by Alex Gugel , all rights reserved

Glacier

National Park - Montana

Glacier National Park is a 1,583-sq.-mi. wilderness area in Montana's Rocky Mountains, with glacier-carved peaks and valleys running to the Canadian border. It's crossed by the mountainous Going-to-the-Sun Road. Among more than 700 miles of hiking trails, it has a route to photogenic Hidden Lake. Other activities include backpacking, cycling and camping. Diverse wildlife ranges from mountain goats to grizzly bears.

location

maps

Official Visitor Map of Glacier National Park (NP) in Montana. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Glacier - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Glacier National Park (NP) in Montana. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of Groomed Snowmobile Trails in the Stillwater/Canyon Creek, Desert Mtn. Swan Lake, & Skyland Areas in Flathead National Forest (NF) in Montana. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Flathead - Flathead Area Snowmoible

Map of Groomed Snowmobile Trails in the Stillwater/Canyon Creek, Desert Mtn. Swan Lake, & Skyland Areas in Flathead National Forest (NF) in Montana. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Recreation Map showing Montana Academy Guided Hikes (West) in Flathead National Forest (NF) in Montana. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Flathead - Montana Academy - West

Recreation Map showing Montana Academy Guided Hikes (West) in Flathead National Forest (NF) in Montana. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Recreation Map showing Montana Academy Guided Hikes (East) in Flathead National Forest (NF) in Montana. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Flathead - Montana Academy - East

Recreation Map showing Montana Academy Guided Hikes (East) in Flathead National Forest (NF) in Montana. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Trails Map of Bike Adventures Guided Tours in Glacier View and Tally Lake Ranger Districts in Flathead National Forest (NF) in Montana. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Flathead - Tally Lake - Bike Adventures

Trails Map of Bike Adventures Guided Tours in Glacier View and Tally Lake Ranger Districts in Flathead National Forest (NF) in Montana. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Recreation Map showing KRMC Journey to Wellness Guided Hikes in Tally Lake Ranger District in Flathead National Forest (NF) in Montana. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Flathead - Tally Lake - KRMC Journey to Wellness

Recreation Map showing KRMC Journey to Wellness Guided Hikes in Tally Lake Ranger District in Flathead National Forest (NF) in Montana. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Recreation Map showing Guided Tours Routes in Tally Lake Ranger District in Flathead National Forest (NF) in Montana. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Flathead - Tally Lake - Guided Tours

Recreation Map showing Guided Tours Routes in Tally Lake Ranger District in Flathead National Forest (NF) in Montana. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Highway Map of Montana. Published by the Montana Department of Transportation.Montana State - Montana Highway Map

Highway Map of Montana. Published by the Montana Department of Transportation.

https://www.nps.gov/glac https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glacier_National_Park_(U.S.) Glacier National Park is a 1,583-sq.-mi. wilderness area in Montana's Rocky Mountains, with glacier-carved peaks and valleys running to the Canadian border. It's crossed by the mountainous Going-to-the-Sun Road. Among more than 700 miles of hiking trails, it has a route to photogenic Hidden Lake. Other activities include backpacking, cycling and camping. Diverse wildlife ranges from mountain goats to grizzly bears. Come and experience Glacier's pristine forests, alpine meadows, rugged mountains, and spectacular lakes. With over 700 miles of trails, Glacier is a hiker's paradise for adventurous visitors seeking wilderness and solitude. Relive the days of old through historic chalets, lodges, and the famous Going-to-the-Sun Road. Explore Glacier National Park and discover what awaits you. Glacier National Park is located in the northwest corner of Montana along the spine of the Rocky Mountains. By Car you can access Glacier via Highway 2, which runs along the southern boundary of the park. You can reach the east side of the park via Highway 89. The nearest airports are in Kalispell and Great Falls, Montana Apgar Visitor Center Apgar Visitor Center is located 2 miles east of the West Glacier entrance to the park. Rangers are on duty to assist with trip planning. The visitor center is the hub for the Going-to-the-Sun Road shuttle system on the west side of the park. Enter the park from Hwy 2 at West Glacier and proceed through the entrance station 2 miles to the visitor center. Logan Pass Visitor Center The Logan Pass Visitor Center sits atop the Continental Divide at 6,646 feet. The visitor center houses exhibits on the plants and animals found in the sub-alpine region of the park. Numerous exhibits outside the visitor center tell the story of geology, climate change, and life in the harsh alpine world above treeline. Logan Pass is perhaps the most crowded location in the park with the parking lot filling to capacity early in the morning. Plan to arrive early or visit later in the afternoon. St. Mary Visitor Center The St. Mary Visitor Center is located just inside the east entrance of the park near the community of St. Mary, Montana. Rangers are on duty inside to assist with trip planning. A park film is shown throughout the day. Exhibits highlight the rich Native American history associated with Glacier National Park. The St. Mary Visitor Center is reached off of Hwy 89 at the community of St. Mary, Montana. It is approximately 1 mile past the park entrance. Apgar Campground Apgar campground is the largest campground in the park. It is situated in trees and provides tent and RV campers with shade and some privacy. Evening sunsets on Lake McDonald are only a short stroll, and you won't want to miss evening programs with a ranger at the Apgar Amphitheater. Many trails are located within a short drive of the campground. Glacier's free shuttle service stops at this campground. Five Group Sites are reservable in advance. Click the reservation button below for details. Summer status 23.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Primitive camping status 10.00 October 12–31 and April 1-May 1 Winter status 0.00 November 1–March 31: Free with valid entrance pass Apgar Picnic Area shoreline of mountain lake surrounded by forest Shoreline view from picnic area Apgar Amphitheater two aisles run through green benches that point to platform Attend an evening program at Apgar Amphitheater Camping in winter tent and picnic table in snowy forest Apgar is open yearround Avalanche Avalanche campground in located in one of the most popular sections of Glacier National Park west of the Continental Divide. The campground accommodates tent and RV campers, however only 50 sites will accommodate vehicle lengths up to 26 feet. Bring your hiking boots and binoculars. Two popular day hikes offer spectacular scenery and glimpses of birds and wildlife that inhabit the area. Sites are on a first-come, first-serve basis. Avalanche Campground 20.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Avalanche Campground tent, picnic table, and fire ring in forest site Nestled among western hemlock and western red cedar Avalanche Amphitheater rows of wooden benches on gravel by trees Simple bench seating Bowman Lake Bowman Lake campground is located in the North Fork area of Glacier National Park approximately 32.5 miles from the west entrance, and 30 miles from the Canadian border. The drive to Bowman Lake is a very slow, dusty, and bumpy ride on dirt roads. Trailers are not advised. The campground is located close to the shore of Bowman Lake and camp sites are within trees for shade and some privacy. Tent campers looking for peace and quiet will enjoy Bowman Lake for it's serenity and remote location. Bowman Lake Summer 15.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Bowman Lake Primitive 10.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. When campgrounds are open in primitive status there are special considerations regarding water and sanitation. No potable water sources or dump station facilities are provided during the primitive camping season. Bowman Lake clouds, conifer forest and mountains reflected in lake View of Bowman Lake from shoreline near campground Campfire at Bowman Lake Campground A camper wearing a bright hat warms their hands near a campfire in a forest clearing. A camper wearing a bright hat warms their hands while squatting near a campfire in a forest clearing. Cut Bank The Cut Bank campground is located on the east side of Glacier National Park and provides a sense of peace and quiet that may not be found in larger campgrounds within the park. The campground is accessed by a 5 mile dirt road off of highway 89. The Campground is located among trees, providing shade and privacy for tent campers. RVs are not recommended due to the nature of the road and campground layout. Trailheads are near the campground for day hiking use or extended trips in the backcountry. Summer Fee 10.00 Summer Fee Hiking in Cut Bank Two people walk down a trail near the Cut Bank Campground under cloudy skies with mountains behind. Two people walk down a trail near the Cutbank Campground under cloudy skies. Rocky snow capped peaks rise in the background and the foreground is filled with thick grass. Fish Creek Fish Creek is the second largest campground in the park. Fish Creek is one of three campgrounds in the park that take reservations. Sites within the campground are surrounded by trees and provide shade and some privacy to both tent and RV campers. Some sites, though not directly on the shore of Lake McDonald, offer filtered views of the lake. Fish Creek Summer 23.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Fish Creek Amphitheater rows of benches before a stone-based stage with wooden backdrop Enjoy a nightly evening program at the amphitheater Fish Creek Campground Fun Two people sit by a campfire ring in a forested campground with tents and other people in the backgr The Fish Creek Campground is in a forested area. Fish Creek Picnic Area picnic table and fire ring among trees by lake The beach grows beach as the water levels drop through the summer. Kintla Lake Kintla Lake campground is Glacier National Park's most remote frontcountry and car camping campground. It is located in the upper most northwest section of the park known as the North Fork, approximately 40 miles from the west entrance. Access is via a rough dirt road. Trailers not advised. Due to it's remote location, the campground is very quiet and is very rarely filled, offering tent campers a sense of solitude. The campground sits on Kintla Lake. Kintla Lake Summer 15.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. A hand pump is available for potable water, and pit toilets are located in the campground as well. Kintla Lake Primitive 10.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Primitive camping is available, depending on weather and road conditions. During primitive camping season there is no water available and campers are advised to bring their own drinking water. Kintla Lake blue sky over mountains, lake, and conifer covered ridge View from shore Dusty Cars at Kintla Campgroung Six dusty cars are parked along side a dirt road with a forest in the background on a sunny day. The road to Kintla Lake is long, rough, and dusty. Logging Creek The Logging Creek Campground is one of the smaller campgrounds in Glacier and is located on the west side of the park, south of Polebridge. Access is via the Inside North Fork Road, a dusty narrow winding road. Caution is advised when traveling this road and RVs are not recommended. Once there, campers will find a small primitive campground with all the solitude one could want. The trailhead to Logging Lake is nearby and the easy hike to the lake is a great family day hike. Logging Creek Campground 10.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Logging Creek Campground operates in primitive status all season. No potable water sources or dump station facilities are provided. The North Fork Valley A bridge crosses a river with trees framing the image and distant snowy mountains in the background. The road to Logging Lake. Many Glacier The campground at Many Glacier is one of the most popular campgrounds in Glacier National Park. The campground is situated within trees for tent and RV campers, though there are only 13 sites that can accommodate vehicle lengths up to 35 feet in length. Bring your binoculars, as there are opportunities to view wildlife like bighorn sheep, moose, and bears. Many Glacier also provides access to some of the best day hikes in the park. Many Glacier Summer 23.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Many Glacier shoulder season 20.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. First- come, first- serve basis. Many Glacier primitive 10.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. During primitive camping season there is no water available and campers are advised to bring their own drinking water. Many Glacier Campground Amphitheater brown wooden benches on slope in forest clearing Enjoy an evening program at the amphitheater Mount Wilbur craggy topped mountain rises above forest and lakeshore Mount Wilbur towers over the Swiftcurrent area. Many Glacier Campground a tent, picnic table, and fire ring on gravel in clearing, RV in background A wooded site in busy Many Glacier Quartz Creek Quartz Creek campground is the smallest campground in Glacier National Park and remains in primitive status all season. It is located on the west side of the park in the North Fork area and is accessed by the Inside North Fork Road, a rough, dusty, dirt road with many blind curves and few pullouts. Trailers are not advised. Tent campers will enjoy a wilderness experience at the campground. Quartz Creek 10.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. No potable water sources or dump station facilities are provided. There are pit toilets. Patrol Cabin small rustic cabin and tent on lakeshore surrounded by tall conifers A backcountry patrol cabin on shore of Quartz Lake Rising Sun Rising Sun Campground is located just west of St. Mary and halfway along St. Mary Lake. Campers at Rising Sun will enjoy beautiful sunrises in the morning with Red Eagle Mountain as a backdrop, and the campground serves as a convenient base camp to many day hikes located east of Logan Pass. Some sites are open, allowing for cool breezes throughout the day, while others are located among trees, accommodating those seeking some shade and privacy. Rising Sun Summer 20.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Rising Sun Campground Chilling A person sits at a campsite in the Rising Sun Campground, surrounded by dense vegetation. A person sits at a campsite in the Rising Sun Campground, surrounded by dense vegetation. Rising Sun view of mountains and a mix of vegetation Rising Sun views Rising Sun Amphitheater wooden benches on gravel clearing with campsites and bathroom building in background among trees Attend an evening program at the amphitheater Sprague Creek Campground Beginning in summer 2022, a reservation will be needed to camp at Sprague Creek Campground. As of December 2021, sites have not yet been released. Sprague Creek is a small campground located on the northeast shore of Lake McDonald, just off Going-to-the-Sun Road. Towed units and RVs exceeding 21 feet are not permitted in this campground. The campground is located within trees, providing shade during warm summers. Some sites near the shore have unobstructed views of Lake McDonald. Sprague Creek Summer 23.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Sprague Creek Picnic Area gravel parking spaces and picnic tables in forest clearing Nestled between Going-to-the-Sun Road and Lake McDonald Sprague Creek Trail to Lake McDonald hard packed trail in woods marked with accessible symbol on sign An accessible trail leads to the lake Sprague Creek Trail to Lake hardpacked gravel pad at forest edge, dark sandy beach at shoreline End of the accessible trail St. Mary St. Mary campground is the largest campground on the east side of Glacier National Park and is open year round. Activities such as interpretive programs, book sales, and shuttle service tours are located at the nearby St. Mary Visitor Center. St. Mary is one of two campgrounds in the park that take reservations. Though shade may be sparse, aspen trees grace St. Mary campground with soothing sounds from spring and summer breezes, and colorful splashes of yellow late in the season. St Mary Campground, shoulder season April to May 19 10.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Sites are available on a first-come, first-serve basis. St. Mary Campground, shoulder season May 20-31 20.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Sites are available on a first-come, first-serve basis. St. Mary Campground summer status 23.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Sites can be reserved June 1 through September 4. Individual campsites may be reserved up to 6 months in advance and not less than 3 nights prior. The two group sites can be reserved up to a year in advance. Sites not reserved ahead of time are available on a first come first serve basis. St. Mary Campround, shoulder season September 5-18 20.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Sites are available on a first-come, first-serve basis. St. Mary Campground, primitive status fall 10.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. No potable water sources or dump station facilities are provided. Comfort stations are closed; use vault toilets located in the campground. St. Mary Campground, primitive status winter 0.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. No potable water sources or dump station facilities are provided during the primitive camping season. Comfort stations are closed; use vault toilets located in the campground. Rainy Evening in St. Mary A park ranger in uniform stands in front of a crowd and gestures with their hands. A park ranger in uniform stands in front of a crowd and gestures with their hands while giving an evening program to a group of park visitors. A rainbow is faintly visible in the background. Evening Program in St. Mary Campground A park ranger points while talking to a crowd of visitors in the St. Mary Campground. A park ranger points while talking to a crowd of visitors in the St. Mary Campground. Tents and cars are blurry in the background and park visitors are in the foreground. Stormy Night dark cloudy sky over campsite in field with tent, picnic tables, and campers wearing headlamps Under the Big Sky at St. Mary Campground Two Medicine Two Medicine is approximately 13 miles from East Glacier. Sites are on a first-come, first-serve basis. Sites within the campground at are generally shaded by trees, and offer some privacy from other campers. Boat tours and Red Bus tours can be found at Two Medicine. There are numerous day hiking opportunities available, including a handicap accessible trail to Running Eagle Falls. The campground remains open in late-September for primitive camping with no running water or flush toilets. Two Medicine, summer status 20.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. Two Medicine, primitive status 10.00 Campsite capacity is limited to eight people and two vehicles, where space is available. A maximum of two tents per site is permitted. No potable water sources or dump station facilities are provided. Comfort stations are closed; use vault toilets located in the campground. Pray Lake man stands in shallow water of small lake at base of mountain Two Medicine campground wraps partly around Pray Lake Two Medicine Amphitheater long wooden benches in gravel clearing with picnic table and food storage box in background Attend an evening program at Two Medicine Campground Amphitheater Flowers along Going-to-the-Sun Road A bright landscape image with steep peaks in the background and bright flowers in the foreground. Fireweed are common along Going-to-the-Sun Road in late summer. St. Mary Falls A double waterfall blurs over layered rocks. Glacier National Park is sculpted by water. Lobby of the Lake McDonald Lodge Looking down into the lobby of the Lake McDonald Lodge from the balcony Lobby of the historic Lake McDonald Lodge East Side Sunset Jagged peaks rise out of a forested valley and an empty road curves off into the distance. Going-to-the-Sun Road in the St. Mary Valley Going-to-the-Sun Road Morning Large mountains rise into morning clouds with green flanks leading down to a field of purple flowers Flowers grow thick along Going-to-the-Sun Road. St. Mary Falls A double waterfall blurs over layered rocks. Glacier National Park is sculpted by water. From Alpine to Aquifer: Stoneflies in Strange Places Discover the unique and fascinating research centered on aquatic invertebrates found in the alpine and in the Nyack floodplain aquifer. Explore how the presence of these creatures adds to the biodiversity of the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem and learn about threats that face them. A group of students watch as researchers pump water into a long, mesh net. Pikas Resource Brief Pikas are small animals that face a big threat. Suited for life in cold climates, their habitat is shrinking as the world’s average temperature increases and tree line encroaches upon the alpine and subalpine talus slopes and meadows where pikas roam. Researchers and citizen scientists identify and monitor pika populations in Glacier to determine current distribution and any changes that occur in that distribution. Round potato-sized rodent sits on rock Fire and Invasive Weeds Resource Brief The natural cycle of a forest involves fire and subsequent revegetation. A newly burned area is great for new plant growth, but is also susceptible to noxious weed infestation. Invasive weeds can outcompete native plants and ruin biodiversity. Care must be taken by firefighters managing the blaze and those monitoring fire effects so invasive seeds do not take hold. Yellow headed flowers blanket ground below burnt trees Common Loon Resource Brief The common loon is listed as a Species of Concern in Montana. Glacier National Park harbors an estimated 20% of the state's breeding population. For over a decade, Glacier researchers and citizen scientists have conducted surveys on key park lakes during breeding season, part of a statewide effort to monitor and manage risks to common loon populations. Common loon extends its wings showcasing white spots on black feathers Wildland Fire History — Fire in Glacier! Glacier NP interpreter recounts a brief history of wildfire in the park, then details the Red Bench fire of Sept. 1988. Because of the concurrent historic fires in Yellowstone, public interest in the fire was higher than normal. Author discusses education and outreach in the fire’s wake. Original article published in 1989. Connecting with Our Homelands in 2019 Throughout the 2019 academic year, Hopa Mountain, in partnership with the National Park Service, awarded Connecting with our Homelands travel grants to 21 different indigenous organizations, schools, and nonprofits. These are glimpses into some of these trips. Students look at a forested landscape. National Park Service Visitor and Resource Protection Staff Focuses on Week of Leadership Staff from all levels of the National Park Service in law enforcement, United States Park Police, as well as fire and aviation spent a week learning leadership lessons from one another as well as from a diverse group of leaders during the last week of September 2019. A group of women and men on a rocky outcrop in high desert. Cleaner Snow Reveals Cleaner Air in Rocky Mountain Network Parks Few things look more pristine than a fresh blanket of snow, yet each snowflake naturally carries small particles from the atmosphere. When snowflakes build around these particles, the resulting snowfall can bring pollutants from far away into our national parks. Long-term snow chemistry monitoring is showing some improvements in air quality at Glacier and Rocky Mountain National Parks, and Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. Snowpack Sampling at Apgar Lookout in Glacier National Park 2019 Connecting with our Homelands Awardees Hopa Mountain, in partnership with the National Park Service, is pleased to announce the 2019 awardees of the Connecting with our Homelands travel grants. Twenty-one Indigenous organizations, schools, and nonprofits have been awarded travel funds for trips to national park units across 12 states/territories within the United States. An elder and young student talk while sitting on a rock. Destruction & Discovery: Exploring fire's impacts on Glacier's historic landscapes Fire is a frequent visitor to western Montana's landscape. And, although fire's effects on natural resources is a story often told, it's impacts on cultural resources is less so. This article highlights a newly created story map that explores fire's impact on cultural resources within Glacier National Park. Smoke billows up from a forested landscape. Dead, standing trees stand in the foreground. A Botanist's Dream This multi-media article highlights two, long-term, seasonal botanists at Glacier National Park and their monitoring efforts in Glacier's grasslands. Researcher crouches down in a meadow filled with wildflowers. Wildlife Shepherding in Glacier National Park In July 2016, Glacier National Park became the first National Park Service unit to use an employee-owned dog to help manage habituated wildlife. Resource manager Mark Biel uses his professionally trained border collie, Gracie, to move bighorn sheep and mountain goats out of areas of high visitor use, such as the Logan Pass parking lot. “Ranger Mark” and Gracie are also wildlife-safety ambassadors, helping remind people to stay a safe distance from all wildlife. Working dog looks over her shoulder at handler as bighorn rams graze below. Glacier's Avalanche Cycles: Past, Present, and Future USGS physical scientist Erich Peitzsch uses tree cross-sections and cores to establish a timeline of past avalanche activity. By looking at avalanche cycles over the past 100-200 years, Peitzsch hopes to learn whether or not climate change will affect avalanche behavior in the future. A cloud of snow and debris rises from an avalanche ripping down the mountainside. Army Couple Visits 59 National Parks When you’re a dual-military couple, it can be a challenge to try to find things to do together, especially when you’re at separate duty stations or on deployment. For one Army couple, what started out as a simple idea to get out of the house turned into a five-year adventure. Couple standing in front of The Windows at Arches National Park. Wildland Fire Ecology Resource Brief While often seen as devastating, wildland fires are an essential part of the natural cycle of forests and grasslands. Fires clear vegetation and fuel, providing new habitat and nutrients that aid biodiversity. Glacier National Park hosts multiple, healthy fire regimes. Fire managers maintain that success by allowing natural fires to burn within parameters and even occasionally setting prescribed burns. Conifers engulfed in flames Whitebark Pine Resource Brief Whitebark pine curls and twists in its slow growth in the upper subalpine. This invaluable keystone species is in severe decline due to blister rust, fire exclusion, and mountain pine beetle. Scientists agree active restoration efforts are needed and the park is working with other land management partners to plant and monitor seedlings. Dead, silvery tree with gnarled limbs stands alone PARKS...IN...SPAAAACE!!! NASA astronauts have quite literally an out-of-this-world view of national parks and take some pretty stellar pictures to share. Travel along with the space station on its journey west to east getting the extreme bird’s eye view of national parks across the country. And one more down-to-earth. View of Denali National Park & Preserve from space Ice Patch Archeology Resource Brief Buried in Glacier's melting ice are archeological and paleontological materials encased hundreds, or even thousands of years ago. A recent five-year collaborative research project investigated 46 ice patches in the park, taking core samples, documenting melting, and collecting remains of ancient plants and animals, including bison. Two men use hand-auger to drill into steep snowfield Citizen Science Program Celebrates Year of the Bird Glacier's Citizen Science Program took part in celebrating the "Year of the Bird" by hosting a variety of events. From a spring bird survey and Year of the Bird celebration to an Alpine Bird BioBlitz, the program worked hard to educate park visitors about the value of birds as well as current threats to some of Glacier's bird species. Sunlight bounces off the underside of a golden eagle in flight. Mountaintops fill the background. Bears, Berries, and Bees: The Implications of Changing Phenology Explore current research on huckleberry plant production in Glacier National Park and how scientists are researching berries to discover how changes in phenology, or the seasonal timing of plants, might impact bear behavior. The goal of the project is to develop a model that will combine phenology information with other factors such as temperature, snow pack, and rainfall, to predict berry production across the park. Huckleberries ripening on a huckleberry plant. Fire Communication and Education Grants Enhance Fire Interpretation and Outreach in the National Parks in 2015 and Beyond The 2015 National Park Service Fire Communication and Education Grant Program provided funding for projects, programs, or tasks in twelve parks around the country. A woman studies a small coniferous tree while a younger woman looks on. Bison Bellows: Recent Evidence of Bison at Glacier National Park A recent fire in Glacier National Park uncovered a bison skull and whole lot of history! Skull with horns laying in the dirt, next to a shovel Glacier's bat inventory and monitoring program: Using partners, collaborators, and volunteers to make it a success Park biologists race the clock to learn as much as they can about bats before risks from white-nose syndrome and wind energy development alter bat populations and movements in and around Glacier National Park. little brown bat, Glacier National Park; copyright Kristi DuBois Wildland Fire: Collaboration Key During Grant Kohrs July 4 Fire Brad Harris, Glacier’s fire management specialist-fuels, was returning from a fire in Colorado on July 1, when a passing train ignited two small fires in and near Grant Kohrs Ranch NHS. Harris stopped at GRKO to make sure the fire’s documentation was complete, inventory the cache, work on the pump and pump trailer, and conduct structure assessments. Harris responded as incident commander when a passing train ignited six fires in the park on July 4. burned area of a wildland fire with a train track Wildland Fire: Montana Conservation Corps Completes Fuels Projects A Montana Conservation Corps crew, funded by the Glacier National Park Conservancy, dedicated 10 days to working on fuels projects at Glacier National Park in late June through early July 2013. Working on four remote and front-country projects, they completed 10 acres of wildland-urban interface mitigation work at very little cost to the park, helping to build fire-adapted communities. Interview with a Ranger Explore the variety of experiences and adventures of this seasonal park ranger who has worked in Glacier National Park for 38 seasons. Find out what he enjoys most about his job and why he keeps coming back. Ranger stands next to a horse, smiling for the camera. The Stromatolites of Glacier National Park The rugged high peaks of Glacier National Park are a beautiful sight to behold, with people traveling from all around the globe to experience this iconic place. The rocks that compose those amazing peaks and valley walls hold the secrets to a time when this land was once covered by a vast shallow sea, a billion and a half years ago. Siyeh Formation bioherm located along the Highline Trail Park Air Profiles - Glacier National Park Air quality profile for Glacier National Park. Gives park-specific information about air quality and air pollution impacts for Glacier NP as well as the studies and monitoring conducted for Glacier NP. Red Eagle Mountain Saving Bull Trout Bull trout are the top native predators of the upper Columbia River system, of which Glacier National Park's western slopes reside in. But bull trout are faced with a slew of challenges, including competition from invasive lake trout. Discover how fisheries managers in Glacier are tackling these challenges and making efforts to save some of the last viable bull trout populations and habitat in the Northwest. Juvenile bull trout swims through the water. Waterton-Glacier BioBlitz! A Fun-filled Day of Hands-on-Science During the summer of 2017, the CCRLC hosted two BioBlitz events: the Waterton-Glacier Mushroom BioBlitz and the Waterton-Glacier Butterfly BioBlitz. Nearly 150 participants joined in helping resource managers gather data on the diverse array of fungus and butterfly species found in Glacier National Park. A butterfly rests on a pencil that a citizen scientist is using to record butterfly species. Unsure Footing - Glacier’s Habituated Mountain Goats This article highlights a recent research project that studied human-wildlife interactions occurring at Glacier National Park's popular Logan Pass. The study looked at habituated mountain goats at Logan Pass and compared their behavior to that of more "wild" goats in other areas of the park. The goal of the project is to determine how people alter mountain goat behavior and offer strategies to minimize human-wildlife interaction. Mountain goat in a rocky, snowy landscape Aquatic Invasive Species Hot Topic The introduction of non-native species results in an ecological struggle to maintain balance. Unequipped to compete with invasives, native species populations decline. Many of Glacier’s aquatic ecosystems have been impacted by the invasion of non-native fish species, such as lake trout. There is also the looming threat of exotic plants and mussels. The park answers these threats with education, fishing and boating regulations, and experimental restoration projects. Pile of mollusks with striped shells Invasive Plants Resource Brief Invasive weeds pose a real threat to the park ecosystem. Invasives outcompete native plants and alter wildlife habitat. Glacier uses multiple methods and treatments to minimize the impact of invasive plants. Resource managers work with park staff and volunteers to detect new, invasive plant species in hopes of catching infestations early. An annual Noxious Weed Blitz is held to educate participants on noxious weeds and to pull invasives on key trails. Toadflax with green stalks and long yellow flowers Saving Glacier's Native Fish Hot Topic Bull trout and other native fish species are under siege. Non-native fish were introduced to the region in the first half of the 1900s. Those fish, especially lake trout, outcompete and prey upon bull trout. Glacier’s fishing and boating regulations, along with joint-agency restoration projects at key lakes, take aim at non-native species in an attempt to restore natural integrity to park waters. Hand releasing speckled bull trout into clear water Forest Health Hot Topic Glacier's forests see continual change, but some recent changes are cause for concern among visitors and researchers. Natural factors, like drought, are compounded by rising temperatures and forest pathogens, affecting tree health and resulting in swaths of sickly or dead trees. As the climate warms, we continue to analyze and assess the cumulative impacts to our forests. Researcher climbs pine to protect cones Monitoring Amphibians in Glacier Amphibians are excellent ecological indicators due to high sensitivity to slight changes in their environment. Worldwide declines in amphibian populations prompted the U.S. Geological Survey to begin a national effort to document trends of amphibian populations on federal lands. Research on amphibians in Glacier, particularly boreal toads, began in 2000. Researchers are documenting changes to population size, survival rates, and occupancy of suitable habitat. A boreal toad sits on a piece of wood. Mountain Goat Resource Brief Mountain goats are one of Glacier National Park's iconic species, yet little is known about their population size and distribution. To monitor the goat population and detect any changes in overall population, park managers and researchers use ground surveys conducted by citizen scientists and studies from individual collared goats. Mountain goat looks down from a cliff. Wildland Fire in Douglas Fir: Western United States Douglas fir is widely distributed throughout the western United States, as well as southern British Columbia and northern Mexico. Douglas fir is able to survive without fire, its abundantly-produced seeds are lightweight and winged, allowing the wind to carry them to new locations where seedlings can be established. Close-up of Douglas fir bark and needles. A Time for Reflection Read the value of citizen science to staff member Erik Nelson as he describes his summer working as the Loon Coordinator at the Crown of the Continent Research Learning Center. Close-up shot of Erik Nelson wearing a red bandanna and an expedition hat. Northern Hawk Owl Resource Brief Though widely distributed throughout Alaska and Canada, little is known about northern hawk owls in Montana. Researchers consistently document breeding northern hawk owls in Glacier National Park, probably because it allows recently burned forests to rebound naturally, offering such fire-associated bird species ideal territory. More monitoring is needed to learn about this owl's life cycle, population size, and possible threats due to climate change's impact on fire regime. Northern hawk owl perched in front of burnt tree showing white breast with thick brown stripes Fire-Fueled Finds In 2015, the Reynolds Creek Fire burned the forests along the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR) in the St. Mary Valley. Although some historic structures were known, the fire revealed new archeological sites that gave insight into where and how the workers who built the GTSR lived. In addition, archeologists uncovered artifacts at an old trapper cabin and in and around the Baring Creek Cabin, a historic backcountry patrol cabin still used by park staff. Rusted, old pans and utensils, broken plates, and a rusted, metal cheese grater lie in a pile. BioBlitzes: Celebrating Biodiversity in the NPS Centennial Year A rich array of species reside within our national parks. To engage visitors of all ages to discover and document biodiversity within parks and to celebrate the NPS Centennial, bioblitz events were held across the country during 2016. At Glacier, the Crown of the Continent Research Learning Center (CCRLC) hosted multiple BioBlitz events, engaging students and adults in hands-on science! Two students, dressed in waders, stand in lake holding dip nets. Interagency Cooperation Leads to Big Prairie Prescribed Fire Success Glacier National Park fire management teamed up with firefighters from the neighboring Flathead National Forest to conduct an important burn to restore the landscape of Big Prairie in April 2013 on the west side of the park. Because the burn was conducted in April, one fire seasonal employee was available, so they relied heavily on firefighters from Flathead NF to augment permanent fire staff. The fire helped to maintain and restore resilient landscapes. The Survey123 App: Enhancing the Citizen Science Experience The Common Loon Citizen Science project has used citizen scientist volunteers to record data on loon numbers, nesting success, and habitat since its creation in 2005. All of that data was recorded on a paper data sheet, but in 2019 citizen scientists can now submit their survey via a new app in Survey123! Learn about the new app and how it will benefit the program. Close-up of person holding a survey form and a cell phone. Bewitched by Bats from an Early Age This article relays a special bond that forms between a bat researcher and a young girl during a late night field trip highlighting bat research and monitoring. Learn about bat research in Glacier National Park and the threats bats face while learning about a special young girl whose fascination with bats equals that of the bat researchers themselves. Researcher examines bat while two children look on. 2003 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2003 Environmental Achievement Awards Checking Glacier's Vital Signs In 2007, the Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring Network—a small team of NPS scientists—began monitoring natural resources, called “vital signs,” in Glacier and nearby parks. Vital signs indicate park health and serve as red flags if conditions deteriorate. Results from monitoring these vital signs support park managers’ efforts to make science-based management decisions. Learn about the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program and its work in Glacier National Park. high-elevation stream running across rocky ground with mountains in the background Citizen Science Opportunities Associated with Panoramic Lookout Photographs Anyone can participate in citizen science. You can go to a national park lookout point and take panoramic lookout photos and upload them to a national database. Links are provided to Gigapan tutorials and a citizen science weed project in Glacier National Park. Information about how to set up a photo point in your backyard is also shared. Wildland Fire in Ponderosa Pine: Western United States This forest community generally exists in areas with annual rainfall of 25 inches or less. Extensive pure stands of this forest type are found in the southwestern U.S., central Washington and Oregon, southern Idaho and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Recently burned ponderosa pine forest. History of the Panoramic Lookout Project Most documentation of the panoramic lookout photos project, which began about 1930 to document areas seen from the lookout system, comes from the US Forest Service. The NPS project began in 1934. Lester Moe worked for the Forest Service taking photos in 1933 and 1934, and later worked for NPS. Several innovations came about from this project: the Osborne photo-recording transit and “special emulsion infra-red sensitive film” not affected by smoke and haze. sample of the panoramic lookout project Walking in the Steps of History: Retaking Panoramic Lookout Photographs Ian Grob, of the US Forest Service, collaborated with the NPS to retake panoramic lookout images ¾ of a century after the originals were taken. This page tells the story of how he came to be involved and summarizes the processes his team used and the trials and tribulations they faced in retaking the photos. Ian Grob adjusts an Osborne photo recording transit looking out over mountain and valley Glacier National Park Welcomes New Fire Management Officer Jeremy Harker, Glacier National Park Fire Management Officer Jeremy Harker, Glacier National Park Fire Management Officer Going-to-the-Sun Road Historic District Cultural Landscape Going-to-the-Sun Road winds its way east to west through the heart of Glacier National Park, allowing visitors to experience (through driving) the mountains, hanging valleys, rock walls, and glaciers that make up the northern Rocky Mountains. The road is nationally significant for its design and monumental engineering accomplishments. It is designated as a National Historical Civil Engineering Landmark and a National Historic Landmark. Going-to-the-Sun Road (Tim Rains, NPS) Interactions underfoot: The subtle influence of soil moisture on vegetation pattern Second in a series of three "In Focus" articles that share insights into the near-universal and far-reaching effects of soils on the ecology, management, and enjoyment of our national parks. Monthly water use by plants at Glacier National Park relative to soils with and without volcanic ash Glacier National Park's New Sister Glacier National Park recently signed a Sister Park arrangement with Gorkhi-Terelj National Park, Mongolia. The two parks are located at the same latitude and have similar landforms. They hope to begin working with each soon. A green valley bordered by mountain ridges in Gorkhi-Terelj National Park. Youth Climate Change Ambassadors Conduct Citizen Science In 2010 high school students from San Diego learned about climate change in Glacier National Park as they met with climate change researchers, surveyed mountain goats, and—for some—saw snow for the first time. Group of students looking through binoculars Climate Change Teacher Workshop Teachers from across the nation come to Glacier National Park to learn about climate change. Teachers learn about avalanches Bats Resource Brief Until recently, little information has existed about bat populations in Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. But recent research is determining presence, hibernation locations, and types of species that make their home here. Using acoustical surveys and mist nets to capture bats, three new species of bats have been identified, making a total of nine bat species now known in Glacier National Park. Close up of hoary bat's grimacing face showing row of teeth Harlequin Ducks Resource Brief A favorite of birders, colorful harlequin ducks breed and raise their chicks in Glacier National Park's clear, fast-moving streams. Listed as a species of concern in Montana, harlequins are facing threats from climate change, habitat loss, and human disturbance. Although the harlequin population in Glacier remains stable, these birds are declining throughout the West. Park biologists are monitoring the ducks and collaborating with harlequin researchers throughout the region. A male harlequin stands on a rock located in the middle of a rushing stream. Night Skies Resource Brief Human development and the use of artificial light at night have significantly altered the darkness of night skies, affecting the natural rhythms of life on earth. Low levels of light pollution in Glacier allow visitors to experience spectacular views of the night skies. In 2017, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park received provisional status as an International Dark Sky Park through the International Dark Sky Association. A hiker standing on rocks is silhouetted in black while looking up at the Milky Way at night Turning Obstacles into Opportunities During their junior year, students from Worcester Polytechnic Institute complete research projects for a variety of organizations. These research projects are an interdisciplinary, immersive team experience that usually take place off campus. In 2018, Glacier National Park was added to the list of project centers. Students work with park leadership on identified research projects. From mobile apps to solar webcams, students generate solutions that help park management. WPI students pose for the camera in front of Lake McDonald. Citizen Science Persists in the Face of COVID-19 2020 brought a summer season like no other, but Glacier's Citizen Science Program met challenges from COVID-19 and succeeded in its efforts to collect necessary data. By using a small, previously trained volunteer force and park staff, the program accomplished its goal of reaching every mountain goat and common loon site this summer. Additionally, citizen scientists and staff participated in the Hawk Watch Citizen Science Project this fall, counting migrating raptors. A man looks through a scope while sitting on top of a mountain. STEAM Camp for Girls! Despite the challenges of COVID-19, 2020 brought the first STEAM Camp for girls to Glacier National Park! Middle school girls from the surrounding area learned about Northwest Montana's changing landscapes using science, technology, engineering, art, and math. Two girls hold a poster entitled, North Fork Homesteads Resource Brief With the completion of the railway in 1893 and a 40-mile wagon road to Kintla in 1901, homesteading in the North Fork Valley flourished in the early 1900s. In 1910, Glacier National Park was established with the North Fork area within its boundaries. Some years of contention followed as park conservation policies stifled private development. The history of these intrepid pioneers remains alive today as the park preserves multiple homestead sites. Historic photo of family of five plus a deer standing outside log cabin Series: Panoramic Project Shows How National Parks Change Over Time In the 1930s, panoramic photographs were taken from lookout points. Comparing these images to present-day photographs allows us to understand change over time. Viewing photographs of different eras in the national parks can give many insights on ecosystem processes, as well as simply change over time. The panoramic lookout photographs provide a window on the past and an opportunity to compare to the present with changes to landforms and land cover. Lester Moe documenting park landscapes in the 1930s Series: Climate Change in Nth California and Sth Oregon Discover how climate change is impacting national parks sites as varied as volcanoes, caves, coastline and deserts. Klamath River enters the ocean Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Since 2002, the National Park Service (NPS) has awarded Environmental Achievement (EA) Awards to recognize staff and partners in the area of environmental preservation, protection and stewardship. A vehicle charges at an Electric Vehicle charging station at Thomas Edison National Historical Park Series: Park Paleontology News - Vol. 10, No. 2, Fall 2018 All across the park system, scientists, rangers, and interpreters are engaged in the important work of studying, protecting, and sharing our rich fossil heritage. <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/newsletters.htm">Park Paleontology news</a> provides a close up look at the important work of caring for these irreplaceable resources. <ul><li>Contribute to Park Paleontology News by contacting the <a href="https://www.nps.gov/common/utilities/sendmail/sendemail.cfm?o=5D8CD5B898DDBB8387BA1DBBFD02A8AE4FBD489F4FF88B9049&r=/subjects/geoscientistsinparks/photo-galleries.htm">newsletter editor</a></li><li>Learn more about <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/">Fossils & Paleontology</a> </li><li>Celebrate <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossilday/">National Fossil Day</a> with events across the nation</li></ul> NPS staff work to document a recently discovered slab of Navajo Sandstone Series: Park Air Profiles Clean air matters for national parks around the country. Photo of clouds above the Grand Canyon, AZ NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Glacier National Park, Montana Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. mountain cliffs The Precambrian The Precambrian was the "Age of Early Life." During the Precambrian, continents formed and our modern atmosphere developed, while early life evolved and flourished. Soft-bodied creatures like worms and jellyfish lived in the world's oceans, but the land remained barren. Common Precambrian fossils include stromatolites and similar structures, which are traces of mats of algae-like microorganisms, and microfossils of other microorganisms. fossil stromatolites in a cliff face Proterozoic Eon—2.5 Billion to 541 MYA The Proterozoic Eon is the most recent division of the Precambrian. It is also the longest geologic eon, beginning 2.5 billion years ago and ending 541 million years ago fossil stromatolites in a cliff face Wildland Fire in Lodgepole Pine The bark of lodgepoles is thin, which does not protect the trunks from scorching by fire. They die easily when a fire passes through. However, the serotinous cones give lodgepole pine a special advantage for spreading seeds for the next generation. Close-up of the needles of a lodgepole pine. More Than “Just” A Secretary If you’re only familiar with modern office practices, you may not recognize many of jobs necessary to run an office or national park over much of the past hundred years. Today, typewriters have given way to computers, photocopy machines have replaced typing pools, stenographers are rarely seen outside of courtrooms, and callers are largely expected to pick extensions from digital directories. Women skiing Two for the Price of One Companion, assistant, confidant, ambassador, host, nurse, cook, secretary, editor, field technician, wildlife wrangler, diplomat, and social director are some of the many roles that people who marry into the NPS perform in support of their spouses and the NPS mission. Although the wives and daughters of park rangers were some of the earliest women rangers in the NPS, many more women served as “park wives” in the 1920s–1940s. Three members of a family Did You Know We Never Hire Women? In 1920, as Ranger Isabel Bassett Wasson arrived at Yellowstone, Dr. Harold C. Bryant and Dr. Loye Holmes Miller launched the new NPS education program with the Free Nature Guide Service at Yosemite National Park. Female Ranger talks to a crowd The Job is His, Not Yours In the early 1950s, park wives continued to function as they had from the 1920s to the 1940s. The NPS still got Two For the Price of One, relying on women to keep monuments in the Southwest running, to give freely of their time and talents, to build and maintain park communities, and to boost morale among park staffs. With the creation of the Mission 66 Program to improve park facilities, the NPS found new ways to put some park wives to (unpaid) work. Man and woman with telescope “A New Attraction” States licensed women hunting and fishing guides as early as the 1890s, but in national parks the emphasis was on nature study and tours for visitors. It’s commonly thought that Rocky Mountain National Park was the first park to license women guides in 1917, but there was at least one licensed woman guide working at Glacier National Park four years earlier. Collage of newspaper photographs featuring portraits of women Pika Poop Patrol: Collecting Scat for Science Glacier's Citizen Science Program hosted its annual Volunteer Day in August 2021. Participants took to the talus slopes and searched for pika poop, or scat. The collected scat will be analyzed for its DNA to see how pika's are related to one another. This information helps researchers determine how pika populations are connected and what corridors are critical to their success. A small, brown and gray, potato-sized critter holds a large bundle of vegetation in its mouth. Midnight Banders The Crown of the Continent Research Learning Center's Citizen Science Program works with partners in the Common Loon Working Group to band Common Loons in Northwest Montana, including Glacier National Park. Leg banding helps biologist to better understand the status of loons in Montana. This article and video document the nighttime banding process. A pair of loons swim through the water. Glacier's Going-to-the-Sun Road: Managing for the Future As with many of the country’s larger, popular national parks, Glacier National Park's surge in visitation has led to the need for plans and programs to manage visitor use. In 2021, the park implemented a ticketed entry system to reduce congestion and prevent gridlock along the Going-to-the-Sun Road. This article highlights the data and steps used to create and track Glacier's pilot ticketed entry system. A line of cars sit in front of a ticketed entry electronic traffic sign. Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background Isabel Bassett Wasson In 1920, Isabel Bassett Wasson was the first woman hired as a park ranger at Yellowstone National Park. Although she only worked for one summer, she opened the door for other women rangers to follow at Yellowstone in the 1920s. Isabel Wasson wearing a short-sleeved shirt poses with trees in the background. Ranger Roll Call, 1917-1929 Recent research demonstrates that there were more women rangers and ranger-naturalists in early National Park Service (NPS) history than previously thought. However, the number of women in uniformed positions was quite low in any given year. Ranger Frieda Nelson shows of the suspenders used to hold up her uniform breeches. Women in Landscape-Scale Conservation: Mary Riddle Before retiring in 2021, Mary Riddle spent much of her career working in Glacier National Park, which is the first international peace park with Waterton Lakes National Park in Canada. woman sits with her back to the camera writing in a field book at the top of a mountain.

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