with a narrow beak Exotic Plants Monitoring in the Southern Plains and Chihuahuan Desert National parks, like other publicly managed lands, are deluged by new exotic species arriving through predictable (e.g., road, trail, and riparian corridors), sudden (e.g., long distance dispersal through cargo containers and air freight), and unexpected anthropogenic pathways (e.g., weed seeds mixed in with restoration planting mixes). Landscape with a uniform, green foreground consisting of invasive kochia Climate Change in the Southern Plains Network Climate change may have direct and/or indirect effects on many elements of Southern Plains network ecosystems, from streams and grasslands to fires and birds. Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) is an invasive plant that has invaded the Southern Plains Trail Beginnings & Geographic Setting Covering approximately 800 miles, the Santa Fe Trail extends from Independence, Missouri to present day Santa Fe, New Mexico. The Trail originally began in Franklin, Missouri, but the trail head was moved to Fort Osage and, by 1827, to Independence. Map of the Santa Fe Trail and National Park Units along its route. Notable People of the Trail Prior to use of the Trail by white traders and settlers, it was a part of the Native American trade network. It was also used by Spaniards of New Mexico for exploration and trade with the Plains Indians. Soldiers also used the Trail throughout its 60-year history. Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site, including a reconstructed tipi Management & Preservation of the Santa Fe Trail The Santa Fe Trail became a part of the National Trails System in 1987. The National Park Service works in cooperation with the Santa Fe Trail Association, a nonprofit organization, to coordinate the preservation and use of the Trail. Inner courtyard of the reconstructed fort at Bent’s Old Fort NHS More Trail Facts & the Decline of the Santa Fe Trail More than 60 years of life on the Santa Fe Trail ended when the first steam engine reached Santa Fe in February of 1880. Goods such as weapons and cooking supplies at the reconstructed fort at Bent’s Old Fort NHS Santa Fe Trail Links & Literature More information about the Santa Fe Trail is available on the web, and via a list of literature cited throughout the chapters above. Santa Fe Trail reenactment with oxen and horses drawing a cart and a wagon The Changing War Begun as a purely military effort with the limited political objectives of reunification (North) or independence (South), the Civil War transformed into a social, economic and political revolution with unforeseen consequences. As the war progressed, the Union war effort steadily transformed from a limited to a hard war; it targeted not just Southern armies, but the heart of the Confederacy's economy, morale, and social order-the institution of slavery. Woodcut of spectators watching a train station set fire by Sherman's troops Climate Monitoring in the Southern Plains, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert Climate is one of many ecological indicators monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Climate data help scientists to understand ecosystem processes and help to explain many of the patterns and trends observed in other natural-resource monitoring. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor climate using the scientific protocol described here. Kayaking across a fl ooded parking lot, Chickasaw NRA, July 2007. Southwestern Plains The Plains of the Southwest include the southern Great Plains, the High Plains, Llano Estacado (Staked Plains), and Edwards Plateau. Sunset lights up the grass at Capulin Volcano National Monument Mission 66 Visitor Center Site Cultural Landscape The Visitor Center and landscape is significant for its association with noted National Park Service architect Cecil Doty, who designed the building from 1956 through 1958; and as an example of New Mexico Territorial Style architecture adapted to the “modern” philosophy of design. Locating centers as close to the resources was done to strengthen the interpretive message and provide impressive views. Entrance of Mission 66 Visitor Center (Mission 66 Visitor Center Site: CLI, NPS, 2010) Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Series: The Santa Fe Trail In its day, the Trail served primarily as a commercial highway. The military used the trail to haul freight to supply the southwestern forts. The Trail was also used by stagecoach lines, those seeking gold in California and Colorado, fur trappers, and emigrants. The Trail in effect brought together Spanish and American cultures and. Many interactions, both amicable and contentious, between settlers and soldiers and the Plains Indians also occurred along the Trail. A small amount of snow fills the ruts that mark where the Santa Fe Trail passed through Pecos NHP Series: Southern Plains Bird Inventories Birds are a highly visible component of many ecosystems and because they respond quickly to changes in resource conditions, birds are good indicators of environmental change. Bird inventories allow us to understand the current condition, or status, of bird populations and communities in parks. These data are important for managing birds and other resources and provide baseline information for monitoring changes over time. Violet-green swallow Students Help Preserve Fort Union National Monument on the Santa Fe Trail Nothing lasts forever, especially not 130-year old adobe. The adobe walls of Fort Union National Monument, a military post on the Santa Fe Trail, have stood unprotected in the short grass prairie, subject to wind, solar gain, rain, and snow since the fort ceased operations in 1891. Professors and students from the University of Pennsylvania have been investigating preservation techniques to help understand the fort’s vulnerability to deterioration. Read more about their on Ruins of adobe building in a short grass prairie Find Your Park on Route 66 Route 66 and the National Park Service have always had an important historical connection. Route 66 was known as the great road west and after World War II families on vacation took to the road in great numbers to visit the many National Park Service sites in the Southwest and beyond. That connection remains very alive and present today. Take a trip down Route 66 and Find Your Park today! A paved road with fields in the distance. On the road is a white Oklahoma Route 66 emblem. Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background

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