"Glacier Bay landscape, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, 2015." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Glacier Bay

National Park & Preserve - Alaska

Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is a vast area of southeast Alaska’s Inside Passage, a coastal route plied by cruise ships and other vessels. Stretching north of the town of Gustavus, the bay is flanked by high peaks, including Mount Fairweather, and glaciers like the huge Grand Pacific Glacier. Bartlett Cove is the starting point for forest and riverside trails. Wildlife includes humpback whales and puffins.

maps

Official visitor map of Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve (NP & PRES) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Glacier Bay - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve (NP & PRES) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Detail of the official visitor map of Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve (NP & PRES) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Glacier Bay - Visitor Map Detail

Detail of the official visitor map of Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve (NP & PRES) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of Downtown Skagway for Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park (NHP) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Klondike Gold Rush - Downtown Skagway

Map of Downtown Skagway for Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park (NHP) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map 2 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Yakutat Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Yakutat Map 2 2021

Map 2 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Yakutat Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Yakutat Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Yakutat Map 1 2021

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Yakutat Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Hoonah Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Hoonah 2021

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Hoonah Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Juneau Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Juneau Admiralty 2021

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Juneau Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

brochures

The Summer 2021 edition of The Fairweather Visitor Guide to Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (NP&PRES) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Glacier Bay - Guide Summer 2021

The Summer 2021 edition of The Fairweather Visitor Guide to Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (NP&PRES) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/glba/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glacier_Bay_National_Park_and_Preserve Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is a vast area of southeast Alaska’s Inside Passage, a coastal route plied by cruise ships and other vessels. Stretching north of the town of Gustavus, the bay is flanked by high peaks, including Mount Fairweather, and glaciers like the huge Grand Pacific Glacier. Bartlett Cove is the starting point for forest and riverside trails. Wildlife includes humpback whales and puffins. Covering 3.3 million acres of rugged mountains, dynamic glaciers, temperate rainforest, wild coastlines and deep sheltered fjords, Glacier Bay National Park is a highlight of Alaska's Inside Passage and part of a 25-million acre World Heritage Site—one of the world’s largest international protected areas. From sea to summit, Glacier Bay offers limitless opportunities for adventure and inspiration. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve lies west of Juneau, Alaska, and can only be reached by plane or boat. The only road in the area merely connects the small town of Gustavus and its airfield to park headquarters at Bartlett Cove (10 miles). Alaska Airlines provides daily jet service from Juneau to Gustavus in the summer months. Year-round scheduled air service is also provided by a variety of small air taxis and charters. The Alaska Marine Highway ferries also provide regular service from Juneau. Glacier Bay National Park Visitor Center Located on the second floor of Glacier Bay Lodge in Bartlett Cove, 10 miles from Gustavus. Staffed daily in summer with park rangers. Stop by for exhibits, park information, trip planning, bookstore, reading area, hydrophone kiosk, interpretive programs, park films, brochures, and much more. Located in Bartlett Cove, upstairs in the Glacier Bay Lodge. Visitor Information Station - Backcountry Office Located near the head of the public-use dock in Bartlett Cove, 10 miles from Gustavus. The "VIS" provides trip planning information, boating and camping permits, and offers boater/camper orientation sessions for visitors heading into the wild backcountry of Glacier Bay. Stop by and meet a park ranger. Closed until 2021 summer season. Located near the head of the public dock in Bartlett Cove, 10 miles from the town of Gustavus. Xunaa Shuká Hít (Huna Tribal House) Xunaa Shuká Hít (Huna Tribal House) is open on a limited basis during the summer season (Memorial Day to Labor Day) for scheduled ranger programs. In 2016, after almost 20 years of planning, NPS and the Hoonah Indian Association dedicated Xunaa Shuká Hít (Huna Tribal House), a traditional Tlingit structure designed to symbolically anchor the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay, their ancestral homeland. Located in Bartlett Cove, east of the Glacier Bay Lodge, on the Tlingit Trail. Bartlett Cove Campground The National Park Service maintains a free walk-in campground in Bartlett Cove. The campground features bear-proof food caches, a fire-pit and warming shelter (with firewood provided) located in a very scenic setting along the shore, 1/4 mile south of the Bartlett Cove dock. Stays are limited to 14 days Free Camping 0.00 There is no fee for the Bartlett Cove Campground Bartlett Cove Campground Bartlett Cove Campground The Bartlett Cove campground is a walk-in campground along the shore of beautiful Bartlett Cove Nice views of the Bartlett Cove Shoreline Nice views of the Bartlett Cove Shoreline The campground is located along the shoreline in Bartlett Cove. A serene location A serene location The Bartlett Cove Campground is a serene spot. Where else in the world can you camp in the woods and hear the breathing of whales? Bear-proof food cache Bear-proof food cache All food and scented items must be stored in the bear-proof food caches that are found throughout the campground. Campfire on the beach Campfire on the beach There is one designated campfire ring along the shore. Cruising Glacier Bay Cruising Glacier Bay Passengers line the deck to enjoy the icy scene at Margerie Glacier Iceberg on the shore Icebergs, calved from tidewater glaciers are a common sight in Glacier Bay National Park. Icebergs, calved from tidewater glaciers are a common sight in Glacier Bay National Park. Pan ice in Tarr Inlet Pan ice in Tarr Inlet Glacier Bay offers a rare glimpse into the Ice Age Beachcombing Brown Bear Beachcombing Brown Bear Brown bears frequently forage along the shoreline of Glacier Bay Sheltered waters of Glacier Bay Sheltered waters of Glacier Bay Glacier Bay is a paradise for wilderness aficionados. Camping in the Glacier Bay backcountry Camping in the Glacier Bay backcountry Glacier Bay provides endless possibilities for wilderness camping. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. [Site Under Development] ice floating on inlet with tidewater glacier in distance 2015 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2015 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards 2008 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2008 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Ethnographic Study of Dry Bay During the 2017 field season, elders and younger members of the Yakutat Tlingit Tribe traveled together to Dry Bay, part of Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve, to share the history, stories, and cultural traditions of the area. The three-day exploration was a collaboration between Tribal members, the National Park Service, and Portland State University to preserve their ethnographic landscape. A group gathers in a circle, standing and seated on a log, on a sunny beach with low vegetation. Glacier Bay Steller Sea Lions Read the abstract and get the link to an article recently published in Endangered Species Research: Rehberg, M., L. Jemison, J. N. Womble, and G. O’Corry-Crowe. 2018. Winter movements and long-term dispersal of Steller sea lions in the Glacier Bay region of Southeast Alaska. Endangered Species Research 37:11-24. A group of Steller sea lions hauled out. Spatial Correlation of Archeaological Sites and Subsistence Resources in the Gulf of Alaska Discover how a GIS-based analysis of nearly 2,000 coastal archaeology sites demonstrates the strong correlation between seasonally-available marine food and human settlement around the Gulf of Alaska. map of southwest alaska Underwater Acoustic Monitoring in Glacier Bay How does underwater sound affect humpback whales and other marine mammals? What can park managers do to minimize disturbance? two scientists lower a hydrophone into the water Ocean Acidification in Glacier Bay Is ocean acidification happening in Glacier Bay? How do we know? instrument measuring conductivity, temperature, and depth is lowered into the ocean The Glacier Bay Marine Environment The world beneath the surface of Glacier Bay is vast and intricate. Find out more about the chemistry, life, and function of the marine environment in the park. an orange jellyfish near coral in blue water Seabirds in Glacier Bay There are many species of seabirds in Glacier Bay. Learn about their habits, adaptations, and more. a tufted puffin flies in front of mountains Kittlitz's murrelets abundance estimates, 2009-2015 The Southeast Alaska Inventory and Monitoring Network completed abundance estimates for the Kittliz's murrelet in Glacier Bay proper. Kittlitz's murrelet in flight. Resuming Tlingit Harvest of Gull Eggs in Glacier Bay Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve work with the Huna Tlingit to resume Tlingit harvest of gull eggs in Glacier Bay, Alaska. gull standing on top of tree Subsistence The study of subsistence resources in parks has been a mix of long-term work and projects instigated by issues facing the Federal Subsistence Board. Winter hunting is an important subsistence activity in many Alaska communities and park areas. Science in Wilderness Marine Reserves ANILCA establishes the largest scientific laboratory...ever! A spawning salmon struggles to get back into the water. Developing Monitoring Protocols for Ground-nesting Birds on the Shoreline of Glacier Bay What are the important things to measure if you care about the long-term health of shoreline-nesting birds? Park researcher walks on land with gulls above Development of a Monitoring Protocol for Kittlitz's Murrelets How do we keep track of the abundance of murrelets? How many are there in Glacier Bay? two researchers use binoculars to scan the water Development of Streams Following Glacial Recession What are the major factors affecting colonization of new streams in Glacier Bay? aerial photo of a brown bear fishing in stream Holocene and Historic Glacier Activity and Climate Change in Glacier Bay What can interstadial wood tell us about the glacial history and paleoclimate of Glacier Bay? scientist pulls ancient wood from the beach Monitoring Water Quality of the Salmon River What is the Salmon River’s water quality? How is it measured? man stands in a river Kinship and Local Structure of Humpbacks in Glacier Bay How closely related are whales that summer in Glacier Bay? How related are they to whales elsewhere in Southeast Alaska? student in bright orange jacket Counting Bartlett River Salmon Using Sonar How is sonar used to count spawning salmon? How many salmon return to the Bartlett River? sonar station across a river Campsite Impact Analysis and Monitoring at Glacier Bay What is the condition of back-country campsites in Glacier Bay? two tents and campers on beach Effects of Food Limitation in a High Density Moose Population How many moose occupy the Gustavus Forelands? Is the population growing? moose with a collar Managing Underwater Noise Pollution Read abstracts and get links to recent articles published about acoustic monitoring and humpback whales with relevance to park management. A cruise ship with humpback whale in the foreground. In Celebration of ANILCA Former President, Jimmy Carter, offers a sentimental introduction to the 25th Anniversary Edition of Alaska Park Science and the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA). Black and white photo of six white men standing in front of an old National Park Service Building. The Voices of Glacier Bay What are some of the most interesting natural sounds in Glacier Bay? researcher records sounds of the ocean A History of Science in Alaska's National Parks National park units in Alaska precede the establishment of the National Park Service in 1916. The first park unit, Sitka National Monument, was conceived in 1908, and by the mid-1920s four national monuments along with Alaska’s first national park were part of the growing park system. Discover how the early 1900s and observations of a few helped to establish the National Park Service in Alaska. Black and white photo of Arno Cammerer sitting at his desk looking through papers. Old is Getting Older In the last 25 years, persistent archaeological survey and improved scientific techniques have resulted in new data which confirms that Alaska sites are actually much earlier than we once believed. NPS archaeologist works at Amakomanak site in Noatak National Preserve. Helping cruise ships and other mariners detect and avoid whales in Glacier Bay National Park How can cruise ships and other mariners avoid the whales that call Glacier Bay home? Researchers with whales Using Observers to Record Encounters Between Cruise Ships and Humpback Whales Unintentional ship-whale encounters have increased over the past few decades as whale populations rebound from the large-scale commercial whaling in the 1950s and 1960s, and as the number and size of ships increases. In Glacier Bay, encounters between cruise ships and humpback whales have also likely increased for the same reasons. This article explores the use of observers aboard cruise ships to record encounters with humpback whales. a whale surfaces in Glacier Bay with a cruise ship in the background Whales, Seals, and Vessels: Investigating the Acoustic Ecology of Underwater Glacier Bay The Glacier Bay/Icy Strait area is the summer feeding range for nearly 250 humpback whales and home to over 5,000 harbor seals. Understanding how marine mammals interact vocally with others of their species brings us closer to assessing the biological implications of human impacts on the underwater sound environment. aerial view of hundreds of seals hauled out of the ocean A Tale of Two Skeletons: Rearticulating Whale Bones from Glacier Bay This is a story of two whales: an adult female humpback whale and a juvenile female killer whale and the people who worked with them to provide an opportunity for people to think about the lives of whales and their ocean ecosystems. a whale skeleton under a covered shelter Humpback Whale Acoustics and Impacts from Vessel Noise How often do humpback whales vocalize and how loudly? Do humpback whales communicate differently when vessels are around? person and hydrophone on dock Population Characteristics of Humpback Whales in Glacier Bay and Adjacent Waters How many humpback whales are there in the Glacier Bay area? two humpback whales and a boat Measuring Noise Budgets, Temporal Patterns, and Differences in Humpback Acoustics Do humpback whales vocalize differently in “loud” environments than they do in quiet ones? researcher holds recording device Using Satellite Transmitting Tags to Understand Pacific Halibut Do halibut leave Glacier Bay to spawn elsewhere in winter? If they do leave, do they ever return? researchers work with a halibut on a boat Sea otter research in Southeast Alaska Researchers at the Southeast Alaska Inventory and Monitoring Network continue to monitor a growing sea otter population in Glacier Bay. Sea otter in water. Conducting a Soil Resource Inventory for Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve What kinds of soils occur here? man in red raincoat collects a soil sample Stream Temperature Regimes in Glacier Bay What causes variation in stream temperatures? scientist installs temperature gauge into stream Evaluation and Monitoring of Shore Pine Damage Why are shore pines turning brown and dying in Gustavus and nearby Glacier Bay? shore pines with brown needles PARKS...IN...SPAAAACE!!! NASA astronauts have quite literally an out-of-this-world view of national parks and take some pretty stellar pictures to share. Travel along with the space station on its journey west to east getting the extreme bird’s eye view of national parks across the country. And one more down-to-earth. View of Denali National Park & Preserve from space Predator Recolonization Read the abstract and get the link to a published article on the expansion of sea otters in Glacier Bay: Williams, P. J., M. B. Hooten, G. G. Esslinger, J. N. Womble, J. L. Bodkin, and M. R. Bower. 2019. The rise of an apex predator following deglaciation. Diversity and Distributions 00: 1– 14. DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12908 A raft of sea otters resting in a kelp bed. What we've learned from 30 years of whale monitoring Read the abstract and get the link to an article summarizing 30 years of whale monitoring: Gabriele, C. M., J. L. Neilson, J. M. Straley, C. S. Baker, J. A. Cedarleaf, and J. F. Saracco. 2017. Natural history, population dynamics, and habitat use of humpback whales over 30 years on an Alaska feeding ground. Ecosphere 8(1): 10.1002/ecs2.1641 A humpback whale tail breaches the ocean surface. Analyzing Icebergs from Tidewater Glaciers Read the abstract and link to an article published in PLoS ONE on methods to analyze icebergs for seal habitat: McNabb, R. W., J. N. Womble, A. Prakash, R. Gens, and C. E. Haselwimmer. 2016. Quantification and analysis of icebergs in a tidewater glacier fjord using an object-based approach. PLoS ONE 11(11): e0164444 Seals hauled out on icebergs. Avoiding Ship-Whale Collisions Read the abstract and get the link to an article published in Endangerd Species Research about safeguarding whales against ship strikes: Williams, S. H., S. M. Gende, P. M. Lukacs, and K. Webb. 2016. Factors affecting whale detection from large ships in Alaska with implications for whale avoidance. Endangered Species Research 30:209-223. A cruise ship in Alaska fjord. Resuming Gull Egg Harvests Read the abstract and get the link for a recently published article in Marine Ornithology: Lewis, T. M., C. Behnke, and M. B. Moss. 2017. Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens) monitoring in preparation for resuming native egg harrvest in a national park. Marine Ornithology 45:165-174. A nest of speckled gull eggs. Yellow Cedar on Glacier Bay's Outer Coast What happens to a forest when yellow-cedars experience a die-off? How healthy are Glacier Bay’s yellow-cedars? looking up at a forest Bartlett Cove Canneries The Bartlett Cove Cannery was located on Lester Island, in what is today Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. The cannery/saltery sites are a part of the Bartlett Cove cultural landscape. A severe earthquake in 1899 weakened the glaciers at the head of Glacier Bay. In the following weeks, icebergs as big as buildings drifted south to the mouth of the bay, yet salting operations continued at Bartlett Cove until 1900. Fishing boats spread across the blue surface of water, framed by mountains and blue sky An Initial Assessment of Areas Where Landslides Could Enter the West Arm of Glacier Bay, Alaska and Implications for Tsunami Hazards Tsunamis generated by landslides in Glacier Bay are uncommon, but have potential to be extraordinarily destructive when they occur. This article identifies areas that are susceptible to landslides that could generate tsunamis and discusses approaches to characterize hazard and risk from these events. Alaska Park Science 18(1):2019. A cruise ship sits in front of a tidewater glacier. Building PIO capacity in Alaska National Park Service Public Information Officers were in short supply last fire season. To help bolster the numbers, NPS Alaska recruits 12 new staff members to assist with all hazard and wildfire incidents. A fire public information officer highlights updates on a fire to members of the public. Seasonal predation patterns of coastal wolves The goal of this project is to characterize variation in seasonal patterns of wolf predation due to differences in prey vulnerability, and availability of alternate prey. Animal carcass Crystal Clear: Studying Mercury Deposition and Water Quality in Alaska While there are few local sources, mercury from coal burning in Asia is transported across the Pacific and onto the coast and into the interior of Alaska. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a multi-year study to look at how much mercury is being deposited into the park and how it is being accumulated in the ecosystem of three adjacent drainage basins with different vegetation and wetland characteristics. a larger bay with snowy glacier in background Monitoring and Park Management Read the abstract and get the link to an article published in Ecosphere: Rodhouse, T. J., C. J. Sergeant, and E. W. Schweiger. 2016. Ecological monitoring and evidence-based decision-making in America's National Parks: highlights of the Special Feature. Ecosphere 7(11):e01608. NPS at work on a boat. Nesting Kittlitz's Murrelets Read an abstract and get the link to an article published in Marine Ornithology: Kissling, M., S. B. Lewis, P. M. Lukacs, J. Waite, and S. M. Gende. 2016. Breeding decisions of the Kittlitz’s murrelets, Brachyamphus brevirostris, Icy Bay, Alaska. Marine Ornithology 44: 171-182. Kittlitz's Murrelet taking flight. Effects of Cruise Ship Emissions on Air Quality and Terrestrial Vegetation in Southeast Alaska Increased tourism in Southeast Alaska has raised concerns about the levels and ecological effects of air pollutants emitted by cruise ships in dock and in transit. A monitoring program is in place to measure regional and local air pollutants accumulated by vegetation and in deposition. An image looking down at cruise ships docked at Skagway harbor, with haze hovering between mountains Cruise Ship – Humpback Whale Encounters In and Around Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska Understanding how the presence of cruise ships may affect humpback whales is a research priority for managers of Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. An observer boarded cruise ships in 2008 and 2009 to docu-ment how often and how close ships encountered whales as ships transited the park and adjacent waters. park visitors gather on the bow of a cruise ship over glassy waters 2014 Freeman Tilden Award Recipients Introducing the national and regional recipients of the 2014 Freeman Tilden Awards, given in recognition of new and innovative programs in interpretation. Two rangers holding a whale skull Aurora Borealis: A Brief Overview A brief overview of how Northern Lights occur. two ribbons of greenish light in a dark blue sky, over a very dark forest Practice Safe Bear Spray Use Proper behavior in bear country and understanding bear behavior can help to avoid dangerous situations for people and bears. Bear spray should be used as a last line of defense when dealing with bears- not immediately upon seeing one. This introduction will help cover bear behaviors as well as safe use of bear pepper spray. A black bear stands on a wooden bench. Distribution, Habitat Use, Activity, and Overwintering Strategies of Bats in Southeast Alaska What bat species occur within Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve? When are they active, both daily and seasonally? woman checks a bat detector on a tree Accumulation of Mercury in Freshwater Fish Even remote national parks are not immune from airborne mercury contamination. How much has accumulated in the environment of Glacier Bay? researcher holds fish on a vertical weight scale Plate Tectonics in Action in Glacier Bay Can we detect shifts in Earth’s crustal plates on the park’s outer coast? man stands next to GPS unit atop a tripod Stream Age and the Biochemistry of Post-Glacial Streams How do the food sources utilized by bacteria and animals change as streams develop? scientists collect water from a stream Measuring Stream Flow on the Alsek River How much water flows in the Alsek River compared to other rivers? How much does the flow vary seasonally? river gaging station Sea Otters and Marine Communities of Glacier Bay How has the growing sea otter population affected the marine environment? sea otter in the ocean Paleontological Inventory of Glacier Bay How significant are Glacier Bay’s paleontological resources? hand next to bivalve fossils Actions that Reduce Ship-Whale Collisions Read the abstract and get the link to an article on reducing the risk of ship strikes for whales: Gende, S. M., L. Vose, J. Baken, C. M. Gabriele, R. Preston, and A. N. Hendrix. 2019. Active whale avoidance by large ships: Components and constraints of a complementary approach to reducing ship strike risk. Frontiers in Marine Science A whale watching boat with humpback whales in the foreground. POET newsletter March 2013 Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) newsletter from March 2013. dock on beach Earthquake Monitoring Along the Fairweather Fault A seismic station has been monitoring earthquakes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve for over a decade. Are earthquakes common here? seismograph station 2019 Science Education Grants The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Science Education Grant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Science Education grant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2019 Science Education Grant recipients and their outreach projects. a park ranger and kids standing in shallow lake water What we are Learning about Whale Songs Read the abstracts and get the links to articles on whale songs: Fournet, M. E. H., C. M. Gabriele, D. C. Culp, F. Sharpe, D. K. Mellinger, and H. Klinck. 2018. Some things never change: multi-decadal stability in humpback whale calling repertoire on Southeast Alaskan foraging grounds. Scientific Reports 8: 13186 and Fournet, M. E. H., C. M., Gabriele, F. Sharpe, J. M. Straley, and A. Szabo. 2018. Feeding calls produced by solitary humpback whales. Marine Mammal Science Humpback whales bubble net feeding. Dungeness Crabs of Glacier Bay Dungeness crabs are found in Glacier Bay! Learn about their habitat, reproduction, growth, and commercial fishing history. a dungeness crab with a purple shell near water Further Study of Ocean Acidification in Glacier Bay Ocean acidification is occurring due to the increase of atmospheric CO2 absorbed by the ocean and by the addition of freshwater from glacial melt that decreases pH and alters seawater chemistry. This article describes ocean acidification and its impacts. snowy mountains surrounding an ice-filled bay Bear Identification There are a combination of characteristics to look for that can help you identify between black and brown bears. Knowing the difference between the two can help you make safe choices in bear country. Brown bear walking down a beach Estimating Age-specific Survival and Reproductive Rates of Steller Sea Lions About how many branded sea lions are in the park? Is the population healthy? many sea lions rest on a rock Physical Hazards Abatement: "Look but Don’t Touch & Stay Out, Stay Alive" Given the historical significance of many mining areas, explosives management and mine closure efforts have been coordinated closely with cultural and natural resource managers to identify the best approaches for mitigating often extreme hazards and protecting public and employee safety with cultural sensitivity. A pile of old, abandoned explosives are left on the ground. Rediscovering a foundation of ecology: Back to Glacier Bay, Alaska, 100 years later Rediscovering William Copper's plant succession plots in Glacier Bay from 1916. Succession Plots A Brief History of Coastal Marine Grant Projects This issue of Alaska Park Science highlights projects funded by the Coastal Marine Grant Program administered by the Ocean Alaska Science and Learning Center. a large tidewater glacier nearly closing off a fjord Monitoring Marine Water Quality in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve How clean are the park’s marine waters? man collects mussels from the shore Measuring the Effects of Vessel Noise on the Vocal Behavior of Harbor Seals During the Breeding Season How loud and how often do harbor seals call in the Beardslee Islands? Do they alter their vocal behavior in the presence of vessel noise? hydrophone sits on a dock Temporal Variations in Uplift in the Glacier Bay Region How fast is the land rising, and how do scientists measure the rate? two researchers drill holes into bedrock to install GPS units Trophic Dynamics in the Gustavus-Glacier Bay Ecosystem How do the diets of two large predators in Gustavus — wolves and bears — compare? wolves feeding on carcass at night Identifying Vulnerable Mountain Goat Populations Mountain goats are the only alpine ungulate found in Glacier Bay National Park (GLBA) and Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park (KLGO), and are a popular viewing species for visitors to the parks. Recent aerial surveys in both parks showed a decline in several mountain goat populations. Adult mountain goat National Park Getaway: Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve If you've ever dreamed of the ice age and wondered how our planet might have looked as it emerged from the grip of massive glaciers, pondered how a river of ice could carve mountains into flour or wanted to watch the birth of an iceberg, then Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve is the place for you! sea otter surfacing in the water Future Challenges for Salmon and the Freshwater Ecosystems of Southeast Alaska Mass animal migrations are awe-inspiring sights. Every summer and fall, residents and visitors to Alaska can witness one of the great underwater migrations: Pacific salmon returning from the ocean to their home streams, rivers, and lakeshores to spawn. Hundreds of millions of salmon return to Alaska’s freshwaters annually. Alaska Park Science 17(1), 2018. A group of red salmon. 2018 Science Education Grants The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Science Education Grant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Science Education grant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2018 Science Education Grant recipients and their outreach projects. an instructor and a camper work on a carving Water Quality Practitioner's Guide Read the abstract and find the link to the article published in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment: Sergeant, C. J., E. N. Starkey, K. K. Bartz, M. H. Wilson, and F. J. Mueter. 2016. A practitioner’s guide for exploring water quality patterns using Principal Components Analysis and Procrustes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 188(4):1-15. Researchers collecting water quality data. Recreating the Pleistocene Coastline of Glacier Bay Is it possible that areas along Glacier Bay’s outer coast were occupied by humans 16,000 years ago? Where would we search for evidence? two people stand in a field in hiking clothes talking On the Trail of the Glaciers In the age of satellite imagery, is there still value in documenting glacier movements the old-fashioned way? a person takes a picture near a large tripod and camera balanced on a cliff about a fjord. Monitoring Harbor Seal Population Status in Glacier Bay Why have harbor seals declined so precipitously in Glacier Bay? an aerial image of a large group of harbor seals on a beach Population Demographics and Sources of Mortality for Bears in Gustavus Are bear harvest levels in Gustavus sustainable? a bear walks in the forest Glacier Bay Tanner Crab Survey Is the Tanner crab population healthy in Glacier Bay? two people sort crabs on the deck of a fishing boat Lichen Inventory of Glacier Bay National Park Is Glacier Bay significant for the diversity of lichens found here? two people look at lichen on top of an alpine ridge Searching for Clues to Human History on the Glacier Bay Landscape What kinds of archeological sites are found in the park? How many sites have been located? Monitoring a Changing Bay Researchers in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve are trying to determine if the influx of fresh water from rapidly melting glaciers is changing the pH levels of the bay. Johns Hopkins and Gilman Glaciers in Glacier Bay National Park Scott Gende - Senior Science Advisor Scott Gende is Senior Science Advisor at the Glacier Bay Field Station, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Scott Gende holds a seal pup in a boat in icy waters. Influence of Climate Change on Geohazards in Alaskan Parks Alaska’s parks are dynamic and are undergoing constant geomorphic change as glaciers and streams erode and cliffs collapse. Based on climate projec-tions, some permafrost in Alaska will thaw, and many glaciers will thin and retreat, over the remainder of this century, uncovering potentially unstable valley walls. Both permafrost thaw and glacier thinning will contribute to an increase in the incidence of landslides. mountain with its base eroded away Economics of Wilderness: Contribution of Alaska Parks and Wilderness to the Alaska Economy Looking ahead, it is clear that Alaska’s wilderness ecosystems will become increasingly valuable assets in a crowded urban world. If Alaska’s wild lands, wildlife, and ecological integrity are cared for with respect, the contribution of wilderness and conservation lands to the Alaska economy and to people everywhere will be significant, positive, increasing, and enduring. a large cruise ship on the ocean with snowy mountains in the distance Artists Spotlight Alaskan Wilderness Voices of the Wilderness Traveling Art Exhibit is a collection of paintings, photographs, sculptures, poetry, and other works inspired by Alaska’s wilderness. quilt of two white birch trees Glacier Bay’s Underwater Sound Environment: The Effects of Cruise Ship Noise on Humpback Whale Habitat Whales are acoustically adept and rely on sound for basic life functions such as feeding, finding mates, detecting predators and maintaining social bonds. This article discusses the impact that noise pollution from cruise ships and other marine vessels in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve has on the daily activities of humpback whales in the area. Cruise ship in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Vessels Disturb Kittlitz’s Murrelets in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve The Kittlitz’s murrelet has dramatically declined over the past three decades across its range. This article explores the impacts of vessel disturbance on Kittlitz's murrelets in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, which supports a large portion of the world population of the species during their summer breeding season. passengers on a cruise ship in Johns Hopkins Inlet in Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve 2017 Science Education Grants The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Science Education Grant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Science Education grant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2017 Science Education Grant recipients and their outreach projects. two girls sit in a kayak out on the water Contrasting trends of harbor seals and Steller sea lions in and near Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Scientists in Glacier Bay explore the contrasting population trends of two different seal and sea lion species. Harbor seal resting on ice Combining the Old and the New to Monitor Harbor Seals Read the abstract and get the link to a peer-reviewed article on a method used to combine datasets for harbor seal abundance counts: Womble, J. N., J. M. Ver Hoef, S. M. Gende, and E. A. Mathews. 2020. Calibrating and adjusting counts of harbor seals in a tidewater glacier fjord to estimate abundance and trends from 1992-2017. Ecosphere 11(4): e03111. A harbor seal on an iceberg. Counting Sea Lions Read the abstract and link to a newly published article on estimating sea lion abundance: Whitlock, S. L., J. N. Womble, J. N. and J. T. Peterson. 2020. Modelling pinniped abundance and distribution by combining counts at terrestrial sites and in-water sightings. Ecological Modelling 420:108965. Sea lions swim in the Gulf of Alaska. SONAR Project Provides Coho Salmon Baseline for Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Despite concerns about increased harvest, there is no indication that recreational fishing is jeopardizing a natural and healthy coho salmon population in the Bartlett River of Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. High-resolution sonar and sampling techniques provide a solid baseline by which salmon population numbers can be monitored into the future. Alaska Park Science 19(1):2020. A researcher measures a coho salmon in a stream. Jamie Womble - Wildlife Biologist Jamie Womble is a wildlife biologist with the Southeast Alaska Inventory and Monitoring Network and Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Jamie Womble in the field Responses of Wildlife to Low Levels of Tourism How does tourist visitation to the shorelines of Glacier Bay impact wildlife presence and activity? Is wildlife activity on popular beaches in Glacier Bay significantly different in a year with very little tourism (2020)? A large brown bear in the intertidal zone looks over its shoulder backwards at the camera. Marine Protected Area Research in Glacier Bay Leads to Insights into Halibut Behavior The halibut movement studies conducted in Glacier Bay as part of marine protected area research provide important insights into halibut behavior that may have implications for the management of halibut at larger scales. High rates of year-round residency combined with winter commercial fisheries closures when fish migrate suggest that the Glacier Bay MPA could provide year-round refuge from commercial harvest for both resident and migrant fish. Alaska Park Science 19(1):2020 Researchers tag a halibut. Sea Otters: A Keystone Species in Glacier Bay Research brief on monitoring sea otter abundance in Glacier Bay, July 2020. A sea otter floating on its back. Developing Optimal Survey Designs for Sea Otters Read the abstract and get the link to a peer-reviewed journal article in Ecology: Williams, P. J., M. B. Hooten, J. N. Womble, G. G. Esslinger, and M. R. Bower. 2018. Monitoring dynamic spatio-temporal ecological processes optimally. Ecology 99(3):524-435. A sea otter in a raft of sea otters in Glacier Bay. Harmful Algal Toxins in Alaska's Seabirds and Marine Mammals Seabirds and marine mammals along Alaska's coastline have been experiencing unusually large and consistent die-offs for the past several years, in conjunction with warming ocean temperatures. Researchers want to know if harmful algal blooms, typically associated with warmer climates, are playing a role in these deaths. A researcher examines a dead glaucus gull on a beach. Prey Pulses in a Marine Environment Forage fish serve an important role in our marine environment; these fish serve as prey for many fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. whale fluke in water Developing Models to Better Understand Sea Otter Colonization in Glacier Bay Read the abstract and get the link to an article published in Environmetrics on sea otter colonization dynamics: Lu, X., P. J. Williams, M. B. Hooten, J. A. Powell, J. N. Womble, and M. R. Bower. 2019. Nonlinear reaction–diffusion process models improve inference for population dynamics. Environmetrics e2604. A sea otter seen through a spotting scope. Monitoring Sea Otters Read the abstract and get the link to the article published in Ecology: Williams, P. J., M. B. Hooten, J. N. Womble, G. G. Esslinger, M. R. Bower, and T. J. Hefley. 2017. An integrated data model to estimate spatio-temporal occupancy, abundance, and colonization dynamics. Ecology 98 (2): 328-336. A sea otter floats. National Parks’ Homefront Battle: Protecting Parks During WWII Though the National Park Service (NPS) was only 25 years old at the outbreak of World War II, the agency found itself fighting a battle on the homefront. With little precedent to work from and dwindling budgets and staff, the NPS strongly defended its parks against a flood of demands to log, mine, graze, drain, and take over national parks Glacier-fed Rivers and Climate Change in Alaska Parks Not only are most glaciers shrinking, the rate at which they are changing has accelerated over the last 2-3 decades. Over the last century, mid-latitude and arctic glaciers have generally been shrinking, while some in marginal environments have disappeared. This can have a significant impact on the species that live in glacier-fed rivers. a large glacier feeding a braided river Glaucous-winged Gull Monitoring and Egg Harvest in Glacier Bay, Alaska In July 2014, President Obama signed the Huna Tlingit Traditional Gull Egg Use Act (P.L. 113-142) into law mark- ing an important step in a long journey to authorize the harvest of glaucous-winged gull eggs by the Huna Tlingit in their traditional homeland of Glacier Bay National Park (Figure 1). The science behind the law - both ethnographic and biological - stretches long into the past and will presumably continue long into the future (Figure 2). two mostly-white gulls sitting on rocks overlooking a bay Harbor Seals and Glacier Ice Habitat This collaborative research project is investigating the relationship between glacier ice availability and the spatial distribution of harbor seals in Glacier Bay. harbor seals on ice Assessing and Mitigating the Cumulative Effects of Installations in Wilderness Many scientific studies rely on instrumentation to provide valuable information about wilderness resources. However, scientists must be vigilant about preserving the undeveloped quality and wilderness character as a whole. Over time, any effort that succeeds in reducing the incremental effects of a new activity or installation will also reduce cumulative effects. helicopter landing on a rocky island with a lighthouse Tracking Glacial Landscapes: High School Science Gets Real For four summers, between 2008 and 2011, the Alaska Summer Research Academy (ASRA) at University Alaska Fairbanks and the Design Discover Research (DDR) program at University Alaska Southeast provided authentic field experiences in Glacier Bay National Park in northern Southeast Alaska for homegrown high school students. teens and adults posing for a group photo in a grassy field Eliza Scidmore Eliza Scidmore traveled through Alaska's Inside Passage in 1883. Her articles and travel logs shared the grandeur and adventure of Alaska with western tourists, ushering in a new era of travel and tourism to the Alaska territory. Her travels to Japan and the far east also inspired the planting of cherry trees, whose blossoms are celebrated each year in our nation's capital. Eliza Scidmore signed black and white portrait image Freshwater Quality Monitoring The Southeast Alaska Inventory and Monitoring Network monitors the health of the Salmon, Taiya, and Indian Rivers in Alaska. This article reports on the recent findings on the water quality of these rivers. salmon river in Alaska At’oowu: Tlingit Homeland Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve contains almost 2.7 million acres of designated wilderness and is one of few national parks that protect wilderness marine waters. The area is also the traditional homeland of two Tlingit tribes; the Gunaaxoo Kwaan who claim the northern coastal reaches and the Huna Kawoo who settled Glacier Bay proper, Icy Strait, and long stretches of the outer coast. man standing in a boat Harbor seal research A recently published study (2013) quantified the movement patterns of harbor seals in relation to marine protected area boundaries of Glacier Bay. A harbor seal with a satellite tag temporarily affixed on its head Killer Whale Population Assessment Is the killer whale population growing or declining in Southeast Alaska? How does it correlate with fluctuating populations of prey species? Orca population assessment Conserving pinnipeds in Pacific Ocean parks in response to climate change The evolutionary record from previous climate perturbations indicates that marine mammals are highly vulnerable but also remarkably adaptable to climatic change in coastal ecosystems. Consequently, national parks in the Pacific, from Alaska to Hawaii, are faced with potentially dramatic changes in their marine mammal fauna, especially pinnipeds (seals and sea lions). black harbor seal Tania Lewis - Wildlife Biologist Tania Lewis is a wildlife biologist at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. A woman stands in front of a glacier. Unraveling the Mystery of the Glacier Bear Read the abstract and get the link to an article published on the rare glacier bear, in: Lewis, T., Roffler, G., Crupi, A., Maraj, R. & Barten, N. 2020. Unraveling the mystery of the glacier bear: genetic population structure of black bears (Ursus americanus) within the range of a rare pelage type. Ecology and Evolution 10:7654-7668. A sow and two black bear cubs. The sow has a black coat, but the cubs are grey-blue. Weather and Climate Monitoring in Glacier Bay and Klondike Weather and climate monitoring research brief for Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, and Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. Eliza Scidmore Eliza Scidmore traveled through Alaska's Inside Passage in 1883. Her articles and travel logs shared the grandeur of Alaska with western tourists, opening Alaska to tourism. Eliza Scidmore Alaska Aviation Safety In Alaska, small planes are often the best way to get around but flying has its risks. Aviation safety requires more than just a pilot’s skill–it takes all of us. Learn more about aviation to increase the safety of your next park flight. An NPS pilot in a plane cockpit flying over a turquoise lake Sea Otter Monitoring Methods Read the abstract and find the link to the following paper: Williams, P. J., M. B. Hooten, J. N. Womble, and M. R. Bower. 2017. Estimating occupancy and abundance using aerial images with imperfect detection. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2017;00:1-11. An aerial view of sea otters in a kelp bed, the cover of the journal. Glacier Bay Lodge Complex Glacier Bay Lodge Complex is located in southeast Alaska, 9 miles to the northwest of the small town of Gustavus. The lodge is significant for its association with Mission 66, a ten-year park development program from 1956 to 1966 which funded modernization projects in the National Park System in order to improve visitor accessibility and services. The lodge complex exemplifies Pacific Northwest regional modernism and Park Service Modern architectural styles. Glacier Bay Lodge Complex Kaasteen Long ago before western science documented the geological history of Glacier Bay, the story of Kaasteen, an Eagle moiety, Chookaneidí Clan woman was captured in oral tradition, mournful song, and form line design. Learn more about Kaasteen and the Huna Tlingit homeland that is Glacier Bay. Wood carving of Kaasteen, in the Glacier Bay Huna Tribal House The 19th Amendment, Elizabeth Peratrovich, and the Ongoing Fight for Equal Rights In Alaska, women's suffrage passed in 1913—seven years prior to the 19th Amendment—and antidiscrimination legislation passed nearly 20 years prior to the major national civil rights bills of the 1960s. In the 1940s, Elizabeth Peratrovich—a Tlingit woman who was Grand President of the Alaska Native Sisterhood—led the charge to end discrimination against Alaska Natives. gold coin of a raven, a woman's face, and words elizabeth peratrovich anti-discrimination law The Day it Rained Rocks An interdisciplinary team of researchers studies one of the most massive landslide/tsunamis on record in the hopes of increasing understanding of these large-scale events. Photo: Ground Truth Trekking Two geologists looking at landslide deposits Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 12 Issue 2: Climate Change in Alaska's National Parks In this issue: * Status and Trends of Alaska National Park Glaciers * Tracking Glacial Landscapes: High School Science Gets Real * Climate Change Scenario Planning Lessons from Alaska a hillside overlooking a wide valley filled by a glacier, surrounded by steep mountains Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 13 Issue 1: Wilderness in Alaska This issue includes: * Economics of Wilderness * Using Ethics Arguments to Preserve Naturalness * Busing Through the Wilderness: "Near-Wilderness" Experiences in Denali ... and more! mountains reflecting into a calm lake, the words 'alaska park science' Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 9 Issue 2: Glacier Bay Scientific Studies In this issue: Glacier Bay's Underwater Sound Environment | Cruise Ship-Humpback Whale Encounters | Air Pollution Emissions from Tourist Activities | Contrasting Trends of Harbor Seals and Steller sea lions...and more! cover of Alaska park science, volume 9 issue 2 Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 15 Issue 1: Coastal Research Science in Alaska's National Parks This issue focuses on studies occurring in coastal areas throughout national parks in Alaska. Articles include a variety of studies on arctic coastal lagoons, background on a large research project studying coastal brown bears, and more. a brown bear investigating a clam on a beach Series: The Legacy of ANILCA The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act impacts the National Park Service in many ways. ANILCA stipulates the designation of wilderness, subsistence management, transportation in and across parklands, use of cabins, mining, archaeological sites, scientific research studies and more. Two men drag a harvest seal from icy blue waters across frozen ice. Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Series: Copper River Basin Symposium - Wrangell-St Elias National Park and Preserve February 2020: With a theme of Tradition, Science, and Stewardship, the two-day symposium included keynote speakers, 26 short presentations, and a poster session. A panel discussion delved into opportunities in working with indigenous communities. Ahtna elders provided wisdom in daily welcomes, and there was a presentation by Copper River Stewardship Youth. Topics ranged widely from fisheries to archaeology to geology. As well as sharing knowledge, participants shared meals, stories, and ideas. Copper River Basin Symposium logo by Lindsay and Elvie Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Since 2002, the National Park Service (NPS) has awarded Environmental Achievement (EA) Awards to recognize staff and partners in the area of environmental preservation, protection and stewardship. A vehicle charges at an Electric Vehicle charging station at Thomas Edison National Historical Park Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 19, Issue 1 - Below the Surface: Fish and Our Changing Underwater World Alaska has over three million lakes, 12,000 rivers, and an estimated 6,640 miles of ocean coastline. Below the surface swim some of the world’s most abundant, healthy, all-wild fish, including salmon, halibut, and eulachon. Fish sustained Alaska Natives for millennia and continue to represent food and economic security for many people. Alaska Park Science 19(1): 2020 Red-colored salmon swim in turquoise water. Series: Crystal Clear: A Call to Action In 2016, the nation celebrates the centennial of the National Park Service (NPS) as the steward of special places that represent our natural and cultural heritage. Many national parks were founded on the beauty and value of water. Since the preservation of the Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park in 1872, the National Park System has grown to include significant examples within majestic rivers, the Great Lakes, oceans and coasts, and other spectacular water resources. bright blue lake green islands in between Series: Alaska Park Science, Volume 18, Issue 1, Understanding and Preparing for Alaska's Geohazards Alaska is the most geologically active part of North America. Much of the awe-inspiring landscapes of Alaska's parks are created by geologic processes. But sometimes, these processes can be hazardous. This issue explores the state of the science to understand geohazards in Alaska national parks. Alaska Park Science 18(1): 2019. A man jumps down a dune of volcanic ash. Series: Canneries of Alaska Canneries were built in response to the environment. This series is a summary of some of Alaska's canneries and the landscape features that defined where and how they developed. The overall period of significance for canneries in Alaska begins in 1878, when the first two canneries opened, and ends in 1936, when salmon production peaked. While some of these canneries no longer exist, the landscapes continue to tell of the history and importance of that period in the commercial fishing industry. Warehouse-type buildings cluster on wooden piers along a shoreline, as seen from the water. Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 14 Issue 2: Birds of Alaska's National Parks This issue includes articles exploring birds throughout national parks in Alaska. Particular emphasis is on the changing ways to study birds, and the increasing importance not just on the summer homes of birds in Alaska, but the routes between their wintering and summer breeding grounds. a great horned own and two large owlets in a nest Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 17, Issue 1. Migration: On the Move in Alaska Alaska is home to many amazing animal migrations. In this issue, you will read about caribou, salmon, Golden Eagles, Swainson's Thrushes, beluga whales, and more. Human migrations have also occurred here, from ancient Beringia to the Klondike Gold Rush. You can even read about now-extinct species from the Cretaceous and Pleistocene eras. Enjoy this issue of Alaska Park Science and read about migration. Alaska Park Science 17(1), 2018. Caribou swim across a river. Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 11 Issue 2: Science in Southwest Alaska In this issue: * Invasive Species Management * Salmon in a Volcanic Landscape * Archiving Bird Data * and more! cover of Alaska Park Science volume featuring a close-up image of an orange flower Devonian Period—419.2 to 358.9 MYA The Devonian is part of the “Age of Fishes.” Fish fossils from Death Valley National Park shed light on the early evolution of fish in North America. Tilted Devonian rocks in Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park attest to continued Appalachian Mountain formation. fossil brachiopod Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Water Quality Monitoring, 2018 Annual Update Water quality is an important and sensitive indicator of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem health. Monitoring river and stream conditions helps scientists and park managers detect environmental patterns driven by human activity, climate change and watershed dynamics, then use that information to make better-informed decisions. The following is a data summary from 2018 for Southeast Alaska parks. An aerial view of the watershed of the Taiya River Water Quality Monitoring, 2020 Annual Update Water quality is an important and sensitive indicator of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem health. Monitoring river and stream conditions helps scientists and park managers detect environmental patterns driven by human activity, climate change and watershed dynamics, then use that information to make better-informed decisions. The following is a data summary from 2020 for Southeast Alaska parks. A sonde in the Indian River Water Quality Monitoring, 2019 Annual Update Water quality is an important and sensitive indicator of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem health. Monitoring river and stream conditions helps scientists and park managers detect environmental patterns driven by human activity, climate change and watershed dynamics, then use that information to make better-informed decisions. The following is a data summary from 2019 for Southeast Alaska parks. Salmon crowd the aptly named Salmon River. Weaving Strength in Women Huna Tlingit women have practiced and perfected the art of weaving for centuries. Woman with three woven items on a rack, actively working. The impacts of glacier retreat and landscape change Read the summary and link to a published article that shows landscape and socioeconomic impacts of glacier retreat: Loso, M. G., C. F. Larsen, B. S. Tober, M. Christoffersen, M. Fahnestock, J. W. Holt, and M. Truffer. 2021. Quo vadis, Alsek? Climate-driven glacier retreat may change the course of a major river outlet in southern Alaska. Geomorphology Aerial imagery of Grand Plateau Glacier and landscape context. Repeat Photography: A Visually Compelling Tool for Documenting Natural Resource Change Repeat photography is an effective method to qualitatively and quantitatively assess landscape change over time. From shrinking glaciers to changing vegetation to changes in the built environment, comparing historical and contemporary photos can help us identify specific features or processes that may require more intensive monitoring and research and can serve as a valuable tool for education, outreach, and resource management. Alaska Park Science 20(1), 2021 A historic photo overlaid on a modern image. Making Sound Decisions Using Bioacoustics in Alaska’s National Parks Animals are continuously immersed in acoustic signals. Acoustic recording devices allow us to extend our sense of hearing to remote places, times, and even frequencies we normally cannot access. By studying the sounds animals make, and the sounds in their environment, we can better understand their conservation needs. Presented here are examples from bats, birds, frogs, and whales. Alaska Park Science 20(1), 2021 A man sets up acoustic recording equipment in the backcountry. Series: Alaska Park Science Volume 20 Issue 1 - Parks as Proving Grounds Parks in Alaska pose special challenges to researchers: they are large, remote, and less is known about them. This makes it all the more important that tools and techniques we use here are practical, effective, and impactful. While researchers often focus on sharing the findings from their work, here we shine a light on the devices and approaches used by researchers with attention to the innovation needed to work in Alaska. Alaska Park Science 20 (1), 2021 A scientist uses a probe on the top of a mountain. Cherry Payne: A Career of Commitment and Compromise When Cherry Payne was first interviewed by Dorothy Boyle Huyck in the 1970s, she was a young interpretive ranger at Grand Teton National Park at the start of her NPS career. In an oral history interview recorded in 2020, she reflected on where that career had taken her. Each step of the way, Payne balanced commitment with compromise as she made decisions about family life, professional life, and park management. Portrait of Cherry Payne in a house Seals Depend on Ice from Tidewater Glaciers Read the abstract and link to a journal article that describes the links between ice habitat created by tidewater glaciers and harbor seal population distribution and abundance: Womble, J. N., P. J. Williams, R. W. McNabb, A. Prakash, R. Gens, B. S. Sedinger, and C. R. Acevedo. 2021. Harbor seals as sentinels of ice dynamics in tidewater glacier fjords. Frontiers in Marine Science. Seals rest on icebergs. Eulogy for a Whale - Festus (#441) Festus (#441), a humpback whale that lived in and around Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, was found dead in 2016. A thorough necropsy provided insight into his life and the changes occurring in marine ecosystems. humpback whale tail flukes Bumble Bees of Alaska: A Field Guide This field guide to bumble bees will help you identify these abundant and conspicuous pollinators, which are found across most of Alaska. They are well-adapted to cold, harsh climates and live in every habitat where there are flowers offering up pollen and nectar, including forests, shrublands, tundra, wetlands, riparian areas, beaches, and gardens. a bumble bee perched on tiny pink flowers Glacier Bay Wilderness as Homeland Glacier Bay is the ancestral homeland of the Huna Tlingit. Tlingit clans learned to live in a delicate balance with this vast, rugged wilderness, and their history tells stories of human strife when this balance between man and wilderness was disrespected. Today, designated wilderness in Glacier Bay preserves this homeland from modern human development. Person paddling a traditional dugout Tlingit canoe, mt fairweather rising above trees in distance. Will Dry Bay lose its river because of glacier retreat? If the Alsek River abandons its 25 km+ course to Dry Bay, ecological repercussions would include the degradation of anadromous fish (like salmon) habitat in the abandoned channel by the introduction of fine sediment and increased vegetation. Meanwhile, the well-established human activity and developments along the Alsek River would become impossible or impractical to maintain at the abandoned channel. Alsek Lake Series: Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) Newsletters From 2009 to 2015, the Pacific Ocean Education Team published a series of short newsletters about the health of the ocean at various National Park Service sites in and around the Pacific Ocean. Topics covered included the 2010 tsunami, marine debris, sea star wasting disease, ocean acidification, and more. Ocean waves wash in from the right onto a forested and rocky shoreline.
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Summer 2021 V I S I TOR G U I D E Trails���������������������������page 5 Boating & Camping...page 22 Wildlife��������������������� page 30 Table of Contents General Information����������������������� 3–13 Explore Glacier Bay highlights Park Science������������������������������������ 14–19 Discover stories behind the scenery Guide to Park Waters Map������������20–21 Traveling, Boating & Camping���� 22–29 Plan your adventure Wildlife��������������������������������������������30–36 Look, listen, and protect For Teachers������������������������������������������ 37 Share Glacier Bay with your class For Kids�������������������������������������������������� 38 Become a Junior Ranger Stay Connected ������������������������������������ 39 Support your park Additional Information. . . . back cover Emergency, Medical, and Contact Us The Fairweather Produced by: Designed by: National Park Service and Alaska Geographic Park Coordinator: Laura Buchheit Editor: Matthew Enderle Graphics: Sean Tevebaugh Welcome to Glacier Bay Welcome to Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, a place defined by beauty and hope, change and resilience. These are familiar concepts reflected in the challenges we face with the pandemic and our shared efforts to protect what we treasure. If you are here this summer, then you successfully navigated the gauntlet of new requirements, restrictions, and fears of travel. You might even have a better appreciation for the challenges faced by those in the past who came to visit this special place. By now, we had all hoped that we might be further along in our ability to freely visit our National Parks. We also feared that finding a vaccine and a path out of the pandemic might take much longer. Instead, we now find ourselves in the middle place. Alaska’s communities and travel industry are excited to start to welcome people back, but the lack of herd immunity requires us to be cautious and many remote communities here are justifiably concerned. Luckily, many of the best experiences in Glacier Bay – such as breathing in the quiet beauty rather than the air of a crowd – are found outside and can be enjoyed responsibly so our most vulnerable are protected. Parks are about shared ownership, working together as a nation and world to care for a treasure we want to pass on to our children. Successfully dealing with the pandemic requires much of the same: collective action to preserve what is precious. Collaboration is especially important for our vulnerable populations: the tribal elders who hold so much of Tlingit culture, or the people who worked so hard to create the communities and protect the areas you are visiting and who still live here. Please join us in helping to keep this special place special and to ensure the safety and well-being of yourselves, your fellow travelers, and our local communities. There is a memorial coin beneath each of the four house posts in Xunaa Shuka Hit (page 6), the Eagle and Raven poles outside, and the Healing totem (page 8). These coins have a statement, engraved in Tlingit and English, that drive every decision and every action this park takes: Haa yátx’i jeeyís áyá For Our Children Forever. Philip Hooge, Superintendent Enjoying these places requires flexibility in thought and action. You may find your mid-summer trip occurring when many restrictions have been relaxed and local and regional COVID-19 cases are very low, or you may find yourself in a time of rising numbers and tightening restrictions. Contributors: Michael Bower, Laura Buchheit, Brian Buma, Kat Connelly, Sara Doyle, Lisa Etherington, Chris Gabriele, Margaret Hazen, Philip Hooge, Emma Johnson, Tania Lewis, Dan Mann, Sandy Milner, Mary Beth Moss, Janet Neilson, Steven Schaller, Melissa Senac, Lewis Sharman, Scott Gende, Ingrid Nixon, and Darlene See. Special thanks to the following photographers: Kaytie Boomer, Michael Bower, Brian Buma, Sara Doyle, Janene Driscoll (inside cover), Chris Gabriele, Tania Lewis, Dan Mann, Craig Murdoch (front cover), Janet Neilson, Sean Neilson, Steve Schaller, Sean Tevebaugh, and NPS seasonal staff. The Fairweather is published by Alaska Geographic Association and Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Printed on recycled paper using soy-based inks. ©Alaska Geographic Visitors to Bartlett Cove can still experience the wild, glacial landscape of Glacier Bay. Glacier Bay offers a myriad of opportunities to “Find Your Park.” 3 Explore Bartlett Cove Trails Bartlett Cove is the only developed area within the wilds of Glacier Bay. The forests and shorelines offer great opportunities for hiking and exploring. Maps are available at Glacier Bay Lodge and the Visitor Information Station (VIS). Forest Trail Distance: 0.7 miles (1.1 km) one way Time: 30 minutes–1.5 hours This leisurely stroll meanders through a lush forest that grows atop a glacial moraine. A wheelchair accessible boardwalk takes you part of
Bear Safety In Alaska’s National Parklands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Bears and campers often frequent the same areas in Alaska’s national parks. In coastal parks, both tend to spend time on the beach, the narrow band of land found between the sea and the brush, forest, or steep cliffs. Bears prefer these areas because they often contain abundant vegetation for grazing and make travel easy, while campers prefer these areas for cooking and because they offer easy access to kayak travel. Inland parks are also home to bears and it is important that campers respect their space. It is likely that bears and campers will encounter one another, but by remaining calm and following the basic advice of experienced bear behaviorists, you increase the odds of a positive outcome for both you and the bear. Some parks require campers to attend an orientation at the Visitor Information Station. During this orientation a park ranger will inform you about areas that are closed to camping due to high bear activity or recent bear/human encounters. If the park you are visiting does not have a bear safety orientation, take the time to read this brochure and learn how you can camp safely in bear country. Contact park staff to obtain current information on bear safety issues. Once in the backcountry you are on your own. Some parks require you to obtain a camping permit and may issue free bear-resistant food containers (BRFC). Cover photo © Robert Sabin Bear Signs to Watch for and Areas to Avoid It is important to be “bear aware” when camping and hiking in Alaska’s national parks and to avoid seasonal bear foraging areas (sedge meadows, berry patches, etc.). Bear signs are easy to find if you know what to look for. Select a campsite with the least amount of bear sign and away from seasonal bear foraging areas. Here are some signs to be on the lookout for: Trails are formed because of consistent use. Bears will often follow the path of least resistance, for example, lakeshores and ridgelines. A tree or log that has bear hair or claw marks may indicate that it is a repeatedly used bear rub-tree. Large dug up areas could be forage sites, day beds, or belly holes. Narrow beaches with steep cliffs or extremely dense brush do not allow a bear to pass safely. Remember that at high tide a bear will not have as much room to pass between your camp and the high water line. Neither you nor the bear want to be surprised by the other. Avoid areas with restricted visibility and make noise when exiting your tent. Ask yourself: Can a bear walk by and pass my campsite and cooking area unhindered? Avoid salmon streams! Bears like fish. And a noisy stream may lessen your ability to hear a bear or for a bear to hear you. Cooking and Storing Food Photo © Terry D. DeBruyn Keep all food and cosmetics in the BRFC when not in use. Place any snacks, wrappers, lip balm, sunscreen, etc. that were used while kayaking or hiking into the BRFC before entering your tent. It is not a good idea to store food in kayaks overnight. At night, store your BRFC and clean cooking gear off of main animal trails, (in coastal parks above high tide line) and at least 100 yards from your tent and hidden in thick brush or behind rocks. Prepare and consume food at least 100 yards from your tent site and food storage area. Try to select cooking areas where you can see a comfortable distance to minimize the risk of a surprise encounter with a bear passing through the area. Minimize Bear Disturbance and Displacement If camping in a coastal park, prepare and eat all food in the intertidal zone, that area below the seaweed debris line and the waterline. Cook and eat as close to the water as possible so cooking smells and any food particles will then be washed away by the next tide. National Park Service photograph Be prepared to quickly stow all food back into the BRFC if a bear should suddenly approach. Keep your gear together — minimize the amount of space that you occupy. Always ask yourself, “Is there room for a bear to get around us?” Or “Can I quickly get all this gear under my control?” Minimize the Risk of Having Your Gear Destroyed Do not leave gear unattended. This includes tents, clothes, pads, water bottles, etc. Consider using a portable electric fence to discourage bears from investigating your camp. Do not pursue or harass bears for the sake of a close encounter or photograph, either on land or from your watercraft. Photo © Robert Sabin While many bears seem to be tolerant of human presence at distances farther than 100 yards, each animal and situation is different. Pay attention to the bear’s behavior and respect its right to feed and travel undisturbed. Use telephoto lenses and binoculars. Allow bears to pass by your camp undisturbed. If you have made sure that the bear is aware of your presence so it is not surprised and have kept all your gear under your direct control, allow the bear to pass by unhindered. You may just be a
For information on tours and lodging, consult the Gustavus Visitors Association. Visit www.gustavusak.com or call 907-697-2454. For information on Glacier Bay, visit the National Park Service website at www.nps.gov/glba or call (907) 697-2230. Thousands of visitors come to Glacier Bay National Park each summer, attracted by the astounding scenery and thriving wildlife populations. After visiting the park, spend a few days in the nearby town of Gustavus, where you’re sure to find additional surprises and delights. Wildlife viewing, beautiful surroundings, and gracious residents are just a few of the reasons why Gustavus is an excellent addition to any Glacier Bay trip. Marvel at the glaciers and wildlife on a boat tour into the heart of Glacier Bay National Park. Look and listen for migrating sandhill cranes at the Dude Creek Critical Habitat Area. Paddle the sheltered waters of the Beardslee Islands, keeping your eyes open for wildlife. Watch for whales and other marine mammals while standing on the Gustavus dock, or on a boat or guided kayak tour to Icy Strait. Moose photo © Karla Hart, ADF&G • Otter raft photo © Jamie Karnik, ADF&G. Kittiwake photo - Vernon Byrd, USFWS. All other photos © ADF&G. about the Alaska Coastal Wildlife Viewing Trail and to browse through wildlife viewing sites in other communities, visit wildlifeviewing.alaska.gov For more information From the bears of Hyder to the bald eagles of Haines, the whales of Frederick Sound to the birds of the Stikine River, the Inside Passage Segment of the Alaska Coastal Wildlife Viewing Trail highlights over 70 wildlife viewing sites in and near the communities of Gustavus, Haines, Juneau, Ketchikan, Petersburg, Prince of Wales Island, Sitka, Skagway and Wrangell. Watch Our Wildlife Alaska Department of Fish and Game www.wildlifeviewing.alaska.gov All public partners are equal opportunity providers and employers. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife Conservation and Restoration Program Gustavus: Gateway to Glacier Bay Wildlife Viewing Guide GUSTAVUS Wildlife Viewing Tips Keep a Low Profile. Enjoy watching animals’ natural behaviors. Resist the temptation to try to attract their attention with sounds. If your presence is causing an animal to stop feeding or act restless, give it more space. Be especially respectful of nesting and denning areas, rookeries and calving grounds, and critical feeding areas. Time it Right. Dawn and dusk are when many wildlife species are most active. Midday warmth energizes dragonflies and butterflies and creates thermals for eagles and hawks. Low tides expose tidepools and a wealth of food for birds and mammals. Look for Clues. Tracks, droppings, trails and twigs tell stories of wildlife in the area - what they are eating, where they live and when they passed through. Noticing and reading these clues adds richness to wildlife viewing. Tracking books and workshops will help you. Help Keep Wildlife Wild. Never feed wild animals. Doing so can cause them to associate people with food, which can cause trouble. Human food can also make them sick. Be Considerate of Others. People use and enjoy Alaska’s wildlife in a variety of ways. Respect private property and give hunters, anglers and others plenty of space. Sea otters are sometimes seen in groups of two or more animals. Traveling Safely in Bear Country (All of Gustavus is bear country) Watchable Wildlife “Fun Facts” Making a Comeback: Sea otters are on the rebound and numbers are increasing dramatically in Southeast Alaska waters. Hunted to near-extinction in the 19th century, they disappeared from the ecosystem. Sea otters from the Aleutians were transplanted to Southeast Alaska in the late 1960s and thrived. The animals were first seen in Glacier Bay in the mid-1990s and now number more than 4,000 in the park. Voracious eaters, they consume up to 25 percent of their weight daily with serious implications for populations of clams, crabs and sea urchins, and other animals and birds that also prey on these food sources. Reduced numbers of kelp-grazing urchins, however, could increase the undersea kelp “forests” in the bay, which are good habitat for small fish and invertebrates that feed birds and mammals. Biologists are keenly watching Glacier Bay’s sea otters and their effect on the bay. To Calve or Calve Not: When a tidewater glacier “calves,” enormous chunks of ice fall off the glacier’s face and crash dramatically into the water below. The impact can stir nutrients, and stun crustaceans, krill and small fish, all of which float to the water’s surface. These small fish and microorganisms are vital food for many other species, making glacial calving an integral part of the food chain of Glacier Bay National Park. Watch for blacklegged kittiwakes circling and plunge diving for this prey after a glacial calving. Making noise (sing, clap, talk) while you travel will reduce your chances of surprising a bear. Be alert along noisy streams, in thick brush, and when

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