"Battlefield landscape, Gettysburg National Military Park, 2014." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Gettysburg

National Military Park - Pennsylvania

The Gettysburg National Military Park (GNMP) protects and interprets the landscape of the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War. The GNMP properties include most of the Gettysburg Battlefield, many of the battle's support areas during the battle (e.g., reserve, supply, & hospital locations), and several other non-battle areas associated with the battle's "aftermath and commemoration", including the Gettysburg National Cemetery. Many of the park's 43,000 American Civil War artifacts are displayed in the Gettysburg Museum and Visitor Center.

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maps

Official Visitor Map of Gettysburg National Military Park (NMP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Gettysburg - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Gettysburg National Military Park (NMP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Chesapeake & Ohio Canal - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/gett https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gettysburg_National_Military_Park The Gettysburg National Military Park (GNMP) protects and interprets the landscape of the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War. The GNMP properties include most of the Gettysburg Battlefield, many of the battle's support areas during the battle (e.g., reserve, supply, & hospital locations), and several other non-battle areas associated with the battle's "aftermath and commemoration", including the Gettysburg National Cemetery. Many of the park's 43,000 American Civil War artifacts are displayed in the Gettysburg Museum and Visitor Center. The Battle of Gettysburg was a turning point in the Civil War, the Union victory that ended General Robert E. Lee's second and most ambitious invasion of the North. Often referred to as the "High Water Mark of the Rebellion", Gettysburg was the Civil War's bloodiest battle and was also the inspiration for President Abraham Lincoln's immortal "Gettysburg Address". Gettysburg National Military Park is located in Adams County, Pennsylvania. The museum and visitor center is located at 1195 Baltimore Pike (Route 97) with a back entrance from the Taneytown Road (State Rt. 134). From North or South, follow US 15 to Gettysburg and watch for signs to direct you to the National Park Service Museum and Visitor Center. From East or West, drive into Gettysburg on US Rt. 30, turn South on Baltimore Street (Rt. 97), and follow signs to the entrance of the visitor center. David Wills House The home of Gettysburg attorney David Wills was the center of the immense clean-up process after the Battle of Gettysburg and where President Lincoln put the finishing touches on his Gettysburg Address. The museum features six galleries, including two rooms that have been restored to their 1863 appearance: Wills' office, where he planned for a Soldiers' National Cemetery after the battle; and the bedroom where Lincoln stayed and prepared the Gettysburg Address. Admission to the the Wills House is free. The David Wills House is located on Lincoln Square in downtown Gettysburg. Parking is available at the Gettysburg Municipal Parking Garage on Race Horse Alley or you can take the Freedom Transit Shuttle from the Gettysburg Museum and Visitor Center. Museum and Visitor Center Gettysburg National Military Park Museum and Visitor Center is the place to begin your visit to the battlefield. Here you will learn how to visit the park and what to see around Gettysburg. Backpacks are not permitted in the Museum and Visitor Center. (Exceptions are backpacks that are medical and/or first-aid packs, camera bags, or baby essential bags.) The Museum and Visitor Center is privately owned and operated by the Gettysburg Foundation, in partnership with the National Park Service. McMillan Woods Youth Campground For scouting and organized youth groups that visit Gettysburg National Military Park, we offer McMillan Woods Youth Campground, located in the park on West Confederate Avenue. The campground is open from mid-April through the end of October every year. Any organized youth group with adequate adult supervision (minimum of one adult for every 10 youths) is welcome to use the camping area. Camping here is by reservation only and camp sites are reserved on a first come, first served basis. Campsites are FREE. Reservation service fees apply. 0.00 Campsites are free. Reservation service fees of $9.00 for a web reservation or $10.00 for a call center reservation apply. Camping is by reservation only; walk-ins not permitted. Campground open for Scout groups and civic youth organization groups only. Family and individual camping is not available at this facility. Entrance Sign entrance sign to McMillan Woods Youth Campground Welcome to McMillan Woods Youth Campground. McMillan Woods campsite one of the McMillan Woods campsites One of the McMillan Woods campsites. Picnic Pavilion Picnic Pavilion Groups can use the Picnic Pavilion for large gatherings. The Recreation Area The Recreation Area The recreation area and flagpole. The water station. The water station. The water station. The Henry Slocum Monument A canon sits in front of an equestrian statue. This statue of Henry Slocum sits on Steven's Knoll near Culp's Hill. The Mississippi Monument at sunrise The Mississippi Monument at sunrise The Mississippi Monument at sunrise. The Irish Brigade Monument The Irish Brigade Monument The Irish Brigade Monument. The Soldiers' National Cemetery during special illumination event The Soldiers' National Cemetery during special illumination event The Soldiers' National Cemetery during special illumination event. A ranger-led interpretive program A ranger-led interpretive program A ranger-led interpretive program. A rainbow over the Abraham Brian Farm on Cemetery Ridge A rainbow over the Abraham Brian Farm on Cemetery Ridge A rainbow over the Abraham Brian Farm on Cemetery Ridge. A ranger-led interpretive program A ranger-led interpretive program A ranger-led interpretive program. The Cyclorama painting The Cyclorama painting The Cyclorama painting. The view from Little Round Top The view from Little Round Top The view from Little Round Top. Traditional Trades Apprenticeship Program’s Rodney Flora A veteran of the U.S. Navy, Rodney Flora applied to the Historic Preservation Training Center’s Traditional Trades Apprenticeship Program (TTAP) after graduating from Shepherd University. Find out how this veteran found his passion in manual labor, not unlike his military experience. Rodney Flora stands to the right of five other crew and staff members. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Gettysburg National Military Park, Pennsylvania Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. parkland and statue Partnerships add a Charge to your Travel Plans The National Park Service, the National Park Foundation, BMW of North America, the U.S. Department of Energy, concessioners, and gateway communities have collaborated to provide new technologies for travel options to and around national parks. As part of this public-private partnership, BMW of North America, working through the National Park Foundation, donated and arranged for the installation of 100 electric vehicle (EV) charging ports in and around national parks. Successful Prescribed Burn Completed at Little Round Top Gettysburg National Military Park successfully burned 52 acres of Little Round Top on Monday, April 10, 2017, to remove grass, undergrowth and brush from an area historically open at the time of the Battle of Gettysburg. A controlled fired burns dry grass on a hillside. Women Amidst War The extreme demands of wartime industry and the loss of traditional family breadwinners to military service caused hardship, but also presented opportunities to women for employment, volunteerism, and activism that previously had been unavailable to them. While many of these gains would be temporary, the Civil War nonetheless represents an important step forward in American society's view of the role of women. Women were increasingly seen (and saw themselves) as the foundat Photo of women at a house on the Cedar Mountain battlefield Designing the Parks: Learning in Action The Designing the Parks program is not your typical internship. Each year since 2013, this program at the Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation has introduced a cohort of college students and recent graduates to NPS design and planning professions through projects related to cultural landscape stewardship. In the internships, made possible by partner organizations, participants focus on an in-depth project that directly engages with a national park unit. A group of young people stand on forest trail and listen to two maintenance employees 7/4- Seven Stories for the Ages There are certain dates that people circle on their calendar. Year to year, these dates may change for some, with the incidental importance one day may hold to the next. Vacations, doctor’s appointments, dates, family reunions, etc. are all important. They affect us all differently, at varied stages of our lives. One date, however, on the calendar of most Americans, is generally highlighted. The fourth day of July is significant for all of us. A sketch of Stephen Foster appears on a postage stamp. Paleontological Modeling Example—'Anchisauripus' track 3D Fossil Anchisauripus track Gettysburg National Military Park, Pennsylvania model of dinosaur track National Parks and National Cemeteries Currently, the National Park Service manages 14 national cemeteries. These cemeteries represent a continuum of use dating to a period before the establishment of the historical parks of which they are an integral part and are administered to preserve the historic character, uniqueness, and solemn nature of both the cemeteries and the historical parks of which they are a part. Setting sun lights up graves and decorations Death and Dying The somber aftermath of Civil War battles introduced Americans--North and South--to death on an unprecedented scale and of an unnatural kind, often ending in an unmarked grave far from home. Neither individuals, nor institutions, nor governments were prepared to deal with death on such a massive scale, for never before or since have we killed so many of our own. The Civil War revolutionized the American military's approach to caring for the dead, leading to our modern cult Photo of freshly buried marked and unmarked graves near Petersburg, Va. 11 Ways National Parks Influenced World War I (and vice versa) Uncover the hidden history of World War I in the national parks! A Renault tank and infantry move through a field Curriculum Connections: Making the Most of National Park Experiences Developing curriculum-based programs is the cornerstone for a solid foundation for park education programs. Providing relevant resource-based experiences for people of all ages will ensure a continuum of opportunities for citizens to support their own learning objectives through the national parks and to find meaning in their national treasures. Offering curriculum-based programs, especially for school age children will help foster stewardship. Carriage roads at Acadia National Park. NPS Photo 2018 Freeman Tilden Award Recipients In 2018, six talented National Park Service employees were awarded the Freeman Tilden Award for their amazing and innovative interpretive programs. Ranger in a canyon with a typewriter on a table Gettysburg: the Power of Partnership For 28 years the Gettysburg Foundation has stood with the National Park Service (NPS) as the steward of preservation, restoration, and education at Gettysburg National Military Park, assisting with ongoing preservation needs of the battlefield, the Soldiers’ National Cemetery, and the Eisenhower National Historic Site. Veteran Story: Tim Dolen The Mission Continues empowers veterans who are adjusting to life at home to find purpose through community impact. The non-profit deploys veterans on new missions in their communities, so that their actions will inspire future generations to serve. Tim Dolen started his six-month assignment on October 18, 2017 as Veteran Outreach Coordinator at Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site. The Mission Continues: Tim Dolen visits the park museum. He is standing next to the cannon exhibit. Cultural Resource Monitoring Example—Gettysburg 3D Post-Civil War Inscription Gettysburg National Military Park, Pennsylvania signature by A.W. Lightner 1871 color 3d image The Army's First Tank School: Camp Colt at Gettysburg While America ramped up to fight in World War I, Captain Dwight D. Eisenhower trained troops here in a new form of warfare that changed the battlefield forever. Infantry march behind a tank in a field of tall weeds The Civilian Experience in the Civil War After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians both near and far from the battlefields became unwilling participants and victims of the war as its toll of blood and treasure grew year after year. In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material, and began to expect that their government should do the same. Painting of civilians under fire during the Siege of Vicksburg 2020 Weather In Review: Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site experienced a very warm and slightly dry 2020. In all, the year ended as the 10th warmest and 41st driest since 1895. A cannon overlooking a field and sunset at Gettysburg Abraham Lincoln: The War Years 1861-1865 No president up to that point in American history was called on to be commander-in-chief like Abraham Lincoln. From monitoring the War Department telegraph office to selecting of commanding generals and developing military strategy, Lincoln guided the nation through its darkest hour. Abraham Lincoln and General George McClellan following the Battle of Antietam The Will to Win In early 1863 the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia was poised for a knockout blow as General Robert E. Lee and his men were riding high on recent victories. Lee felt that his army just needed one last victory to crush the Union's will to fight. But things were about to change. Photo of a Union soldier Prisoner of War Camps at Gettysburg During World War II The United States War Department was granted permission by the National Park Service to locate a prisoner of war camp on the battlefield west of the High Water Mark, immediately south of the Home Sweet Home Motel on the Emmitsburg Road in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. On May 31, 1944, fifty war prisoners from Camp George G. Meade, Maryland, under guard of U. S. Army troops led by Captain L. C. Thomas, began placing poles for the stockade to surround the camp. image of German EPWs in the United States in World War II The Changing War Begun as a purely military effort with the limited political objectives of reunification (North) or independence (South), the Civil War transformed into a social, economic and political revolution with unforeseen consequences. As the war progressed, the Union war effort steadily transformed from a limited to a hard war; it targeted not just Southern armies, but the heart of the Confederacy's economy, morale, and social order-the institution of slavery. Woodcut of spectators watching a train station set fire by Sherman's troops Battle of the Bulge Burials in Gettysburg National Cemetery One out of every ten American casualties fell during the Battle of the Bulge in the winter of 1944-1945, amounting to over 100,000 Americans killed, wounded, or missing. While the dead were initially interred overseas, many were brought home after the war at the request of their family members. Some of them were interred in the Gettysburg National Cemetery. snow covers a line of headstones, each marked with a wreath. World War II Burials in Gettysburg National Cemetery In the immediate aftermath of World War II, Gettysburg National Cemetery, the site of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address and final resting place of over 3,500 Federal Civil War dead, expanded by over 500 burials as soldiers were brought back from overseas and buried closer to home. rows of military headstones with a backdrop of trees D-Day Burials in Gettysburg National Cemetery Gettysburg National Cemetery is the final resting place of over 500 WWII casualties, twelve of whom, all Pennsylvanians, lost their lives during the Normandy Landings--D-Day, June 6th, 1944. a row of US government-issue gravestones with American flags in front of them. Celebrating soils across the National Park System First in a series of three "In Focus" articles that share insights into the near-universal and far-reaching effects of soils on the ecology, management, and enjoyment of our national parks. Fossil soils at Cabrillo National Monument reveal marine deposits Around and About James A. Garfield: Whitelaw Reid (Part I) Whitelaw Reid was editor of the New York Tribune for forty years, from 1872 to 1912. He played a major role in politics and was instrumental in presidential candidate James A. Garfield speaking from his home in Mentor, Ohio. a campaign poster- Benjsmin Harrison is on the left and Whitelaw Reid is on the righ Six Unusual Abraham Lincoln Facts and Rumors, Part II Facts 4-6 of Unusual and Unknown Lincoln Facts. President Abraham Lincoln Hancock's War Major General Winfield S. Hancock came out to the Southern Plains in the Spring of 1867 to quell a suspected Indian uprising. He was a distinguished U.S. Army officer with an impressive record, especially for service during the Civil War. However, dealing with an enemy so culturally dissimilar to him proved a difficult challenge. Instead of pacifying the Indians, his burning of a local Indian village incited a summer of violence known to history as "Hancock's War." Black and white head photo of Winfield Scott Hancock Series: World War II and the Gettysburg National Cemetery Originally conceived as a national cemetery for the Federal dead after the battle of Gettysburg, Gettysburg National Cemetery is the final resting place of over 500 American service personnel who gave the last full measure during World War II. A row of US government-issue headstones with American flags marking them. Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Creative Teaching with Historic Places: Selections from CRM Vol 23 no 8 (2000) These articles are a selection from a special issue of CRM Journal, "Creative Teaching with Historic Places" published in 2000. They provide examples of teaching using historic places both in and out of the classroom, helping students connect with history using the power of place, as well as how to prepare lessons making those connections. Teaching with Historic Places is a program of the National Park Service. Cover of CRM Journal "Creative Teaching with Historic Places" Series: Photogrammetry Applications and Examples Photogrammetry is the science and art of using photographs to extract three-dimensional information from a series of well-placed images. Paired with either a standard ruler or GPS locations of camera positions provides the scale in completed models. This Series provides examples of photogrammetry projects for a variety of resources in National Parks. fossil redwood stump trio Series: African American History at Gettysburg Abraham Brian, Basil Biggs, James Warfield, and Mag Palm are just a few of the many individuals that were affected by the Civil War and the Battle of Gettysburg, and each has their own story to tell. We have collected their stories in one place so that you can learn more about their various trials during this tumultuous time in American history. A black and white photograph of a black family posing with a white man and his horse in a dirt road. An introduction to the benthic macroinvertebrate community at Gettysburg National Military Park Benthic macroinvertebrates are an important part of stream ecosystems in Gettysburg National Military Park. NPS scientists are studying these organisms in order to better understand and protect park natural resources. NPS staff sitting next to a stream with a computer and buckets The Civil War's Impact on Schools for the Deaf and the Blind in the South Schools for the Deaf and the Blind were profoundly affected by the Civil War, and in very different ways between schools in the North and the South. In the North, schools continued their terms, with the battles being taught as "current events." In the South, students were sent home as their schools were taken over as field hospitals or severely damaged in battles. Metal sign on a vertical post in front of a 2-story, red-brick building with 2 rows of windows. Causes of Deafness During the Civil War Civil War soldiers faced death on a daily basis. However, they also faced going home with various disabilities. One such disability was partial or complete deafness. Many soldiers were accustomed to temporary deafness from the constant artillery fire in the field. However, illness, the environment, and even the medicine the doctors used on patients could cause a much more permanent hearing loss. 102 Cases of Deafness.Prepared 4 Consideration of senate & house of reps. by Wallace E. Foster. Invasion of the Biome Bashers Invasive plants are a concerning and growing issue for eastern national parks. Learn what is spreading, and how some parks are seeing success in managing them. Glossy buckthron Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background 2021 Weather In Review: Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site experienced an extremely warm 2021 with total precipitation that was near normal. A white barn in a yellow field with a split-rail fence. Women on the Battlefields Gettysburg and Vicksburg national military parks are the only NPS units now authorized by federal law to administer guiding services. In spite of stereotypes that women aren’t interested in military history, some have been licensed battlefield guides for decades. Although the NPS oversees the licensing programs, the guides are hired directly by visitors or tour groups and are not government employees. Their services, however, directly support the NPS mission. Guide Deb Novotny in uniform standing near a cannon in front of a stone wall. The Legacy of General John Henry Hobart Ward General John Henry Hobart Ward left behind not only a written record of his military accomplishment, but also a physical record in the form of uniforms, weapons, and accoutrements that are now part of the artifact collection at Gettysburg National Military Park. Please explore some of the artifacts of one of Gettysburg’s career soldiers. Hobart Ward's spurs I&M Networks Support Resilient Forest Management NPS Inventory and Monitoring Networks have been tracking forest health in eastern national parks since 2006. This monitoring information can guide resilient forest management and support parks in adapting to changing conditions through the actions described below. Forest health monitoring Resilient Forests Initiative - Managing Invasive Plants & Pests Park forests are threatened by invasive plants and pests. Strategically tackling invasive plants to protect park’s highest priority natural resources and planning around forest pests and pathogens are important actions in managing resilient forests. Forest Regeneration Managing Resilient Forests. A Regional Initiative Forests cover tens of thousands of acres in eastern national parks and these critical resources face a range of interacting stressors: over-abundant white-tailed deer populations, invasive plant dominance, novel pests and pathogens, among other threats. The Resilient Forests Initiative will help parks address these issue collectively. Forest health monitoring Resilient Forests Initiative - Managing Deer Impacts A healthy forest needs to have enough tree seedlings and saplings to regenerate the forest canopy after a disturbance. Analysis of NPS I&M and other long-term datasets makes it clear that many eastern national parks lack adequate tree regeneration due to decades of over browsing by white-tailed deer. Deer impacts Gettysburg Campaign The Shenandoah Valley was a natural "avenue of advance" for Gen. Robert E. Lee's 1863 invasion of the Northern states, and the Battle of Gettysburg. An 1863 photo in stark black and white depicts a dead US soldier in a trench fortified by rocks. Series: Civil War Comes to the Shenandoah Valley The U.S. Army's dramatic burning of the countryside in the autumn of 1864, brought Valley residents the harshest realities of war. A greyscale 1864 painted sketch depicts cavalrymen on a farm with burning buildings. Meade and Lee at Gettysburg George Gordon Meade, commanding the United States Army of the Potomac, and Robert E. Lee, commanding the Army of Northern Virginia, first clashed at Gettysburg in July of 1863. Each general had a unique leadership style and each had travelled a very different course to reach the positions they held at Gettysburg, and would hold until Lee's surrender at Appomattox in 1865. Black and white photo of United States Civil War officer in dress uniform. Alonzo Cushing at Gettysburg Lieutenant Alonso Cushing commanded Battery A of the 4th United States Artillery during the Battle of Gettysburg. Despite being wounded, and under intense enemy fire, Lt. Cushing persisted in defending the Federal position during Pickett's Charge on July 3, 1863. Cushing was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor in 2014. Black and white portrait of a young army officer in dress unifrom Confederate Commanders at Gettysburg The Army of Northern Virginia had many leaders in different positions whose actions and decisions impacted the course of the Battle of Gettysburg. Here is a summary of some of the main leaders in the Lee's Confederate Army during this decisive conflict. Black and white historical illustration of bust of Confederate General James Longstreet Federal Commanders at Gettysburg Within the Army of the Potomac, a number of leaders shaped the course of the Battle of Gettysburg. Here are some of their stories. Black and white historical photo of Union General John Buford Civilians at Gettysburg Civilians of every sort were swept up in the conflict at Gettysburg. Some fled, some stayed behind, and after the battle, several made important decisions that would affect what happened next. Here is a sampling of their experiences. Black and white historical photo of a 15 year old girl in a black dress. Prelude to Gettysburg: The Battle of Brandy Station “A battle so fierce that friends and foes knew not who they fought, or behind which banner they charged.” The Battle of Brandy Station, fought on June 9, 1863, would become the largest cavalry engagement ever fought on the North American continent. It was said by one of the aides to Confederate Major General J.E.B. Stuart that “Brandy Station made the Federal cavalry.” Sketch of a cavalry charge with men and horses fighting and laying on the ground. African Americans during the Gettysburg Campaign In the face of Robert E. Lee’s Confederate invasion, African Americans from southern Pennsylvania en masse, fearing enslavement. Abraham Brian, a farmer on Cemetery Ridge, left with his family. Basil Biggs, a veterinarian, made a hasty retreat, as did Owen Robinson, a retailer of oysters and ice cream. They knew better than anyone that Gettysburg was not safe for people of color. Illustration of older African American man in early 1900s. History of the Soldiers' National Cemetery After the Battle of Gettysburg, many local citizens focused on the difficult question of what to do with the dead. The answer to this question was to create a new kind of cemetery: one which would honor those who died fighting for the United States of American and "a new birth of freedom." Rows of stone grave markers with a tall statue in the distance. South Central Pennsylvanians in the 54th Massachusetts Infantry The first African American regiment to be raised in the North, east of the Mississippi River, the 54th Massachusetts ranks among the famous fighting units of the American Civil War. But did you know that when the 54th Massachusetts first departed Boston for the seat of war, there were more men from Pennsylvania within its ranks than from any other state? At least 124 of its soldiers were from south-central Pennsylvania, with two identifying Gettysburg as their place of birth Part of the bronze statue to the 54th Massachusetts with a soldier marching forward holding a rifle. General George Meade's Forgotten Council of War When one thinks of councils of war and decision making at Gettysburg, the mind immediately jumps to the famous council held at General George Meade's headquarters late on July 2, during which multiple generals gathered in the small home of Lydia Leister, making decisions that ultimately helped shape the nation. Yet, this was not the only Council of War General Meade held at Gettysburg; another one took place on July 4. Lydia Leister farm with damages after the war. "One of the liveliest and most exciting times we had ever experienced": The Battle of Middleburg and the Fight at Goose Creek Bridge On June 21, 1863, the soldiers of Col. Strong Vincent's Union brigade, who would earn great glory for their heroic defense of Little Round Top at Gettysburg, engaged in a fierce though overlooked battle with Confederate horsemen at Goose Creek Bridge near Middleburg, Virginia. Discover more about this little-known but lively fight. Union cavalrymen skirmish with Confederates during by Battle of Middleburg, sketch by Alfred Waud "Raids Have A Wonderful Effect..." - Raids and Panic of the Gettysburg Campaign Not only were these raids helpful in replenishing rations and supplies, but they were often also successful in causing panic and chaos among communities. In some cases, raiders would also destroy railroads, bridges, and communication lines to undermine the enemy and weaken support systems. Union General Erasmus Keyes posed for a portrait in his uniform. What the Campaign Left Behind: The Aftermath of Brandy Station The story of the red church that persisted serves as a reminder that the aftermaths and casualties of battles can take on many forms and figures. The lives, homes and fields of many were touched by the American Civil War by June of 1863, and the Gettysburg Campaign was just beginning. A sketch of Saint James Episcopal Church done by Louis H. Carpenter of the sixth U.S. Cavalry. The Thin Line Between Freedom and Slavery: The Story of Catherine "Kitty" Payne The line between freedom and slavery in antebellum Gettysburg was remarkably thin. Slaveholders frequently crossed the border in pursuit of freedom seekers and free people of color who could pass as fugitives. Catherine “Kitty” Payne and her children, Eliza, Mary, and James, were a legally emancipated family living in Adams County, Pennsylvania, when Samuel Maddox, Jr., had them seized as enslaved peoples in July 1845. A wayside panel detailing the story of Catherine Breaking Down Boundaries: Women of the Civil War The Civil War was an unprecedented event in United States history that reached every corner of the country. Thousands of men lost their lives at Gettysburg in 1863 in a battle for freedom and unity; a battle whose after-effects still reach us today. Though the story of these men is one to be remembered, we often forget about the people they left behind. Georgeanna Woolsey A Sojourn on the Plains: The Frontier Service of Henry Heth While best remembered as the Confederate general who sparked the Battle of Gettysburg, Henry Heth was a career army man who spent many a year on the American frontier. Discover more about his life and army service prior to the Civil War. Confederate General Henry Heth Seeking Closure: Sarah Ruth's Effort to Discover What Happened to her Son Amos at Gettysburg Sarah Ruth never knew for certain what happened to her son, Amos, at Gettysburg. Her efforts to secure a pension opened anew the wounds and heartache of losing a son in battle. Like so many others, Amos Ruth was likely killed and buried as an unknown, though his family would never receive that closure they so desperately sought. Pension Card for Amos Ruth, filed April 1880 The Memory of Strong Vincent When one hears the name “Strong Vincent,” association is often made with the desperate fight of a brigade destined to claim the life of one promising 26-year old on the slopes of Little Round Top. Remarked upon in his times by many for his critical role in helping to preserve the Union left, General Meade recommended him for promotion to Brigadier General that evening. Yet, outside the arcane circle of those who share our interest, his example is infrequently remembered. A young Strong Vincent. CHAPTER 1: Sengoku Jidai: Japan's Warring States Period Read about Japan's Warring States Period and it's historical significance. Traditional samurai armor (reproduction) with two katanas. CHAPTER 3: Battle of Sekigahara Learn how one of the most decisive samurai battles in Japanese history unfolded. Marker at the site of the Head Viewing Ceremony at Sekigahara. Sekigahara Timeline Learn about the historical events leading to the Battle of Sekigahara. Present day Sekigahara Battlefield. CHAPTER 2: Sekigahara Campaign Learn about how the rivalry between Tokugawa Ieyasu and Ishida Mitsunari culminated in the Battle of Sakigahara. Picture of western and eastern armies moving. Series: Managing Resilient Forests Initiative for Eastern National Parks Forests in the northeastern U.S. are in peril. Over-abundant deer, invasive plants, and insect pests are impacting park forests, threatening to degrade the scenic vistas and forested landscapes that parks are renowned for. With regional collaboration, parks can manage these impacts and help forests be resilient. This article series explores tools available to park managers to achieve their goals. Healthy forests have many native seedlings and saplings. 50 Nifty Finds #4: Getting In the Zone For more than a century the National Park Service (NPS) has won awards and honors for its work preserving cultural and natural resources and sharing the diverse stories of American history. One of its earliest honors came from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition held in San Francisco, California, in 1915. But wait…The NPS was created in 1916, right? How could it win an award before it existed? Round bronze medal featuring nude man and woman A Family of Service Robert and Dorothy McCormick both served in the United States Navy during WWII. Their family’s story reminds us of the many ways we can serve others and of the many ways in which history connects us all. Headstone of Robert McCormick with an American flag in front of it. Case Studies in Deer Management White-tailed deer populations have grown out of control in eastern parks. Inventory & Monitoring Program scientists studying forest health have found that forests in a majority of these parks are facing probable or imminent regeneration failure linked to deer overpopulation. Through this StoryMap, learn how deer management has improved forest health at three national parks: Gettysburg, Catoctin, and Valley Forge. Antlered deer standing among green foliage

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