"Views of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico" by National Park Service , public domain

Gila Cliff Dwellings

National Monument - New Mexico

Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument protects Mogollon cliff dwellings in the Gila Wilderness on the headwaters of the Gila River in southwest New Mexico. It is located in the extreme southern portion of Catron County. Visitors can access the Monument by traveling northbound from Silver City, New Mexico approximately 37 miles on NM 15.

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Official visitor map of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in New Mexico. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Gila Cliff Dwellings - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in New Mexico. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Grazing Management Map with Range Allotments of Wilderness Ranger District in Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Gila Grazing Management - Wilderness

Grazing Management Map with Range Allotments of Wilderness Ranger District in Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Grazing Management Map with Range Allotments of Black Range Ranger District in Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Gila Grazing Management - Black Range

Grazing Management Map with Range Allotments of Black Range Ranger District in Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map of Recently Maintained & Cleared Trails in the Gila Wilderness Area in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Gila Wilderness - Trails

Map of Recently Maintained & Cleared Trails in the Gila Wilderness Area in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Pocket Guide Map of Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Gila NF - Pocket Guide Map

Pocket Guide Map of Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

https://www.nps.gov/gicl/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gila_Cliff_Dwellings_National_Monument Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument protects Mogollon cliff dwellings in the Gila Wilderness on the headwaters of the Gila River in southwest New Mexico. It is located in the extreme southern portion of Catron County. Visitors can access the Monument by traveling northbound from Silver City, New Mexico approximately 37 miles on NM 15. For thousands of years, groups of ancient nomads used caves above the Gila River as temporary shelter. In the late 1200s, people of the agricultural Mogollon (Southern Ancestral Pueblo) culture made it a home. They built rooms, crafted pottery and raised children in the cliff dwellings for one or two generations. By approximately 1300, the Mogollon had moved on, leaving the walls behind. Passenger vehicles can drive north of Silver City, New Mexico to the monument on NM Hwy 15. The 46 mile trip can take up to two hours due to the narrow and mountainous curving nature of the road. Large RVs and vehicles pulling trailers should NOT use NM Hwy 15. From Silver City, take US Highway 180 to Santa Clara. Turn left onto NM Hwy 152 and drive to San Lorenzo. At San Lorenzo, turn left onto NM Hwy 35 and follow it to its termination at NM Hwy 15. Turn right on NM Hwy 15 and follow signs to the park. Gila Visitor Center Visitors can get information for visiting the park and watch an orientation film, and tour the museum. Plan extra time to get to the park. Narrow, mountainous, and winding roads require slower speeds and cautious driving. NM Hwy 15 from Silver City is only for passenger vehicles and motorcycles. Typical driving time is 1.5-2 hours. For RVs and trucks with trailers: take NM Hwy 152 from Santa Clara to NM Hwy 35. NM Hwy 35 connects with Hwy 15 to the park. Typical driving time is 2-2.5 hours. WNPA Trailhead Bookstore At the Trailhead Bookstore, you will find our park store operated by the Western National Parks Association. Many items related to the park, the Gila Wilderness, and to the Continental Divide Trail are available, as well as souvenirs and American Indian crafts. Park staff are available to answer questions and help plan visits. Come discover your heritage and your public lands. From the visitor center, drive 2.25 miles along park road to cliff dwellings trail head. Lower Scorpion Campground Lower Scorpion Campground provides primitive camping opportunities within walking distance of the West Fork of the Gila River. The campground is located less than one mile from the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument just off NM State Highway 15. Drinking water is available, and tables and grills are provided at select sites. Vault toilets are available on site. Camping is free of charge and first-come, first-served. This campground does not support RVs or Camper Vans. Campground Fee 0.00 This is a primitive campground and so there is no campground fee at this time. There is a 14-day stay limit accumulated per year. Upper Scorpion Campground Upper Scorpion Campground provides primitive camping opportunities within walking distance of the West Fork of the Gila River. The campground is located less than one mile from the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument just off NM State Highway 15. Drinking water is available, and tables and grills are provided at select sites. Vault toilets are available on site. Camping is free of charge and first-come, first-served. This campground does not support RVs or Camper Vans. Campground Fee 0.00 This is a primitive campground and so there is no campground fee at this time. There is a 14-day stay limit accumulated per year. Looking Back in Time View of Mogollon dwelling rooms within a cave. Tularosa Phase Mogollon people made these caves their home in the late 1200's. Winter Solstice Sunrise at Gila Cliff Dwellings Sunrise view of Gila Cliff Dwellings with brilliant sky. Visitors enjoy panoramic views of the canyon and dwellings at Gila Cliff Dwellings. A Place to Call Home Cliff Dwellings walls and rooms with narrow catwalk Most of the dwellings walls are original. Some even preserve a builder's fingerprints that are over 700 years old. Mogollon Cliff Dwelling with T Door Exterior view of Mogollon Cliff Dwelling The T-shaped door suggests trade between Mogollon and Ancestral Puebloan. View of the Gila River Valley near Gila Cliff Dwellings NM Distant view of Gila river valley and mountains beyond. The Oldest Wilderness Area in the United States Awaits. Gila National Forest Approach to Gila National Monument in Winter Light snowfall on red rock cliffs along river. Winter wonderland along the Gila River Eroded Cliffs Along the Gila River Eroded cliffs reflecting off a river As the first designated Wilderness Area, the Gila offers endless opportunites peaceful reflection. It’s Alive! Biological Soil Crusts of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts It might come as a surprise to learn that in the sublime expanses of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts, some of the most interesting life around can be found in the dirt right in front of your feet! Biological soil crusts form a living groundcover that is the foundation of desert plant life. Soil crust at White Sands National Monument NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. stone building in alcove Vegetation Mapping at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument Vegetation maps tell park managers what’s growing where, and what kinds of habitat occur in a park. At Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, the Sonoran Desert Network mapped and classified 16 different vegetation associations from 2012 to 2015. Pinyon-juniper woodlands and ponderosa pine forests cover the greatest area in this park, which was strongly impacted by the 2011 Miller Fire. A total of 349 different plant species were recorded during the project. Two burned trees stand on a hillside with shorter green trees and shrubs. Monitoring Upland Vegetation and Soils in the Sonoran Desert and Chihuahuan Desert Networks Vegetation and soils are two of many natural resources monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Learning about vegetation dynamics helps us to better understand the integrity of ecological processes, productivity trends, and ecosystem interactions that can otherwise be difficult to monitor. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor vegetation and soils using the scientific protocol described here. Quadrat used for biological soil crust sampling Streams Monitoring in the Sonoran Desert and Southern Plains Because of their importance, streams were chosen as a focus for monitoring in the National Park Service (NPS) Sonoran Desert and Southern Plains inventory and monitoring networks. Portions of several major river systems (or their tributaries) are found within many parks of both networks. Monitoring water quality from a boat Wildland Fire in Douglas Fir: Western United States Douglas fir is widely distributed throughout the western United States, as well as southern British Columbia and northern Mexico. Douglas fir is able to survive without fire, its abundantly-produced seeds are lightweight and winged, allowing the wind to carry them to new locations where seedlings can be established. Close-up of Douglas fir bark and needles. Module Conducts Wildland-Urban Interface Projects Throughout the Intermountain Region In 2013, the Saguaro Wildland Fire Module (WFM) managed multiple projects simultaneously in AZ, TX, and NM. WFMs are highly skilled and versatile fire crews that provide expertise in long-term planning, ignitions, holding, prescribed fire preparation and implementation support, hazardous fuels reduction, and fire effects monitoring. With their help, fire fulfills its natural or historic role to meet resource and management objectives and create fire-adapted communities. Wildland Fire in Ponderosa Pine: Western United States This forest community generally exists in areas with annual rainfall of 25 inches or less. Extensive pure stands of this forest type are found in the southwestern U.S., central Washington and Oregon, southern Idaho and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Recently burned ponderosa pine forest. Southwest River Environments In the arid Southwest, water means life, and prehistorically, rivers were the lifelines of the people. The Colorado River flowing through a canyon Transition Highlands and the Mogollon Rim The Transition Highlands, or Central Mountains, consist of numerous rugged low mountains marking the boundary between the tablelands of the Colorado Plateau and the southern deserts. Looking out from the Gila Cliff Dwellings Climate Monitoring in the Southern Plains, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert Climate is one of many ecological indicators monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Climate data help scientists to understand ecosystem processes and help to explain many of the patterns and trends observed in other natural-resource monitoring. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor climate using the scientific protocol described here. Kayaking across a fl ooded parking lot, Chickasaw NRA, July 2007. Climate and Water Monitoring at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument At Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, the built environment reflects the historical importance of reliable water sources. The Sonoran Desert Network monitors climate, springs, and streams at this park. Understanding changes in these closely linked factors helps managers make informed decisions affecting both natural and cultural resources. Learn about our recent findings. Two people stand in a stream with transect tape Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Monitoring Climate and Water at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, 2016 At Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, the Sonoran Desert Network monitors water quality, flow, and other parameters in the West Fork Gila River. Human impacts are few on this mountain stream in the Gila Wilderness--but drought, fire, and flooding all leave their mark. Learn more about this system and our most recent findings about stream health in the park. People walk through a stream with kicknets. Climate and Water Monitoring at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Water Year 2018 At Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, the built environment reflects the historical importance of reliable water sources. The Sonoran Desert Network monitors climate, springs, and streams at this park. Understanding changes in these closely linked factors helps managers make informed decisions affecting both natural and cultural resources. Learn about our recent findings. Two people stand in and sit near a stream Monitoring Climate and Water at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, 2017 At Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, the Sonoran Desert Network monitors climate and water resources, including streams and springs. Learn about what we found in water year 2017. Stream flows through riparian area below high cliff The Heliograph: 2020 Edition The Heliograph is the official newsletter of the Sonoran Desert Network and Desert Research Learning Center. This issue features stories on how we adapted our operations to minimize field work lost to the covid-19 pandemic, vegetation mapping at Saguaro NP, and communication improvements and opportunities for network parks. We also probe the minds of our interns and celebrate a high honor for our program manager. heliograph The Heliograph: Summer 2021 The Heliograph is the official newsletter of the Sonoran Desert Network and Desert Research Learning Center. This issue shares predictive tools and planning processes that can help park managers make proactive decisions in the face of climate change. We also explore some explanations for this spring's highly unusual saguaro bloom, celebrate our staff members, and provide updates on our monitoring projects. heliograph Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background Older Caldera Complexes The presence of voluminous ash-flow tuffs are one of the main markers for the presence of older caldera complexes. Subsequent erosion and/or volcanic activity can make their caldera walls hard to find. Most of the older caldera complexes in or near national park sites are very large and were of the resurgent type. photo of hillside with layered rock outcrops Calderas Calderas are large collapse features that can be many miles in diameter. They form during especially large eruptions when the magma chamber is partially emptied, and the ground above it collapses into the momentary void. Crater Lake and Aniakchak Crater are calderas. photo of oblique aerial view of a volcanic caldera with snow and ice Series: Volcano Types Volcanoes vary in size from small cinder cones that stand only a few hundred feet tall to the most massive mountains on earth. photo of a volcanic mountain with snow and ice Explosive Calderas Explosive calderas result from violent eruptions of great quantities of silicic magmas. These eruptions produce massive eruption columns that extend into the stratosphere, and voluminous pyroclastic flows. Eruptions that produce explosive calderas generally range from 6 (Colossal) on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) to 8 super eruptions (Apocalyptic). digital oblique aerial image of a volcanic caldera

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