"Views of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico" by National Park Service , public domain

Gila Cliff Dwellings

National Monument - New Mexico

Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument protects Mogollon cliff dwellings in the Gila Wilderness on the headwaters of the Gila River in southwest New Mexico. It is located in the extreme southern portion of Catron County. Visitors can access the Monument by traveling northbound from Silver City, New Mexico approximately 37 miles on NM 15.

maps

Official visitor map of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in New Mexico. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Gila Cliff Dwellings - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in New Mexico. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Grazing Management Map with Range Allotments of Wilderness Ranger District in Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Gila Grazing Management - Wilderness

Grazing Management Map with Range Allotments of Wilderness Ranger District in Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Grazing Management Map with Range Allotments of Black Range Ranger District in Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Gila Grazing Management - Black Range

Grazing Management Map with Range Allotments of Black Range Ranger District in Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map of Recently Maintained & Cleared Trails in the Gila Wilderness Area in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Gila Wilderness - Trails

Map of Recently Maintained & Cleared Trails in the Gila Wilderness Area in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Pocket Guide Map of Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Gila NF - Pocket Guide Map

Pocket Guide Map of Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

https://www.nps.gov/gicl/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gila_Cliff_Dwellings_National_Monument Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument protects Mogollon cliff dwellings in the Gila Wilderness on the headwaters of the Gila River in southwest New Mexico. It is located in the extreme southern portion of Catron County. Visitors can access the Monument by traveling northbound from Silver City, New Mexico approximately 37 miles on NM 15. For thousands of years, groups of nomadic people used the caves of the Gila River as temporary shelter. In the late 1200's, people of the Mogollon Culture decided it would be a good place to call home. They built rooms, crafted pottery and raised children in the cliff dwellings for about twenty years. Then the Mogollon moved on, leaving the walls for us as a glimpse into the past. Passenger vehicles can drive north of Silver City, New Mexico to the monument on NM Hwy 15. The 46 mile trip can take up to two hours due to the narrow and mountainous curving nature of the road. Large RVs and vehicles pulling trailers should NOT use NM Hwy 15. From Silver City, take US Highway 180 to Santa Clara. Turn left onto NM Hwy 152 and drive to San Lorenzo. At San Lorenzo, turn left onto NM Hwy 35 and follow it to its termination at NM Hwy 15. Turn right on NM Hwy 15 and follow signs to the park. Gila Trailhead Museum The Trailhead Museum offers an exploration of the history of the Gila Cliff Dwellings and the Mogollon people who called it home in the late 1200s. There's also an area to discover the natural history of the surrounding Gila Wilderness and plan your back country experience. Park staff are available to interpret, answer questions and help plan visits and hikes. Come discover your heritage and your public lands! From the visitor center, drive 2.25 miles along park road to cliff dwellings trail head. Gila Visitor Center Joint Visitor Center for Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (National Park Service) and the Wilderness District of the Gila National Forest (United States Forest Service). Open from 8 AM - 4:30 PM Mountain Time. Visitors can get information for visiting the park and hiking the Wilderness as well as watch an orientation film, tour the museum and shop the park bookstore. Plan extra time to get to the park. Narrow, mountainous, and winding roads require slower speeds and cautious driving. NM Hwy 15 from Silver City is only for passenger vehicles and motorcycles. Typical driving time is 1.5-2 hours. For RVs and trucks with trailers: take NM Hwy 152 from Santa Clara to NM Hwy 35. NM Hwy 35 connects with Hwy 15 to the park. Typical driving time is 2-2.5 hours. Lower Scorpion Campground Lower Scorpion Campground provides primitive camping opportunities within walking distance of the West Fork of the Gila River. The campground is located less than one mile from the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument just off NM State Highway 15. Drinking water is available, and tables and grills are provided at select sites. Vault toilets are available on site. Camping is free of charge and first-come, first-served. This campground does not support RVs or Camper Vans. Campground Fee 0.00 This is a primitive campground and so there is no campground fee at this time. There is a 14-day stay limit accumulated per year. Upper Scorpion Campground Upper Scorpion Campground provides primitive camping opportunities within walking distance of the West Fork of the Gila River. The campground is located less than one mile from the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument just off NM State Highway 15. Drinking water is available, and tables and grills are provided at select sites. Vault toilets are available on site. Camping is free of charge and first-come, first-served. This campground does not support RVs or Camper Vans. Campground Fee 0.00 This is a primitive campground and so there is no campground fee at this time. There is a 14-day stay limit accumulated per year. Looking Back in Time View of Mogollon dwelling rooms within a cave. Tularosa Phase Mogollon people made these caves their home in the late 1200's. Winter Solstice Sunrise at Gila Cliff Dwellings Sunrise view of Gila Cliff Dwellings with brilliant sky. Visitors enjoy panoramic views of the canyon and dwellings at Gila Cliff Dwellings. A Place to Call Home Cliff Dwellings walls and rooms with narrow catwalk Most of the dwellings walls are original. Some even preserve a builder's fingerprints that are over 700 years old. Mogollon Cliff Dwelling with T Door Exterior view of Mogollon Cliff Dwelling The T-shaped door suggests trade between Mogollon and Ancestral Puebloan. View of the Gila River Valley near Gila Cliff Dwellings NM Distant view of Gila river valley and mountains beyond. The Oldest Wilderness Area in the United States Awaits. Gila National Forest Approach to Gila National Monument in Winter Light snowfall on red rock cliffs along river. Winter wonderland along the Gila River Eroded Cliffs Along the Gila River Eroded cliffs reflecting off a river As the first designated Wilderness Area, the Gila offers endless opportunites peaceful reflection. It’s Alive! Biological Soil Crusts of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts It might come as a surprise to learn that in the sublime expanses of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts, some of the most interesting life around can be found in the dirt right in front of your feet! Biological soil crusts form a living groundcover that is the foundation of desert plant life. Soil crust at White Sands National Monument NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. stone building in alcove Vegetation Mapping at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument Vegetation maps tell park managers what’s growing where, and what kinds of habitat occur in a park. At Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, the Sonoran Desert Network mapped and classified 16 different vegetation associations from 2012 to 2015. Pinyon-juniper woodlands and ponderosa pine forests cover the greatest area in this park, which was strongly impacted by the 2011 Miller Fire. A total of 349 different plant species were recorded during the project. Two burned trees stand on a hillside with shorter green trees and shrubs. Monitoring Upland Vegetation and Soils in the Sonoran Desert and Chihuahuan Desert Networks Vegetation and soils are two of many natural resources monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Learning about vegetation dynamics helps us to better understand the integrity of ecological processes, productivity trends, and ecosystem interactions that can otherwise be difficult to monitor. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor vegetation and soils using the scientific protocol described here. Quadrat used for biological soil crust sampling Streams Monitoring in the Sonoran Desert and Southern Plains Because of their importance, streams were chosen as a focus for monitoring in the National Park Service (NPS) Sonoran Desert and Southern Plains inventory and monitoring networks. Portions of several major river systems (or their tributaries) are found within many parks of both networks. Monitoring water quality from a boat Wildland Fire in Douglas Fir: Western United States Douglas fir is widely distributed throughout the western United States, as well as southern British Columbia and northern Mexico. Douglas fir is able to survive without fire, its abundantly-produced seeds are lightweight and winged, allowing the wind to carry them to new locations where seedlings can be established. Close-up of Douglas fir bark and needles. Module Conducts Wildland-Urban Interface Projects Throughout the Intermountain Region In 2013, the Saguaro Wildland Fire Module (WFM) managed multiple projects simultaneously in AZ, TX, and NM. WFMs are highly skilled and versatile fire crews that provide expertise in long-term planning, ignitions, holding, prescribed fire preparation and implementation support, hazardous fuels reduction, and fire effects monitoring. With their help, fire fulfills its natural or historic role to meet resource and management objectives and create fire-adapted communities. Wildland Fire in Ponderosa Pine: Western United States This forest community generally exists in areas with annual rainfall of 25 inches or less. Extensive pure stands of this forest type are found in the southwestern U.S., central Washington and Oregon, southern Idaho and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Recently burned ponderosa pine forest. Southwest River Environments In the arid Southwest, water means life, and prehistorically, rivers were the lifelines of the people. The Colorado River flowing through a canyon Transition Highlands and the Mogollon Rim The Transition Highlands, or Central Mountains, consist of numerous rugged low mountains marking the boundary between the tablelands of the Colorado Plateau and the southern deserts. Looking out from the Gila Cliff Dwellings Climate Monitoring in the Southern Plains, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert Climate is one of many ecological indicators monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Climate data help scientists to understand ecosystem processes and help to explain many of the patterns and trends observed in other natural-resource monitoring. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor climate using the scientific protocol described here. Kayaking across a fl ooded parking lot, Chickasaw NRA, July 2007. Climate and Water Monitoring at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument At Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, the built environment reflects the historical importance of reliable water sources. The Sonoran Desert Network monitors climate, springs, and streams at this park. Understanding changes in these closely linked factors helps managers make informed decisions affecting both natural and cultural resources. Learn about our recent findings. Two people stand in a stream with transect tape Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Monitoring Climate and Water at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, 2016 At Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, the Sonoran Desert Network monitors water quality, flow, and other parameters in the West Fork Gila River. Human impacts are few on this mountain stream in the Gila Wilderness--but drought, fire, and flooding all leave their mark. Learn more about this system and our most recent findings about stream health in the park. People walk through a stream with kicknets. Climate and Water Monitoring at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Water Year 2018 At Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, the built environment reflects the historical importance of reliable water sources. The Sonoran Desert Network monitors climate, springs, and streams at this park. Understanding changes in these closely linked factors helps managers make informed decisions affecting both natural and cultural resources. Learn about our recent findings. Two people stand in and sit near a stream Monitoring Climate and Water at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, 2017 At Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, the Sonoran Desert Network monitors climate and water resources, including streams and springs. Learn about what we found in water year 2017. Stream flows through riparian area below high cliff The Heliograph: 2020 Edition The Heliograph is the official newsletter of the Sonoran Desert Network and Desert Research Learning Center. This issue features stories on how we adapted our operations to minimize field work lost to the covid-19 pandemic, vegetation mapping at Saguaro NP, and communication improvements and opportunities for network parks. We also probe the minds of our interns and celebrate a high honor for our program manager. heliograph The Heliograph: Summer 2021 The Heliograph is the official newsletter of the Sonoran Desert Network and Desert Research Learning Center. This issue shares predictive tools and planning processes that can help park managers make proactive decisions in the face of climate change. We also explore some explanations for this spring's highly unusual saguaro bloom, celebrate our staff members, and provide updates on our monitoring projects. heliograph
United States Department of Agriculture Southwestern Region PRODUCED IN COOPERATION WITH Dale A. Zimmerman, Ph.D. Southwest New Mexico Audubon Society PREPARED BY Forest Service Birds of the Gila National Forest: A Checklist C – Common U – Uncommon Permanent Resident (present year-round) Summer Resident (present from spring until fall migration) or Summer Visitor (not known to breed on the Gila) Winter Resident (typically from October through March) Transient (present as a migrant in spring and/or fall) Visitant (present at various seasons, often irregularly) The remaining columns indicate the usual habitat(s) of each species. On the forest, vegetation types range from spruce/fir forest high in the Mogollon Mountains to the desert scrub and remnant grassland in the lower Burro Mountains. Small expanses of grassland are scattered in the higher ranges. Generally, ponderosa pine is the dominant species at elevations between 6,000 and 7,000 feet. Somewhat higher, and in many canyons, is a mixed conifer forest typically dominated by Douglas fir, often with Gambel’s oak. Woodlands of piñon pine, juniper and oak, in varying combinations, are present on drier sites throughout the forest. Riparian areas support rich deciduous or coniferous woodland and, locally small areas of marsh or other open habitats. This great ecological diversity provides for a remarkably varied bird fauna. This checklist includes 166 species known to breed on the Gila, 114 others that are more or less regular non-breeders, and 57 species considered to be casual (recorded 3-5 times) or accidental (recorded but once or twice. W– T– V– P– S– The second column reflects seasonal status, showing the time of year when the species normally appears in the checklist area: A – Abundant F – Fairly Common R – Rare The first column after the species name is an indication of the bird’s abundance. Bear in mind, however, that many species are locally distributed and do not range throughout the Gila National Forest which embraces a highly diverse range of elevations and habitats (see below). Thus, the expressions of abundance are to be viewed as general indications, and of course only for the habitat(s) favored by the species in question. Abundance also varies seasonally, and often from year-to-year as well. Additionally, actual abundance is often distinct from detectability. Some species may be common but secretive and only rarely seen. Others may be numerically sparse, yet highly vocal or otherwise conspicuous. The following designations relate to abundance, not necessarily to frequency of detection. An asterisk (*) following a species name indicates breeding on the Gila National Forest. Using the Checklist W P C C __Pied-billed Grebe* S T R R F R U R U U C U R F R R F F C R U Herons and Ibises __American Bittern __Least Bittern __Great Blue Heron* __Great Egret __Snowy Egret __Green Heron __Black-crowned Night Heron __White-faced Ibis Vultures __Turkey Vulture Swans, Geese, and Ducks __Snow Goose __Ross’s Goose __Canada Goose __Tundra Swan __Wood Duck __Gadwall __American Wigeon __Mallard* __Blue-winged Teal* P T W W T W T T S T S S T T P T T T R __Neotropic Cormorant T U Cormorants __Double-crested Cormorant T U __Clark’s Grebe T F T C __Western Grebe S F T Grebes Eared Grebe Abundance R Residence Loons Common Loon Desert ■ Oak Woodland ■ Oak-Juniper ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ Mt. Grassland ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Abundance S T U C Green-winged Teal* U C T U __Zone-tailed Hawk* Red-tailed Hawk* S F __Swainson’s Hawk* P P S S R F __Common Black Hawk* P __Northern Goshawk* F __Cooper’s Hawk* W P U U S W R S U T S S T P T T T W T R U R U R F R U F C R T F __Sharp-shinned Hawk* __Northern Harrier __Bald Eagle Hawks, Eagles, and Falcons __Osprey* __Ruddy Duck* __Red-breasted Merganser __Common Merganser* __Hooded Merganser __Common Goldeneye __Bufflehead Lesser Scaup __Greater Scaup S U T U Ring-necked Duck S U __Redhead T U __Canvasback W F Northern Pintail T T S F F F Residence Northern Shoveler Cinnamon Teal* Desert ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak Woodland ■ Oak-Juniper ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Spruce-Fir ■ ■ ■ Mt. Grassland ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Conif.Riparian Conif. Riparian Spruce-Fir T W C F U Rails, Coots and Cranes __Virginia Rail* R C U R R F R R U U __Common Moorhen American Coot* __Sandhill Crane Plovers __Black-bellied Plover __Semipalmated Plover __Killdeer* Avocets and Stilts __Black-necked Stilt __American Avocet Snipes and Sandpipers Greater Yellow
FOREST SERVICE U. S. Department of Agriculture GILA NATIONAL FOREST Wilderness Ranger District COMMON PLANTS IN THE VICINITY OF GILA CLIFF DWELLINGS WOODY PLANTS, SHRUBS, AND VINES Common Name Scientific Name Family Apache Plume Beargrass (Sacahuista) Brickellbush Buckbush Buckthorn, Birchleaf Buffalo Gourd Canyon Grape Century Plant (Agave) Cliff Fendlerbush Cliffrose (Buckbrush) Currant, Golden False-Indigo Four-wing Saltbush Groundsel, Threadleaf Groundsel, Ragwort Louisiana Wormwood Mountain Glory Mountain Mahogany New Mexico Locust New Mexican Olive Poison Ivy Rabbitbrush Scarlet Creeper Squawbush Virgin’s Bower Virginia Creeper Wright Silktassel Yucca, Baccata Fallugia paradoxa Nolina microcarpa Brickellia spp. Ceanothus fendleri Rhamnus betulaefolia Cucurbita foetidissima Vitis arizonica Agave parryi Fendlera rupicola Cowania stansburiana Ribes aureum Amorpha fruticosa Atriplex canescens Senecio longilobus Senecio multicapatatus Artemisia ludoviciana Ipomoea coccinea Cercocarpus breviflorus Robinia neomexicana Forestiera neomexicana Rhus radicans Chrysothamnus nauseosus Ipomoea hederifolia Rhus trilobata Clematis ligusticifolia Parthenocissus inserta Garrya wrightii Yucca baccata Rosaceae Liliaceae Compositae Rhamnaceae Rhamnaceae Cucurbitaceae Vitaceae Amaryllidaceae Saxifragaceae Rosaceae Saxifragaceae Leguminosae Chenopodiaceae Compositae Compositae Asteraceae Convolvulaceae Rosaceae Leguminosae Oleaceae Anacardiaceae Compositae Convolvulaceae Anacardiaceae Ranunculaceae Vitaceae Cornaceae Liliaceae 1 CACTUS Cactaceae) Common Name Scientific Name Hen and Chicken Cactus Hedgehog, Claret Cup Hedgehog, Fendler's Prickly Pear, Smooth Mountain Prickly Pear, Pygmy Prickly Pear, Purple Fruited Prickly Pear, Sprawling Prickly Pear, Plains Cholla, Cane Coryphantha vivipara Echinocereus triglochidatus Echinocereus fendleri Opuntia compressa Opuntia fragilis Opuntia phaeacantha discata Opuntia phaeacantha major Opuntia polyacantha Opuntia spinosior TREES Common Name Scientific Name Family Alder, Arizona Ash, Velvet Box Elder, Inland Chokecherry, Southwestern Cottonwood, Fremont Cottonwood, Lanceleaf Cottonwood, Narrowleaf Douglas-Fir Hackberry, Netleaf Hoptree, Narrowleaf Juniper, Alligator Juniper, One-seed Juniper, Rocky Mountain Juniper, Utah Oak, Gambel Oak, Gray Oak, Silverleaf Pine, Chihuahua Pine, Pinyon Pine, Ponderosa Pine, Southwestern White Sycamore, Arizona Walnut, Arizona Willow, Arroyo Willow, Sandbar Alnus oblongifolia Fraxinus velutina Acer negundo Prunus virens Populus fremontii Populus acuminate Populus angustifolia Pseudotsuga menziesii Celtis reticulata Ptelea angustifolia Juniperus deppeana Juniperus monosperma Juniperus scopulorum Juniperus osteosperma Quercus gambelii Quercus grisea Quercus hypoleucoides Pinus leiophylla Pinus edulis Pinus ponderosa Pinus strobiformis Platanus wrightii Juglans major Salix lasiolepis Salix exigua Betulaceae Oleaceae Aceraceae Rosaceae Salicaceae Salicaceae Salicaceae Pinaceae Ulmaceae Rutaceae Cupressaceae Cupressaceae Cupressaceae Cupressaceae Fagaceae Fagaceae Fagaceae Pinaceae Pinaceae Pinaceae Pinaceae Platanaceae Juglandaceae Salicaceae Salicaceae 2 FLOWERS Common Name Scientific Name Family Aster, Common Aster, Grand Bahia Bedstraw Beebalm Beeblossom Beeplant, Rocky Mountain Bitterweed Black Medic Bladderpod Blanketflower (Firewheel) Butterweed, Threadleaf Butterweed, New Mexico Carelessweed Cattail Chinchweed Cinquefoil, Scarlet Clammyweed Cloakfern Columbine, Golden Coneflower, Cutleaf Cosmos Cranesbill (Storksbill) Datura (Jimsonweed) Dayflower, Birdbill Evening Primrose, New Mexico Evening Primrose False Pennyroyal False Solomon’s Seal Geranium, Purple Gilia Globemallow, Fremont Goathead Goatsbeard, Meadow Goldeneye Goldenrod Goldensmoke Goosefoot, Fremont Heronbill Honeysuckle, White Flower Horehound Horsetail Horsetail Hyssop, Giant Larkspur Locoweed (Milkvetch) Aster adscendens Aster glaucodes Bahia pedata Galium rothrockii Monarda menthaefolia Gaura gracilis Cleome serrulata Hymenoxys spp. Medicago lupulina Lesquerella intermedia Gaillardia pulchella Senecio longilobus Senecio neomexicana Amaranthus palmeri Typha latifolia Pectis filipes Potentilla thurberi Polanisia trachysperma Notholaena standleyi Aquilegia chrysantha Rudebeckia laciniata Cosmos parviflorus Erodium cicutarium Datura meteloides Commelina dianthifolia Oenothera neomexicana Oenothera strigosa Hedeoma oblongifolia Smilacina racemosa Geranium caespitosum Gilia spp. Sphaeralcea fendleri Tribulus terretris Tragopogon pratensis Viguiera longifolia Solidago wrightii Corydalis aurea Chenopodium fremontii Erodium cicutarium Lonicera albiflora Marrubium vulgare Equisetum arvense Equisetum hiemale Agastache pallidiflora Delphinium ssp. Astragalus spp. Compositae Compositae Compositae Rubiaceae Labiatae Onagraceae Capparidaceae Compositae Compositae Cruciferae Compositae Compositae Compositae Amaranthaceae Typhaceae Compositae Rosaceae Capparidaceae Polypod
FOREST SERVICE U. S. Department of Agriculture GILA NATIONAL FOREST Wilderness Ranger District GEOLOGY OF THE GILA CLIFF DWELLINGS With observations keyed to the sign posts of the GILA CLIFF DWELLINGS TRAIL GUIDE Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument and the surrounding Gila Wilderness are located in the southern Rocky Mountains volcanic province, one of several major volcanic terrains of middle Tertiary age in western North America. This province extends from the southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado to the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico. Many episodes of volcanic eruption, faulting, and erosion have alternated through millions of years to form the landscape before you. You are standing within, and near the eastern margin, of a large volcanic collapse structure called the Gila Cliff Dwellings caldera. Collapse calderas such as this are formed by the rapid eruption of enormous amounts of pumice and ash which spread for tens of miles across the surrounding area. The removal of such a great volume of magma from a subsurface magma chamber, in a period of only days or weeks, removes support from the chamber roof, causing it to collapse into the magma chamber, in this case leaving a depression or caldera hundreds of feet deep and approximately ten miles across. These events took place about twenty eight million years ago and were followed by more eruptions that filled the caldera so that the depression is no longer present. Faulting and erosion have further modified the land to form the present landscape. The geologic materials that you see at the mouth of Cliff Dweller Canyon include three bedrock formations plus the floodplain sediments that are being deposited today along the West Fork of the Gila River. Each year, seasonal floods deposit sand and gravel over the banks of the river and occasionally large floods uproot trees and destroy bridges. Meanwhile, the river continues its main work of wearing away the hillsides and mountains and transporting the eroded rock debris downstream and eventually to the ocean. • Parking Lot The white outcrops in the lower cliff on the north side of the parking lot are called Bloodgood Canyon Tuff, (BCT), named for the Bloodgood Canyon, which is on the other side of the ridge at the head of Cliff Dweller Canyon. The BCT is 28 million years old and is the formation that erupted and filled the Gila Cliff Dwellings caldera after it collapsed. Only the upper 50 feet or less of the tuff is seen at the parking lot, but holes drilled downstream near Doc Campbell’s Post, during exploration for hot, geothermal water, have shown that the tuff is about 600 feet thick. Upstream along the West Fork of the Gila River, where the tuff outcrops rise higher and higher above the surface, it forms cliffs up to 1100 feet high and the bottom of the tuff still is not visible. The Bloodgood Canyon Tuff was produced by a special kind of extremely explosive volcanic eruption during which a huge column of pumice and ash collapsed, the pyroclastic materials piled up at the base of the eruption column, and then rushed out over the surrounding countryside at speeds up to 100 km or 60 m per hour. The pumice and ash formed a sheet up to hundreds of feet thick, which thins away from the eruptive vent or vents. Such ash-flow 1 sheets, or ignimbrites, make up very low profile dome-shaped volcanoes, which with their typically collapsed caldera vent areas, are very different from the classical, high, symmetrical, cone-shaped volcano. Tuffs, such as the BCT, are also described by geologists and volcanologists as ash-flow tuffs, pyroclastic flows, ignimbrites, and welded tuffs to distinguish them from the somewhat less catastrophic tuffs formed as fallout from ash clouds that are dispersed in the upper atmosphere. Pyroclastic flows, or ash-flow tuffs, are a mixture of hot pumice and ash particles enclosed in a cloud of fiery hot gases, which not only increases their mobility, but also saves much of the original heat of the eruption, which results in welding together of the pyroclastic fragments after they are deposited, if the temperature has remained above about 600-750 degrees Centigrade. Depending upon the temperature, and the pressure of overlying material, welding can be quite varied throughout a deposit, and there can be a complete range from non-welded tuff to completely welded tuff. The BCT at the north side of the parking lot is moderately welded, as determined from the partially flattened pumice fragments that give the tuff a weakly layered or foliated appearance. This rock contains rounded, glassy crystal of quartz and rectangular glassy to dull white crystals of feldspar of the variety called sanidine. The crystals are mainly less than 1/10th of an inch (2-3 mm) across. When the sun reflects of these rocks, some of the sanidine crystals show a satiny sheen or even a blue color if the light is just right, and this gives rise to the name “moonstone.” Therefore, the BCT is commonly referred to as
Southwestern Region PRODUCED IN COOPERATION WITH Southwestern New Mexico Audubon Society & Department of Natural Science, Western New Mexico University United States Department of Agriculture PREPARED BY Forest Service A Species Checklist for The Gila National Forest Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles and Mammals … 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Spruce-Fir Mt. Grassland Marsh/Open Decid. Riparian Conif. Riparian U – Uncommon X -- Extirpated T-Threatened S- Sensitive *R-Reintroduced *The Mexican Gray Wolf was reintroduced to the area in 1998. Information on this species was added to this listing by the staff of the Gila Visitor Center in March 2004. Illustrations by Hank Pavlokovich E-Endangered The particular status of species that are “listed” is shown in parenthesis following the name. Federal Status P – Permanent Resident S – Summer Resident W – Winter Resident The Residence column is for bats only and lists the time of year each Species normally appears in the checklist area. Residency Vegetation Type Preference 1. Desert 2. Oak Woodland 3. Oak-Juniper 4. Piñon-Juniper 5. Ponderosa Pine C – Common F – Fairly Common R – Rare Checklist Key Vegetation types on the Gila National Forest range from spruce/fir on the Mogollon Mountains and the Black Range, to Desert Scrub and remnant Grassland at lower elevations in the Burro Mountains. Ponderosa pine is the dominant species at mid-elevations, 6,000 to 7,000 feet. Piñon/Juniper or oak/juniper/piñon woodland is found on drier sites throughout the forest. This extreme range in elevation and the many corresponding vegetation types provide for a diverse fauna which includes 30 fish species, 11 amphibians, 44 reptiles and 84 mammals. Resident status is given only for migratory bats (see below). The remaining categories describe the habitat(s) where one is most likely to encounter each species, and specific habitat requirements. Using the Checklist __Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus __Black Bullhead Ictalurus melas __Yellow Bullhead Ictalurus natalis Catfish-Ictaluridae __ Desert Sucker Pantosteus clarki Rio Grande Sucker (S) Pantosteus plebeius __Sonora Sucker Catostomus insignis Suckers - Catostomidae __Chihuahua Chub (E) Gila nigrescens __Roundtail Chub (S) Gila robusta __Spikedace (T) Meda fulgida __Loach Minnow (T) Tiaroga cobitis __Speckled Dace Rhinichthys osculus __Longfin Dace Agosia chrysogaster __Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas __Red Shiner Cyprinella lutrensis __Beautiful Shiner (E) Cyprinella formosa __Carp Cyprinus carpio Minnows-Cyprinidae Trout, Salmon, and Graylings Salmonidae Gila Trout (E) Oncorhynchus gilae __Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout (S) Orcorhynchus clarki virginalis __Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss __Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarki __Brown Trout Salmo trutta Fish Abundance ■ ■ ■ ■ U F X F ■ ■ ■ F U F ■ ■ C F ■ C ■ ■ R U ■ R ■ ■ F F ■ R ■ Residence F Desert ■ Oak Woodland F Oak-Juniper ■ Pinyon-Juniper C Ponderosa Pine ■ Spruce-Fir R Mt. Grassland ■ Marsh/Open R __Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieui __Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides __Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus __Green Sunfish Leopomis cyanellus __ Longear Sunfish Lepomis megalotis White Crappie Pomoxis annularis Sunfishes - Centrarchidae __Gila Topminnows (E) Poeciliopsis occidentalis __Mosquitofish Gambusia affinis Topminows -Poeciliidae __Flathead Catfish Pylodictis olivaris Abundance Ponderosa Pine Pinyon-Juniper Oak-Juniper Oak Woodland Desert Residence ■ ■ U F ■ C ■ ■ U C ■ C ■ Spruce-Fir C Mt. Grassland ■ ■ Marsh/Open X F Conif.Riparian Decid. Riparian Conif.Riparian Decid. Riparian Amphibians Frogs-Ranidae __Bullfrog Rana catesbeiana __Chiricahua Leopard Frog Rana catesbeiana Lowland Leopard Frog Rana yavapaiensis Hylid Frogs - Hylidae __Western Chorus Frog Pseudacris triseriata __Mountain Treefrog Hyla eximia __Canyon Treefrog Hyla arenicolor __Red-Spotted Toad Bufo punctatus Bufo microscaphus Toads - Bufonidae __Woodhouse’s Toad Bufo woodhousii __Southwestern Toad Spadefoot Toads Pelobatidae __New Mexico Spadefoot Scaphiopus multiplicatus t Salamanders Ambystomatidae Tiger Salamander Ambystoma tigrinum Abundance Desert Oak Woodland R R ■ ■ ■ F C ■ F ■ ■ ■ ■ Ponderosa Pine F ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Residence F ■ Oak-Juniper ■ ■ Pinyon-Juniper F C C C Spruce-Fir ■ ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ Conif.Riparian ■ Iguanas Iguanidae __Collared Lizard Crotaphytus collaris __Lesser Earless Lizard Holbrookia maculata __Greater Earless Lizard Cophosaurus texanus __Crevice Spiny Lizard Sceloporus poinsettii __Eastern Fence Lizard Sceloporus undulatus __Clark’s Spiny Lizard Sceloporus clarkii __Plateau Lizard Sceloporus virgatus __Desert Spiny Lizard Sceloporus magister __Tree Lizard Urosaurus Ornatus Short-horned Lizard Phrynosoma douglassii Texas Horned Lizard Phrynosoma cornutum Round Tailed Lizard Phrynosoma modestum Geckos Gekkonida

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