by Alex Gugel , all rights reserved

Grand Canyon

National Park - Arizona

Grand Canyon National Park, in Arizona, is home to much of the immense Grand Canyon, with its layered bands of red rock revealing millions of years of geological history. Viewpoints include Mather Point, Yavapai Observation Station and architect Mary Colter’s Lookout Studio and her Desert View Watchtower. Lipan Point, with wide views of the canyon and Colorado River, is a popular, especially at sunrise and sunset.

maps

Official visitor map of Grand Canyon National Park (NP) in Arizona. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Grand Canyon - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Grand Canyon National Park (NP) in Arizona. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map for Hiking into Grand Canyon National Park (NP) in Arizona. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Grand Canyon - Hiking into Grand Canyon

Map for Hiking into Grand Canyon National Park (NP) in Arizona. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Motor Vehicle Travel Map (MVTM) of North Kaibab Ranger District in Kaibab National Forest (NF) in Arizona. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Kaibab MVTM - North Kaibab 2021

Motor Vehicle Travel Map (MVTM) of North Kaibab Ranger District in Kaibab National Forest (NF) in Arizona. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Travel Map (MVTM) of Tusayan Ranger District in Kaibab National Forest (NF) in Arizona. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Kaibab MVTM - Tusayan 2021

Motor Vehicle Travel Map (MVTM) of Tusayan Ranger District in Kaibab National Forest (NF) in Arizona. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of North Kaibab Ranger District (east) in Kaibab National Forest (NF). Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Kaibab MVUM - North (east) 2018

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of North Kaibab Ranger District (east) in Kaibab National Forest (NF). Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Tusayan Ranger District in Kaibab National Forest (NF). Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Kaibab MVUM - Tusayan 2019

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Tusayan Ranger District in Kaibab National Forest (NF). Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of North Kaibab Ranger District (west) in Kaibab National Forest (NF). Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Kaibab MVUM - North (west) 2018

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of North Kaibab Ranger District (west) in Kaibab National Forest (NF). Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Arizona Strip Visitor Map with recreational information for the Arizona Strip, Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument (NM), Vermilion Cliffs National Monument (NM), and surrounding areas (Grand Canyon, North Kaibab National Forest, etc). Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Arizona Strip - East

Arizona Strip Visitor Map with recreational information for the Arizona Strip, Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument (NM), Vermilion Cliffs National Monument (NM), and surrounding areas (Grand Canyon, North Kaibab National Forest, etc). Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Arizona Strip Visitor Map with recreational information for the Arizona Strip, Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument (NM), Vermilion Cliffs National Monument (NM), and surrounding areas (Grand Canyon, North Kaibab National Forest, etc). Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Arizona Strip - West

Arizona Strip Visitor Map with recreational information for the Arizona Strip, Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument (NM), Vermilion Cliffs National Monument (NM), and surrounding areas (Grand Canyon, North Kaibab National Forest, etc). Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Mohave County Map of Arizona Surface Management Responsibility. Published by Arizona State Land Department and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM).AZ Surface Management Responsibility - Mohave County

Mohave County Map of Arizona Surface Management Responsibility. Published by Arizona State Land Department and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Coconino County Map of Arizona Surface Management Responsibility. Published by Arizona State Land Department and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM).AZ Surface Management Responsibility - Coconino County

Coconino County Map of Arizona Surface Management Responsibility. Published by Arizona State Land Department and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Statewide Map of Arizona Surface Management Responsibility. Published by Arizona State Land Department and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM).AZ Surface Management Responsibility - Arizona State

Statewide Map of Arizona Surface Management Responsibility. Published by Arizona State Land Department and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

https://www.nps.gov/grca https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Canyon_National_Park Grand Canyon National Park, in Arizona, is home to much of the immense Grand Canyon, with its layered bands of red rock revealing millions of years of geological history. Viewpoints include Mather Point, Yavapai Observation Station and architect Mary Colter’s Lookout Studio and her Desert View Watchtower. Lipan Point, with wide views of the canyon and Colorado River, is a popular, especially at sunrise and sunset. Located in Arizona, Grand Canyon National Park encompasses 277 miles (446 km) of the Colorado River and adjacent uplands. The park is home to much of the immense Grand Canyon; a mile (1.6 km) deep, and up to 18 miles (29 km) wide. Layered bands of colorful rock reveal millions of years of geologic history. Grand Canyon is unmatched in the vistas it offers visitors from the rim. Open 24 hours. South Rim: Open all year, is located 60 miles north of Williams, Arizona (via route 64 from Interstate 40) and 80 miles northwest of Flagstaff (via route 180). Grand Canyon lies entirely within the state of Arizona. North Rim: Closed for the Winter between December 1 and May 15. The North Rim is located 30 miles south of Jacob Lake on Highway 67; the actual rim of the canyon is an additional 14 miles south. Jacob Lake, AZ is located in northern Arizona on Highway 89A, not far from the Utah border. Grand Canyon Visitor Center (South Rim) Grand Canyon Visitor Center is close to Mather Point, where most visitors park and get their first look at Grand Canyon. Four large parking areas are located here as well as the transit center for the park's free shuttle buses. Once you get past the South Entrance Station, continue following the road you are on for 5 miles, and it will lead you to the Visitor Center. Just before the parking areas, the road curves to the left. You can park your car in one of four parking areas, then get your first view of Grand Canyon by taking a short walk to nearby Mather Point. From the Visitor Center, it is also possible to Park-and-Ride. Leave your car at the Visitor Center, then board free shuttle buses and ride around the South Rim. North Rim Visitor Center The North Rim Visitor Center building is located within the Grand Canyon Lodge complex, adjacent to the main parking area for the lodge and Bright Angel Point — at the southern terminus of Arizona State Route 67, near the rim of Grand Canyon. At this time, inside the building, the Grand Canyon Conservancy Shop/Bookstore is open 9 am to 5 pm daily. Outside, park rangers are staffing an information table at the nearby Roaring Springs Overlook Kiosk. Hours: 10 am to 3 pm daily. Leaving U.S. 89A at the Jacob Lake junction, travel south on Route 67 and drive 43 miles through forests and meadows to the North Rim of the Grand Canyon. The North Rim Visitor Center is at the end of the highway 67, on the parking lot side of the Grand Canyon Lodge complex. Highway 67 is closed from December 1 until May 15. Desert View Campground At the East Entrance to the park, Desert View Campground offers a peaceful setting. There are 49 campsites. Most sites are sized to accommodate tents or smaller RV’s, or vehicles with small travel trailers (30 ft. total length). Campsites are available by reservation only at www.recreation.gov. Reservations can be made from April 29, through October 16, 2021. Reservations can be made online or by phone (877-444-6777). It is possible to do same day call-in and/or online reservations. Campsite 18.00 Desert View Campground is now on a reservation basis through recreation.gov. on line, or by phone 877-444-6777. It is possible to do a same day-call and/or online reservations. o Sites are limited to 6 people o 2 Tents and 2 vehicles per site, or 1 vehicle with one RV/5th Wheel/Trailer o Maximum vehicle length is 30 feet; front bumper to rear bumper. o No hookups are available at any of the sites o Each site has a picnic table, fire ring/cooking grill o Restrooms with Flush toilets are available. Campsite (Senior or Access Pass) 9.00 Desert View Campground is now on a reservation basis through recreation.gov. on line, or by phone 877-444-6777. It is possible to do a same day-call and/or online reservations. o Sites are limited to 6 people o 2 Tents and 2 vehicles per site, or 1 vehicle with one RV/5th Wheel/Trailer o Maximum vehicle length is 30 feet; front bumper to rear bumper. o No hookups are available at any of the sites o Each site has a picnic table, fire ring/cooking grill o Restrooms with Flush toilets are available. RV in campsite An RV parked on a paved surface, nestled in a desert scrub forest. Maximum vehicle length is 30 feet. Empty campsite An empty campsite containing only a tent, draped picnic table, and fire ring Each campsite has a picnic table and a fire ring with a cooking grill Motorcycles Two motorcycles behind a trailer in a campsite Sites are limited to six people. Two Tents a paved surface Visit Desert View Campground for a more solitary experience. Desert View Campground Restrooms. Single story restroom building with men's side on the left and women's on the right. Campground Restrooms with Flush toilets are available between sites 9 & 11 next to the Camp Hosts site. Mather Campground - South Rim Mather Campground is located in Grand Canyon Village on the South Rim of Grand Canyon National Park. There are 327 sites. Each includes a campfire ring/cooking grate, picnic table, parking space and room for up to six people, three tents, and two vehicles. There are flush toilets and drinking water throughout the campground. No hookups are available, however there is a free dump station. Most RV spaces are pull-through. Pine loop is a tent-only area where generators are not permitted. Family Site 18.00 Family campsites range from accommodating a small tent, to 30 foot motor homes and fifth wheels. Family sites are limited to 6 people, three tents and two vehicles per site. There are no hookups available at any of the sites. Each site has a picnic table and a fire ring with a cooking grill. Family Site with Senior or Access Pass/ Golden Age/ Golden Access 9.00 Family campsites range from accommodating a small tent, to 30 foot motor homes and fifth wheels. Family sites are limited to 6 people, three tents and two vehicles per site. There are no hookups available at any of the sites. Each site has a picnic table and a fire ring with a cooking grill. Group Site 50.00 Group sites can accommodate 7-50 people and tents per site. 3 vehicles per site. RV and bus parking is prohibited. Communal Hiker Biker Sites 6.00 Hiker/biker are for people on foot or bicycle only. These are non-reservable communal hiker/biker sites (available on a first-come, first-served basis only) and hold up to one person, one tent and no vehicles. If you have more than a one person hiking party you will need to make more than one reservation. Communal Hiker/ Biker Sites - with Senior or Access Pass/ Golden Age/ Golden Access 3.00 Hiker/biker are for people on foot or bicycle only. These are non-reservable communal hiker/biker sites (available on a first-come, first-served basis only) and hold up to one person, one tent and no vehicles. If you have more than a one person hiking party you will need to make more than one reservation. Horse Camp 25.00 Campers in horse camp must have horses of mules. Horse camp can accommodate up to 6 people and 6 horses and mules. 30 foot vehicle limit including trailer. 2 vehicles permitted. (a trailer is considered a second vehicle.) Up to 6 tents. Horse Camp with Senior or Access Pass/ Golden Age/ Golden Access 12.50 Campers in horse camp must have horses of mules. Horse camp can accommodate up to 6 people and 6 horses and mules. 30 foot vehicle limit including trailer. 2 vehicles permitted. (a trailer is considered a second vehicle.) Up to 6 tents. Mather Campground Registration Kiosk An RV is parked while people stand in in front of a small brown building Checking in at the Mather Campground Registration Kiosk Mather Campground Site A man and a woman sit at a picnic table in the sunlight a tent and chairs surround a firepit Staying at Mather Campground Pull through campsite at Mather Campground <img alt="Image: a truck with an attached trailer is parked in a paved pull-through campsite. Two bi Pull through site at Mather Campground Group campsite at Mather Campground several tents in a group campsite with touring bicycles. Group campsites are available for hiking and bicycling groups Winter Camping in Mather Campground In a snow covered campsite, two dome tents, and some folding chairs Winter Camping in Mather Campground North Rim Campground The North Rim Campground is located on the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Park in northern Arizona. The canyon's rustic and less populated North Rim is home to abundant wildlife, hiking trails, and unparalleled views of one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World. The facility is at an elevation of 8,200 ft., with pleasant summer temperatures and frequent afternoon thunderstorms. Family Site 18.00 Family campsites range from accommodating a small tent, to 40 foot motor homes and fifth wheels. Family sites are limited to a maximum of 2 vehicles, 6 people, 3 tents are allowed per site. (A vehicle, which is towing a trailer, pop-up, tent trailer, fifth wheel, or a motor home pulling a vehicle, is considered two vehicles.) There are no hookups available at any of the sites. Each site has a picnic table and a fire ring with a cooking grill. Family Site with Senior or Access Pass/ Golden Age/ Golden Access 9.00 Golden Age or Access passport holders pay half price. (The passport number is needed when making reservation and passport holder must be camping at the site). Family campsites range from accommodating a small tent, to 40 foot motor homes and fifth wheels. Family sites are limited to 6 people, three tents and two vehicles per site. There are no hookups available at any of the sites. Each site has a picnic table and a fire ring with a cooking grill. Group Sites 50.00 Maximum 25 people and 3 vehicles Hiker/Bicyclist (Communal Site) 6.00 Hiker/Bicyclist sites are for people on foot of bicycle only. These sites will not be sold to anyone with a vehicle. Each person in the hiker/bicyclist should know that this is a communal space, and they may be sharing the space. Tent pads, picnic tables, and food storage boxes may be available, depending upon capacity. North Rim Campground - family site in tall pines Two bicycles parked next to a large blue tent under pine trees. Picnic table in the foreground. North Rim Campground - family site in the tall pines. North Rim Campground - family site in aspen grove A white and blue tent under a canopy of brilliant yellow aspen leaves. North Rim Campground - family site in an aspen grove - fall colors North Rim Campground - group site. seven tents in a variety of colors pitched together under tall pine trees. North Rim Campground group sites allow a maximum of 25 people and 3 vehicles per site. North Rim Campground - pull-through RV sites two campsites with pull-through driveways. Travel trailers are parked in the driveways. North Rim Campground pull-through sites maximum vehicle length is 40 feet (12 m) Trailer Village RV Park - South Rim Trailer Village is the only in-park RV campground with full hookups (sewage, water, and electrical with 30 amp and 50 amp sites available) Open year-round, Trailer Village features paved pull-through sites which can accommodate vehicles up to 50 feet long. Trailer Village is operated by Delaware North. Reservations can be made up to 13 months in advance. If visiting during the busy season (May through October) making reservations 1 year in advance is recommend. Visit their website to make reservations. Paved RV Site up to 28 feet/8.5 meters total vehicle length 71.00 Includes paved site, 30 and 50 amp hookups, water, sewer, cable TV, charcoal grill and picnic table. Paved RV Site 29 feet/8.5 meters to 50 feet/15 meters total vehicle length 71.00 Includes paved site, 30 and 50 amp hookups, water, sewer, cable TV, charcoal grill and picnic table Classic RV Site up to 28 feet/8.5 meters total vehicle length 61.00 Includes gravel site, 50 amp hookup, water, sewer and picnic table Classic RV Site 29 feet/8.5 meters to 50 feet/15 meters total vehicle length 61.00 Includes gravel site, 50 amp hookup, water, sewer and picnic table Trailer Village 003 a wide panorama showing a number of RVs in individual sites. Full hook-ups are available at Trailer Village on the South Rim. Trailer Village 001 Three RVs in pull-through sites with picnic tables. Trees form the background. Pull through sites allow larger vehicles easy access and exits. Trailer Village 004 Several RVs parked in individual sites with several inches of snow covering the ground. Experience Grand Canyon during winter at Trailer Village RV Park. Trailer Village 002 A road with 5 RVs and a trailer facing forward in individual pull-through sites Trailer Village with RV hook-ups in Grand Canyon Village Grand Canyon Mather Point Sunset on the South Rim The canyon glows orange as people visit Mather Point, a rock outcropping that juts into Grand Canyon People come from all over the world to view Grand Canyon's sunset Grand Canyon National Park: View from Cape Royal on the North Rim The Cape Royal viewpoint curves into the distance and closer rock formations jut into the canyon. A popular outdoor site for weddings and receptions, Cape Royal Amphitheater is located 23 miles (37 km) from the North Rim developed area. Grand Canyon National Park: Desert View Watchtower (South Rim) The Desert View Watchtower looms 70 feet into the air over a vast and dramatic view of the canyon. The Watchtower is located at Desert View, the eastern-most developed area on the South Rim of Grand Canyon National Park. Looking down the Colorado River from Nankoweap at river mile 53 Tall canyon walls frame the wide Colorado river weaving back and forth. A view down the Colorado river from Nankoweap in Marble canyon. Yavapai Point Sunset - Sept. 2021 Several dozen people at a scenic overlook with the sun setting on the horizon above a vast canyon la Experiencing sunset from Yavapai Point on the South Rim. Bison Impacts and Monitoring Impacts and monitoring of bison herd on the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Park. Herd of bison stampeding through grassy meadow, kicking up dust at the edge of a forest. Bison at Grand Canyon National Park A brief summary of North American Bison history and how they arrived at Grand Canyon National Park. A herd of bison grazing near a roadside in Grand Canyon National Park. Bison Facts Identification, behavior, and habitat of the North American Bison at Grand Canyon National Park. A close view of a bison's face with lush green forest in the background. Bison Management Outline of the cooperative bison management on the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Park. A herd of bison kicking up dirt inside of a corral with a mixed conifer forest in the background. South Kaibab Trail Shelter Now Available Grand Canyon National Park backcountry users can seek out shade and an opportunity to rest from the elements at the new Tipoff Shelter along South Kaibab Trail. open-sided shade ramada 12 x 24 feet, with metal roof. Capturing the Colors: Conservation Work at Desert View Watchtower Concludes Over the past four years, the historic tower at Grand Canyon National Park’s Desert View area has undergone extensive conservation and graffiti remediation work on the interior to conserve the murals that were painted in 1932. a conservator is working on a parapet wall below a ceiling of colorful painted designs. Catching Fossil Fever: A Paleontology Project at Grand Canyon National Park The rocks of Grand Canyon National Park preserve almost one third of Earth’s history and have inspired visitors and scientists from around the world for the past 100 years. Learn more about projects conducted this year to advance the paleontology program at Grand Canyon National Park as well as events scheduled to celebrate the 10th anniversary of National Fossil Day. view of the grand canyon 2010 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2010 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards 2009 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2009 Environmental Achievement Awards 2011 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2011 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards 2015 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2015 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Grand Canyon National Park Hosts Alternative Break Citizenship School Grand Canyon National Park's Volunteer Program wrapped up a week-long experiential training session for college students with the Alternative Break Citizenship School. Approximately 75 students from over 40 colleges participated in educational sessions and hands on service work at the park July 22 to 28, 2019. 4 college students wearing yellow safety vests are picking up litter. Partnerships add a Charge to your Travel Plans The National Park Service, the National Park Foundation, BMW of North America, the U.S. Department of Energy, concessioners, and gateway communities have collaborated to provide new technologies for travel options to and around national parks. As part of this public-private partnership, BMW of North America, working through the National Park Foundation, donated and arranged for the installation of 100 electric vehicle (EV) charging ports in and around national parks. National Park Getaway: Grand Canyon National Park A trip to Grand Canyon can be a great winter getaway. Colder temperatures, shorter days, and snow bring a slower pace to one of the nation's most visited national parks. Grand Canyon with snow 2012 SCPN-NAU Student Projects The 2012 SCPN-NAU School of Communication partnership took the form of a fall semester internship for NAU student, Kent Wagner. 2012 Student Projects Verkamps Tour with Susie Verkamp - 1/5/2011 Susie Verkamp leads a tour of the Verkamps, family curio store and home for 100 year to Grand Canyon's Verkamp Family. a complex, boxy, two-story building entirely covered with brown shingles. Birthday Greetings On February 26, 1919, President Woodrow Wilson signed a Presidential Proclamation to establish Grand Canyon and Lafayette (now Acadia) as national parks. We celebrate the concurrent birthdays of two places that unite America, and the vision of her leaders ninety-nine years ago. A receding series of silhouetted cliffs and ridgelines bathed in late afternoon light. The Civilian Conservation Corps As part of the New Deal Program, to help lift the United States out of the Great Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1933. The CCC or C’s as it was sometimes known, allowed single men between the ages of 18 and 25 to enlist in work programs to improve America’s public lands, forests, and parks. CCC men lined up in front of a building and looking at a flag pole with an american flag. Grand Canyon Fire Managers Host Alternative Break Citizenship School Seventy-three students from thirty-nine universities attended a week-long Alternative Break Citizenship School (ABCs) at Grand Canyon National Park during August 2016. They learned about volunteer recruitment and the park's fire management program. When they return back to campus they will share what they learned with other students who will be leading an alternative break (volunteer service) in the school-year 2016/2017. A park firefighter shows students the contents of her fireline pack. Grand Canyon Helitack Receives Prestigious National EMS Award On July 25, 2016, National Park Service Director Jonathan B. Jarvis presented the 2015 National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) Wildfire Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Award to the Grand Canyon Helitack Crew. group photo of award presentation Interagency Aviation Officer Receives DOI Honors In 2010, Mike Ebersole, interagency aviation officer for Grand Canyon National Park and the Kaibab National Forest, was honored by the Department of the Interior with two awards—the 2010 Secretary's Award For Outstanding Contribution to Aviation Safety and the Award of Honor For Safe Flying (Twenty Years). A man stands in front of a helicopter inside a building Grand Canyon Helitack Assists with Injury Extraction This video tells the story--through first-person accounts by the participants--behind the successful extraction of a firefighter injured by rockfall on the 2011 Las Conches Fire on the Santa Fe National Forest. The video teaches associated terminology and highlights the importance of continuing staff training, drilling, risk analysis, and strategic partnerships in safely dealing with a life-threatening situation. A helicopter hovers close to the ground with several people below it The Force that Drives the Water Through the Rock Listen to Aaron Ximm's, "The Force that Drives the Water Through the Rock," a piece created during his residency at Grand Canyon. vast canyon tinged pink by setting sun California Condor Species description of the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). An adult condor with the wing tag label number 80 stands over a juvenile condor. Arizona Bark Scorpion The most venomous scorpion in North America, the Arizona bark scorpion is a small animal that only grows to 2.5 inches (6.4cm) long. An Arizona bark scorpion glows white under a black light. Structural Fire Awards Presented to Parks and Firefighters for Excellence in Service In 2013 the NPS Office of Structural Fire presented awards to those parks and individuals who have made a difference over the past year in furthering the structural fire program agencywide. Article identifies recipients of Superior Achievement Award, Compliance Achievement Award, Outstanding Fire Instructor of the Year award, and Leadership Awards. National Park Service Visitor and Resource Protection Staff Focuses on Week of Leadership Staff from all levels of the National Park Service in law enforcement, United States Park Police, as well as fire and aviation spent a week learning leadership lessons from one another as well as from a diverse group of leaders during the last week of September 2019. A group of women and men on a rocky outcrop in high desert. America's Best Idea: Featured National Historic Landmarks Over 200 National Historic Landmarks are located in national parks units. Some historical and cultural resources within the park system were designated as NHLs before being established as park units. Yet other park units have NHLs within their boundaries that are nationally significant for reasons other than those for which the park was established. Twenty of those NHLs are located in parks featured in Ken Burn's documentary, The National Parks: America's Best Idea. watchtower against blue sky 1922 - Into the Grand Canyon and Out Again by Airplane Most aviators, I venture to say, would have been content to fly down into the canyon and make a safe landing. But not so Thomas. He was not satisfied with his performance until he had climbed back up again without landing and then dropped over the rim in a long tail-spin, which carried him nearly to the bottom, five thousand feet below... Old fashioned biplane with pilots standing nearby. 1925 - Building the Kaibab Trail The Chimney, Ooo-Ahh Point, Windy Ridge, the Red & Whites, the Tip-Off, the TrainWreck…For those who know and love the Kaibab Trail, the recitation of these names conjures up images that are the stuff of longing, wonder, and enchantment. Man in wide brimmed hat overlooking grand canyon. Recovering the Endangered Sentry Milk-Vetch, Methods & Preliminary Results The recovery effort takes a multi-faceted approach to meeting recovery plan objectives. Priorities include identifying and protecting existing habitat and populations, researching optimal growing conditions, and establishing new populations. Sentry Milk-Vetch In the City that Never Sleeps Grasshopper Mouse will howl like a wolf. She is a member of the toughest mouse family that lives. She is a carnivorous creature, fast and sure enough to kill and eat giant centipedes and scorpions, immune to their terrible venom. The few who have seen one of these battles know that it resembles a cross between a lion attacking a full-grown Wildebeest and a Jackie Chan fight scene. Only faster. Mouse in front of Grand Canyon 300 Humpback Chub Translocated into Shinumo Creek In June 2010, fisheries biologists released 300 young humpback chub into Shinumo Creek in Grand Canyon National Park. This second translocation augmented the number of humpback chub in Shinumo Creek following the 2009 release. Biologists hope that Shinumo Creek will provide rearing habitat for humpback chub in a natural environment outside the Little Colorado River. A humpback chub being held out of water. Grand Canyon National Park takes steps to recover the endangered sentry milk-vetch. The park took significant actions in 2009 to recovery the endangered sentry milk-vetch, including constructing a passive solar greenhouse to house an ex situ population and conducting seed germination trials. Sentry milk-vetch next to a quarter to show scale. National Park Service Aviation Personnel Attend DOI National Pilot Ground School During the week of December 10, 2017, twenty-eight National Park Service (NPS) airplane and helicopter pilots, pilot trainees, national and regional aviation staff attended the 2017 DOI National Pilot Ground School (NPGS). The weeklong training brought together over 100 DOI pilots from the NPS, US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and DOI’s Office of Aviation Services (OAS). A group of 17 men stand in front of a room. Northern Arizona Land Managers Recognized for Leadership in Fire Management In June 2015, managers of both the Kaibab National Forest and Grand Canyon National Park in northern Arizona were recognized for the leadership role they’ve played in managing wildland fire across the landscape and jurisdictional boundaries for the purpose of improving forest health conditions. National Park Service Hosts First Class of Aviators for Unmanned Aircraft Systems In September 2016, the Department of the Interior certified the first nine unmanned aircraft systems pilots in the National Park Service. The new pilots will use their certification in support of search and rescue, wildland fire activities, and resource monitoring. A drone hovers near a tree on the edge of the Grand Canyon. Morale, Welfare and Recreation in WWII National Parks Wartime NPS Director Newton Drury wrote 'In wartime, the best function of these areas is to prove a place to which members of the armed forces and civilians may retire to restore shattered nerves and to recuperate physically and mentally for the war tasks still ahead of them.' During World War II, parks across the United States supported the morale of troops and sought to become places of healing for those returning from war. B&W; soldiers post in front of large tree Army Couple Visits 59 National Parks When you’re a dual-military couple, it can be a challenge to try to find things to do together, especially when you’re at separate duty stations or on deployment. For one Army couple, what started out as a simple idea to get out of the house turned into a five-year adventure. Couple standing in front of The Windows at Arches National Park. Desert Bighorn Sheep A close up of the head of a male Desert Bighorn sheep with 3/4 curl. American Cheetah Fossil Interactive 3D Model Pleistocene subfossil collected from a cave in the Grand Canyon during a 1936-1937 Civilian Conservation Corps expedition. model of fossil cheetah jaw on plain color background California Condor Fossil Interactive 3D Model Pleistocene subfossil collected from a cave in Grand Canyon National Park. 3d model of condor skull on plain color background PARKS...IN...SPAAAACE!!! NASA astronauts have quite literally an out-of-this-world view of national parks and take some pretty stellar pictures to share. Travel along with the space station on its journey west to east getting the extreme bird’s eye view of national parks across the country. And one more down-to-earth. View of Denali National Park & Preserve from space Crystal Clear: Implementing High-Flow Protocol for Nourishment of Beaches On November 18, 2012, the Department of the Interior began increasing the release of water in the Colorado River from Glen Canyon Dam for a high-flow experimental release (HFE) of approximately 42,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) for 24 hours. The goal of the high-flow experiment was to move sand a cumulated in the river channel and redeposit it to rebuild eroded sandbars and beaches in Grand Canyon National Park. 4 rafts floating down the river with grand canyon in background. Understanding extended day use of corridor trails A social scientist discusses the impact of use levels on visitor experience along Grand Canyon National Park’s most popular backcountry trails—those of the corridor—and summarizes visitor perceptions of various management interventions being considered to address them. Map of the Corridor Trail System at Grand Canyon National Park; NPS map Park Air Profiles - Grand Canyon National Park Air quality profile for Grand Canyon National Park. Gives park-specific information about air quality and air pollution impacts for Grand Canyon NP as well as the studies and monitoring conducted for Grand Canyon NP. Desert View Watchtower in Grand Canyon NP Alexander Pearson: An Early Pilot of Aviation History Lt. Alexander Pearson was a trailblazing pilot of early aviation. His groundbreaking flights, including the first aerial survey of the Grand Canyon and breaking the world speed record in 1923, made him one of the United States' most celebrated early aviators. Today, Pearson Field and Pearson Air Museum, a part of Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, are named after him. Black and white photo of man in military uniform. Fire Communication and Education Grants Enhance Fire Interpretation and Outreach in the National Parks in 2015 and Beyond The 2015 National Park Service Fire Communication and Education Grant Program provided funding for projects, programs, or tasks in twelve parks around the country. A woman studies a small coniferous tree while a younger woman looks on. Preventive success! Grand Canyon’s response to search-and-rescue overload The rapid rise of search-and-rescue responses in Grand Canyon National Park leads to creation of the Preventive Search and Rescue team. Helicopter medivac rangers wheel a litter up the Bright Angel Trail; NPS/C. J. Malcolm Canyoneering at Grand Canyon National Park: Monitoring pockets of wilderness in the canyon corridor A backcountry ranger discusses the rise in popularity of canyoneering at the park and the management challenges resulting from this recreational activity. Phantom Creek; NPS/Matt Jenkins Grand Canyon’s corridor trail system: Linking the past, present, and future Grand Canyon National Park’s corridor trail system tells the story of how human use and recreation have evolved amidst the park’s vast backcountry. A view of upper Bright Angel Trail from Hermit Road, South Rim, Grand Canyon; NPS/Michael Quinn SW CA Condor Update - 2013-01 (January) From January 2013: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. Grand Canyon Black Tarantula Tarantulas are not dangerous, but their bite is painful. While these spiders are large, they can be easily harmed if dropped or stepped on. Please observe these incredible arachnids from a distance. A Grand Canyon black tarantula climbing up a stone. SW Condor Update - 2008-05 (May) From May 2008: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flies wild and free. Tarantula Hawk Tarantula hawks are brilliantly colored, but are predators with an incredibly painful sting. NPS Photo/ Robb Hannawacker An black insect with bright orange wings and predominant feelers on sandy ground. Grand Canyon is the ‘Dark Sky Place’ to be at The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) presented Grand Canyon National Park the International Dark Sky Place of the Year Award in Tucson, Arizona, on Friday, November 8, 2019. “The real winners are the millions of visitors that have the opportunity to experience the park’s pristine night skies,” said Grand Canyon National Park Program Manager Vicky Stinson. 5 nicely dressed people posing for a group photo. Rader Lane and Rose Masters have won the 2019 National Freeman Tilden Award Congratulations to all the two 2019 recipients of the national Freeman Tilden Awards. Learn more about all their innovative interpretive programs. Three rangers at Manzanar NHS Stock’s Vampire Bat Interactive 3D Model Stock’s vampire bat fossils are often found in association with giant ground sloths, which suggests they might have been one of this bat’s preferred sources of food. 3d model of bat skull Harrington’s Mountain Goat Interactive 3D Model Harrington’s Goat (<em>Oreamnos harringtoni</em>) is an extinct species of caprine that was found in the Southwestern part of North America during the last ice age. Osteologically, the Harrington was smaller (by a 1/3) than the living mountain goat, O. americanus, to which it is related, but with relatively robust feet, a proportionally long but narrow skull, and smaller horns. 3d model of goat skull on plain color background Fossil Vertebrate Trackways Interactive 3D Model These tracks, located in a large fallen block of the Coconino Sandstone within Grand Canyon National Park are evidence of early tetrapods inhabiting deserts during the late Paleozoic (early Permian). model of fossil tracks on rock slab Phyllodont Fish Tooth Plate Interactive 3D Model This is mold of a Permian age fish plate. Fish plates are tooth-like structures found in early fish and are known from the Pennsylvanian to the Permian periods. 3d model of fossil on larger rock Seed Fern Fossil Interactive 3D Model Collected from the Hermit Shale in Grand Canyon National Park by Frank Richardson in 1938. 3d model of seed fern fossil on rock surface Trilobite Interactive 3D Model Collected from the Bright Angel Shale in Grand Canyon National Park. 3d model of trilobite fossil on rock slab Increasing temperature seasonality may overwhelm shifts in soil moisture to favor shrub over grass dominance in Colorado Plateau drylands Increasing variability of temperature favors a shift to shrublands over grasslands in arid southwestern landscapes. This effect is greater than the effect of increasing soil moisture, which favors a shift to grasslands over shrublands. Grassland with scattered junipers and hills in the background. A Chance Discovery Reveals a Rich Fossil Shark Record From the Carboniferous of the Grand Canyon In the early spring of 2012, an old shoebox belonging to former NAU geologist professor. It contained micropaleontology slides that held conodonts and micro-vertebrate fossils that were a mystery. But not for long! Thrinacodus gracia and teeth from the Surprise Canyon Formation; scale equals 200 µm. Historic Visibility Studies in National Parks Haze can negatively impact how well people can see and appreciate our national parks across the country. This article summarizes the visibility studies from the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s aimed at identifying the sources of haze causing pollution at specific parks and improving visibility monitoring methods. Big bend national park river 2018 Freeman Tilden Award Recipients In 2018, six talented National Park Service employees were awarded the Freeman Tilden Award for their amazing and innovative interpretive programs. Ranger in a canyon with a typewriter on a table Survival of the Southern Paiute The Paiutes have overcome insurmountable challenges and devastation as a people. Their long struggle to preserve the Paiute way and flourish continues. But they will not give up. Instead, they celebrate their achievements, promising that while “[t]he struggle is long and difficult… the Paiute will survive.” Native American man in ceremonial dress with orange cliffs in the background. 1902 - Breaking A Trail Through Bright Angel Canyon The adventure of the first party to cross from one side of the Grand Canyon to the other by pack train in 1902 have never been told. Here follows a brief statement of the circumstances. by F. E. Matthes, U.S. Geological Survey. Black and white historic photo of a side canyon with a creek between towering cliffs. 1928 - A Bridge Worthy Construction of the suspension bridge across the Colorado river. Bridge attached to two rocky cliffs spanning a river, text reads 1914 Metz Car To the bottom of the Grand Canyon by automobile was probably the most strenuous undertaking ever carried out in the annals of American motoring. To make that trip and to return to the plateau thousands of feet above, all on the car's own power, negotiating deep sand arroyos, frightfully steep grades, great boulder filled gorges and slimy mud flats, is a feat extraordinary. Driver of a Metz peers into Grand Canyon. 1899 - An Adventure in Beaver Canyon I have had many a perilous adventure in my ten years of exploring in the canyons of the Colorado River, but none so peculiar as one I passed through this year (1899). Waterfall falling over dark rocks into clear blue pool. Alternative Spring Break Brings Enthusiastic Students to Grand Canyon National Park While many college students lounged on beaches for spring break, 82 students from eight colleges and universities spent their time supporting Grand Canyon National Park’s wildland fire crew as part of an Alternative Spring Break (ASB) program. group of spring break students pose for a group photo with fire managers World War II Plane Crashes in National Parks During WWII, more than 7,100 air crashes involved US Army Air Force (USAAF) aircraft occurred on American soil. Collectively these crashes resulted in the loss of more than 15,599 lives (Mireles 2006). Many of these military aircraft accidents occurred in remote, often mountainous, areas managed by the National Park Service. plane crash at base of grassy hill California Condor Reintroduction & Recovery A tagged California condor flies free. NPS Photo/ Don Sutherland A wing-tagged California condor flying in the blue sky. Successful North Rim Prescribed Fires at Grand Canyon In November 2012, interagency fire managers completed ignitions on two prescribed fires totaling about 4,600 acres. Initial post-treatment observations indicate that goals and objectives were met. The fires reduced buildup of dead and down vegetation, especially along the North Rim's primary exit route, created defensible space around sensitive cultural resources and along the park-forest boundary, and protected and enhanced Mexican spotted owl habitat. A collapsed smoke plume looms over a softly lit Grand Canyon. The Colorado Plateau The Colorado Plateau is centered on the four corners area of the Southwest, and includes much of Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. Hazy Fajada Butte, Chaco Culture National Monument Monitoring Upland Vegetation and Soils on the Southern Colorado Plateau Vegetation and soils are the foundation upon which all terrestrial ecosystems are built. Soils provide the medium for the storage and delivery of water and nutrients to plants, which in turn provide animal populations with both habitat and food. Sampling grassland vegetation at a long-term monitoring plot at Wupatki National Monument Monitoring Bird Communities on the Southern Colorado Plateau Bird communities can tell us a lot about changing environmental conditions. High on the food chain, and sensitive to climate and habitat changes, birds are monitored on the Southern Colorado Plateau as indicators of riparian and upland ecosystem health. Male Williamson’s sapsucker. Wildland Fire in Douglas Fir: Western United States Douglas fir is widely distributed throughout the western United States, as well as southern British Columbia and northern Mexico. Douglas fir is able to survive without fire, its abundantly-produced seeds are lightweight and winged, allowing the wind to carry them to new locations where seedlings can be established. Close-up of Douglas fir bark and needles. Managing Wildfires in a Fire-Adapted Ecosystem in Grand Canyon National Park Grand Canyon fire managers saw success in managing lightning-caused wildfires in summer 2014 to achieve resource benefits and burn a fire-adapted ecosystem. Firefighters stand in an open pine forest with small flames on the ground. Nearly 1000 Acres Successfully Treated with Prescribed Fire on Grand Canyon South Rim On June 9, 2016, National Park Service (NPS) fire managers successfully treated 994 acres with prescribed (Rx) fire on the South Rim of Grand Canyon. firefighter listens to handheld radio during a prescribed burn North Zone Readiness Review a Success: “We Train Together to Respond Together” Wildland firefighters from the Kaibab National Forest, Color Country Bureau of Land Management and Grand Canyon National Park trained together May 12,2016 at the North Kaibab Ranger District for their annual readiness review training. Incident Commander briefs firefighters during simulation exercise 2011 Harry Yount National Park Ranger Award Many rangers tend to specialize in specific ranger skills depending on their abilities, but Hendy is one that simply excel at every aspect of rangering. On any day ranger Hendy could be anywhere: rappelling over the rim of the Grand Canyon to stabilize a patient, working with the Grand Canyon Special Response Team to do a building sweep, responding with the structural fire engine to a burning RV, or simply answering visitor questions. Lisa Hendy 2012 Harry Yount National Park Ranger Award Throughout his 14-year career, Ranger Torres has dedicated his life to helping others and protecting visitors in the national parks as a federal law enforcement officer, paramedic, rescuer, firefighter, coach, guide, and teacher. Torres has earned the highest respect from his coworkers, mentored other rangers, and is known for his kindness, sound judgment, and sincerity. Brandon Torres 2014 Harry Yount National Park Ranger Award Vandergraff is a living legend among his peers. In his 25-year career, Vandergraff has hiked 10,000 miles of the Grand Canyon backcountry, spent 3,000 days helping visitors below the canyon's rim, and assisted with more than 2,000 search and rescue operations. A rangers' ranger, Vandergraff has dedicated his life to helping others. Bil Vandergraff Wildfire at Grand Canyon National Park: Visiting Our Past to Build Our Future Current and past fire managers at Grand Canyon NP toured the North Rim to develop a vision for the future of the wildland fire program there. Sixteen fire managers with a total of 152 years of GRCA fire experience attended the field trip to discuss success stories, lessons learned, future climate changes, and fire effects. The group toured past wildfire areas to assess postfire recovery and discussed future projects to ensure the perpetuation of wildland fires for the future. Module Conducts Wildland-Urban Interface Projects Throughout the Intermountain Region In 2013, the Saguaro Wildland Fire Module (WFM) managed multiple projects simultaneously in AZ, TX, and NM. WFMs are highly skilled and versatile fire crews that provide expertise in long-term planning, ignitions, holding, prescribed fire preparation and implementation support, hazardous fuels reduction, and fire effects monitoring. With their help, fire fulfills its natural or historic role to meet resource and management objectives and create fire-adapted communities. Wildland Fire: Previous Fuels Treatments Change Fire Behavior The June 2013 Halfway fire is an excellent example of how strategically planned prescribed fire treatments can be effective in limiting the spread of future wildfires. Despite a red flag warning and extreme fire danger, interagency fire personnel contained the fire at 250 acres after just one day. The quick, safe suppression was a direct result of interagency collaboration and a long history of hazardous fuel reduction through carefully planned and implemented prescribed fire Wildland Fire in Sagebrush Sagebrush will burn when the surrounding grasses are dry. With strong winds, fire spreads rapidly with flames sometimes reaching over 30 feet high. While fire easily kills sagebrush, the other plants resprout from protected roots producing lush forage for wildlife and livestock. Close-up of sagebrush leaves 2002 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2002 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards 2007 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2007 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards 2004 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2004 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Shasta Ground Sloth Interactive 3D Model Pleistocene giant ground sloth recovered from Rampart Cave. Collected in the 1930's during excavation work within the cave. In addition to bones, this cave also preserved pieces of sloth fur and large amounts of sloth manure. 3d model of sloth skull on plain color background Dragonfly Wing Fossil Interactive 3D Model This fossil, is the type specimen for T. whitei and is from the Hermit Shale of Lower Permian time (~280 million years old). This nearly complete fore-wing is from an early and much larger insect similar to a dragonfly. 3d model of dragonfly wing fossil on rock surface Fossil Tetrapod Foot Prints Interactive 3D Model Several sets of various size tracks from the ichnogenus Chelichnus in the Coconino Sandstone. Tracks are found along the Hermit trail in Grand Canyon National Park. 3d model of fossil tracks on larger rock slab Brachiopod Fossil Interactive 3D Model Collected from the Kaibab Limestone in Grand Canyon National Park. Specimen was formerly on display at the Yavapai Geology Museum. 3d model of fossil clam on larger rock Coiled Nautiloid Interactive 3D Model Collected from the Kaibab Limestone in Grand Canyon National Park. Holotype specimen. 3d model of fossil nautiloid on plain color background Crinoid Fossil Interactive 3D Model Collected from the Kaibab Limestone in Grand Canyon National Park. model of crinoid segments in rock slab Restoring a dammed river with experimental flooding One of the hot topics in environmental science is whether or not to remove dams to restore the natural flow of rivers. Over the centuries, thousands of dams have been constructed on rivers across the United States to store water or produce electricity. Some of these dams influence our national parks. A dam with water at it's base and red cliffs to the left and the right About The Southern Paiute “Paa” ute means water ute, and explains the Southern Paiute preference for living near water sources. The Spanish explorer Escalante kept detailed journals of his travels in the Southwest and made notes concerning Southern Paiute horticulture, writing in 1776, that there were “well dug irrigation ditches” being used to water small fields of corn, pumpkins, squash, and sunflowers. Southern Paiute boy by wickiup shelter. Modeling Past and Future Soil Moisture in Southern Colorado Plateau National Parks and Monuments In this project, USGS and NPS scientists used the range of variation in historical climate data to provide context for assessing the relative impact of projected future climate on soil water availability. This report provides the results of modeled SWP generated for 11 ecosystems in nine Southern Colorado Plateau Network parks. Extensive grassland at Wupatki National Monument Post-1935 Changes in Pinyon-Juniper Persistent Woodland on the South Rim of Grand Canyon National Park The discovery of datasheets from vegetation study plots established in 1935 in Grand Canyon National Park provided a unique opportunity to look at 76 years of change in pinyon-juniper woodlands on the South Rim and make inferences about their relation to climate, fire regimes, and resource management. Canyon rim covered in green trees beneath blue sky with a few clouds Telling Time at Grand Canyon National Park Understanding geologic time in the Grand Canyon (2004) visitors on overlook at grand canyon Wildland Fire in Chaparral: California and Southwestern United States Chaparral is a general term that applies to various types of brushland found in southern California and the southwestern U.S. This community contains the most flammable type of vegetation found in the United States. Chaparral on steep rocky slopes. Bat Projects in Parks: Grand Canyon National Park From monitoring to education, find out what Grand Canyon National Park learned about their bats! A view of the South Kiabab trail heading into the Grand Canyon Monitoring Night Skies and Natural Soundscapes on the Southern Colorado Plateau Many national parks in the Southern Colorado Plateau region contain large areas of wilderness, where dark night skies and natural soundscapes are important human values. Dark night skies, which depend upon the visibility of stars and other natural components, are diminishing resources in several park units because of anthropogenic activities. Natural soundscapes—that is, the natural sounds of wildlands—are degraded by sounds caused by humans or human technology. Clouds and sky turning red and orange over Navajo National Monument at sunset Recovering the Endangered Sentry Milk-Vetch, 2016 Update Additional sentry milk-vetch populations have been discovered on the South and North Rims since 2006, when the sentry milk-vetch recovery plan was published. Currently there are five wild populations on the North Rim, four wild populations on the South Rim, and three introduced populations on the South Rim. In 2016, sentry milk-vetch monitoring, propogation, site mapping, planting, and propagation protocol refinements were among the recovery milestones. Sentry milk-vetch plant SW CA Condor Update - 2017-01 (January) From January 2017: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2015-11 (November) From November 2015: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2015-02 (February) From February 2015: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2014-11 (November) From November 2014: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2015-07 (July) From July 2015: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2016-04 (April) From April 2016: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2014-07 (July) From July 2014 : An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2019-09 (September) An update on the Southwest California Condor Meta-Population for September 2019 from Grand Canyon National Park. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2017-04 (April) An update on the status of the Arizona/ Utah population of the California condor. A condor flying. West Rim Drive Cultural Landscape West Rim Drive starts at the intersection of the Village Loop Road and ends at the Hermits Rest Trail Head. The current road, trail, and overlooks were constructed in 1934-1935, and continue to be popular tourist attractions that receive high use throughout the year. Features visible from the road and West Rim Trail include the Colorado River, the North Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Bright Angel Trail, Indian Garden, and others. Fred Harvey Tour Busses at Hopi Point, circa 1935 (GRCA archives) Grand Canyon National Park Centennial Briefings: Cultural Resources During the summer of Grand Canyon National Park’s 2019 centennial, scientists and resource managers briefed fellow staff and the public about how they are helping to enable future generations to enjoy what is special about Grand Canyon. A man stands talking to a group of people near a structure made out of tree limbs. Dark Adaptation of the Human Eye and the Value of Red Flashlights Jim O'Connor of the Tucson Amateur Astronomy Association describes the properties of night vision, and why it is important to use red flashlights at star parties, or other outdoor astronomy events. At night, several people are looking through a large telescope with the Milky Way in the sky above. SW CA Condor Update - 2012-10 (October) From October 2010: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. New Citizens Sworn in at Grand Canyon Thirteen new citizens took their oath of allegiance during a naturalization ceremony hosted by Grand Canyon National Park and the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) at the Grand Canyon’s Mather Point Amphitheater on Sept. 28, 2019. 15 people sit in a semicircle in a stone amphitheater; a colorful landscape beyond. What's in a name? Many names have been used to describe geologic features within Grand Canyon National Park. This article highlight some of that history and two popular geographic locations: Bright Angel Trail and Sinking Ship. John Muir standing on the rim of Grand Canyon Wildland Fire in Ponderosa Pine: Western United States This forest community generally exists in areas with annual rainfall of 25 inches or less. Extensive pure stands of this forest type are found in the southwestern U.S., central Washington and Oregon, southern Idaho and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Recently burned ponderosa pine forest. Zehra Osman Zehra Osman has been a Landscape Architect with the National Park Service since 2001. Through her work at a variety of parks around the country, Zehra explores how cultural landscape documentation and research contributes to historic preservation and planning projects. A smiling woman in a green NPS uniform with arms crossed Bison Conservation Initiative The 2008 BCI has been a touchstone for DOI bureaus for 12 years. The commitments made there have now resulted in meaningful technical products and organizational improvements that continue to advance the conservation of American bison. The Bison Working Group, established as a mechanism for implementing the 2008 BCI, quickly became a productive model of interagency collaboration. Federal professionals working in support of bison conservation note that today we enjoy an ... Bison Conservation Initiative Faces of Fire: Veterans Continue Their Service in Grand Canyon National Park’s Fire and Aviation Program Stephanie Cuz and Kacie Dodds in their military uniforms Stephanie Cuz and Kacie Dodds in their military uniforms World CA Condor Update - 2018 An update on the world California Condor population for 2018. A close-up of the pink bald head of a California condor with a ruffle of black feathers. World CA Condor Update - 2016 Population Status An update on the world California Condor population for 2016. A close up of the pink bald head of a California condor with a ruffle of black feathers. World CA Condor Update - 2017 An update on the world California Condor population for 2017. A close-up of the pink bald head of a California condor with a ruffle of black feathers. SW CA Condor Update - 2014-03 (March) From March 2014: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2013-10 (October) From October 2013: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW Ca Condor Update - 2013-04 (April) From April 2013: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2013-07 (July) From July 2013: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. North Zone Fire Management Hosts Their First Women in Wildfire Boot Camp The Kaibab National Forest and Grand Canyon National Park joined together to facilitate a Women in Wildfire (WIW) boot camp. Experienced firefighters from the forest and park mentored, taught and challenged 16 women selected to participate in the training, the first one the North Zone has hosted. Firefighters use a hose from a fire engine to attack a simulated wildfire SW CA Condor Update - 2018-04 (April) Update on the AZ/UT population of California condors in April of 2018. A condor flying wild and free. World CA Condor Update – 2019 An update on the world California Condor population for 2019. A close-up of the pink bald head of a California condor with a ruffle of black feathers. SW CA Condor Update – 2020-02 An update on the Southwest California Condor Meta-Population for 2019 from Grand Canyon National Park (updated February 2020). A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2012-06 (June) From June 2016: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2012-04 (April) From April 2012: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2012-07 (July) From July 2012: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2011-03 (March) From March 2011: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. Read more A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2011-12 (December) From Decmeber 2011: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2010-12 (December) From December 2010: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2011-11 (November) From November 2011: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2011-07 (July) From July 2011: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. Read more A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2011-01 (January) From January 2011: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. Geoscientists-in-the-Parks: Paleontology Technician Read about the work Robyn Henderek did as a Paleontology Technician in Grand Canyon National Park as a GIP in 2016. Robyn Henderek Grand Canyon National Park Welcomes New Branch Chief of Fire and Aviation Grand Canyon National Park Welcomes New Branch Chief of Fire and Aviation man with mountains in background Population Viability Study This study confirms that management of DOI bison herds in isolation promotes the loss of genetic diversity within all herds. More importantly, this study demonstrates that increased herd size and targeted removal strategies can reduce rates of diversity loss, and that adopting a Departmental metapopulation strategy through facilitated periodic movement of modest numbers of bison among DOI herds (i.e., restoring effective gene flow) can substantially reduce the... Bison Population Viability Study SW CA Condor Update - 2009-11 (November) From November 2009: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2010-03 (March) From March 2010: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2010-05 (May) From May 2010: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2010-10 (October) From October 2010: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW CA Condor Update - 2009-07 (July) From July 2009: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW Condor Update - 2008-11 (November) From November 2008: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW Condor Update - 2009-03 (March) From March 2009: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW Condor Update - 2009-06 (June) From June 2009: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. SW Condor Update - 2008-12 (December) From December 2008: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. The Adverse Effects of Climate Change on Desert Bighorn Sheep Climate change has and will continue to have a negative impact on the population of desert bighorn sheep. For the remaining herds to survive, management may always be necessary. Protecting wild lands is key to the survival of these amazing animals. Desert bighorn sheep, NPS/Shawn Cigrand Southwest River Environments In the arid Southwest, water means life, and prehistorically, rivers were the lifelines of the people. The Colorado River flowing through a canyon Monitoring Water Quality on the Southern Colorado Plateau Water quality data are used to characterize waters, detect trends over time, and identify emerging problems. In Southern Colorado Plateau Network parks, water quality is monitored as an indicator of aquatic ecosystem integrity, as a component of watershed condition, and to document water quality conditions in relation to state and federal regulations. Collecting water quality data Steam into Grand Canyon Village Celebrating a Century of Rails to Parks A black and white photo of people on the rear platform of a railroad car. Reducing risk of train wheel sparks igniting a wildfire within Grand Canyon National Park Grand Canyon Railway, in consultation with the National Park Service (NPS), will apply herbicide along their railroad tracks including those within Grand Canyon National Park. The purpose of this application is to inhibit the growth of vegetation adjacent to the railroad tracks, lowering the risk of train wheel sparks igniting a fire. Once the treatment is completed, this area will also act as a fire break for any fires originating elsewhere in the park. Applying herbicide along railroad tracks within Grand Canyon National Park Sentry Milk-Vetch Standing guard over the rim of the Grand Canyon, the tiny, federally endangered "sentry" milk-vetch is a perennial herb that forms a one inch tall by eight inch wide mat in shallow pockets of soil on the Kaibab limestone. Sentry Milk-Vetch Climate Change on the Southern Colorado Plateau The combination of high. elevation and a semi-arid climate makes the Colorado Plateau particularly vulnerable to climate change. Climate models predict that over the next 100 years, the Southwest will become warmer and even more arid, with more extreme droughts than the region has experienced in the recent past. One result of climate change may be more, larger floods, like this flash flood in Glen Canyon NRA Pollinators - Bumble bee Get the buzz on bumblebees! There are approximately 46 species of bumble bees (genus Bombus) native to North America and 250 species worldwide—all dependent on flowering plants. A bumblebee lands on a white flower Post-1935 Changes in Forest Vegetation of Grand Canyon National Park The surprise discovery in Grand Canyon National Park of some early 1900s photographs awaiting disposal led to a rare opportunity to examine forest change in the park since 1935. The photographs and associated data sheets documented a park-wide vegetation study from 1935 that generated the first ever Grand Canyon vegetation map. Section of the 1935 vegetation map of Grand Canyon National Park Monitoring Spring Ecosystems on the Southern Colorado Plateau Springs are important water sources in arid landscapes, supporting unique plant associations and sustaining high levels of biotic diversity. Because springs rely on groundwater, they can serve as important indicators of change in local and regional aquifers. On the Colorado Plateau, spring ecosystems also provide vital habitat for both endemic and regionally rare species, including several types of orchids and declining populations of leopard frogs. A pool of water filled with vegetation and sheltered by large rocks Monitoring Aquatic Macroinvertebrates on the Southern Colorado Plateau Aquatic macroinvertebrates, such as insect larvae, snails, and worms, play a vital role in stream ecosystems, both as a food source and as consumers of algae and other organic matter. Because macroinvertebrates are sensitive to environmental change, monitoring them can help to detect chemical, physical, and biological impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Monitoring aquatic macroinvertebrates Prescribed burn provides educational opportunities and prepares crews for fire season On May 19, 2016, fire crews at Grand Canyon National Park conducted a prescribed burn and provided educational opportunities for park visitors as part of an annual readiness review designed to assist crews to prepare for and operate during wildfire season. Fire management officer briefs a group of 4th grade students Unlikely Siblings February 26th is a day for celebration in Acadia, marking the historic transition of Sieur de Monts National Monument into Lafayette National Park, which eventually became the Acadia we know today. While it is a special day for Acadia, it shares the festivities with a twin in the bonds of "parkhood." Grand Canyon and Acadia national parks in fog. Bryophyte Floristics and Ecology in Grand Canyon National Park Bryophytes are one of the largest group of land plants and includes mosses, liverworts and hornworts. They can be found almost anywhere in the world, but in the American Southwest, bryophytes are small in stature and so low in bio¬mass that they are easily overlooked. However, they play a critical role in arid ecosystems where they contribute to soil stabilization, seedling establishment, biogeochemical cycling, symbiotic relationships and habitat creation for invertebrates. Grimmia anodon and Grimmia alpestris (dry) on Kaibab Limestone Formation Bright Angel Trackway Interactive 3D Model of fossil trackways from Grand Canyon National Park. model of fossil tracks on rock slab National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map Mary Colter and Her Buildings at Grand Canyon Hopi House, Hermit's Rest, Lookout Studio and Desert View Watchtower are not only the best and least altered, but some of the only remaining works of architectural designer and interior decorator, Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter. A middle aged woman, leaning on one arm, sits in an elaborate, woven, wicker chair. The Story of Desert View Watchtower The view from the Desert View Watchtower provides a unique perspective of the eastern side of Grand Canyon. From here, looking to the northeast offers a distant glimpse of the Colorado River's transition from the relatively narrow Marble Canyon to the north into the much wider, broader expanse of Grand Canyon. Directly below is the Colorado River's "Big Bend", where it dramatically shifts its previously southward course by executing a sharp 90-degree turn to the west. On the edge of a canyon cliff, a circular stone tower four stories, 70 feet tall. Kolb Brothers: Conflict on the Canyon's Rim Kolb Studio proudly sits at the head of the Bright Angel Trial, just like it did in 1904. It is a monument to Emery Kolb's achievement and success over the Fred Harvey Company's never-ending effort to make him leave, and the National Park Service's yearning to obliterate the building. multi-story wood frame building on the edge of cliff with sunset light illuminating distant peaks. Soon Condors Will Soar Over Redwoods California condors may soon be released in Redwood National Park. Adult male condor incubates his egg in a redwood tree nest on the Big Sur coast. Rockfalls and Rain, Risk and Randomness Stand in one place and you can pick out hundreds of rocks that are ready to let go and fall into the Grand Canyon. Some are limestone, some are sandstone. Some are mere pebbles, some are the size of apartment buildings. Does one have YOUR name on it? There is a thunderstorm on the southwest horizon – does it have a lightning bolt meant for you? Will it spawn a flash flood, hidden from view, destined to carry you away in a mud-brown tsunami? Dust plume from a rockfall on the side of a canyon cliff Series: GIP Participants and Project Highlights [8 Articles] Participants selected for the GIP program have a unique opportunity to contribute to the conservation of America's national parks. Participants may assist with research, mapping, GIS analysis, resource monitoring, hazard mitigation, and education. GIP positions can last from 3 months to one-year. Robyn Henderek Series: Grand Canyon National Park Centennial Briefings During the summer of Grand Canyon National Park’s 2019 centennial, scientists and resource managers briefed fellow staff and the public about how they are helping to enable future generations to enjoy what is special about Grand Canyon. Black winged California Condor with a red head sits with its wings spread out. Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display at a visitor center Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Series: Wildlife in the Badlands Ever wonder what kind of wildlife could survive the harsh climate of the Badlands? Two small, grey young lambs walk down brown badlands slope. Series: Research in Badlands National Park Scientists often look to the Badlands as a research subject. Many studies have been conducted in the park on a variety of topics, including paleontology, geology, biology, and archaeology. Learn more about these research topics in this article series. two researchers converse over a sheet of paper while a woman to their right uses a microscope. Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Since 2002, the National Park Service (NPS) has awarded Environmental Achievement (EA) Awards to recognize staff and partners in the area of environmental preservation, protection and stewardship. A vehicle charges at an Electric Vehicle charging station at Thomas Edison National Historical Park Series: Park Paleontology News - Vol. 11, No. 2, Fall 2019 All across the park system, scientists, rangers, and interpreters are engaged in the important work of studying, protecting, and sharing our rich fossil heritage. <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/newsletters.htm">Park Paleontology news</a> provides a close up look at the important work of caring for these irreplaceable resources. <ul><li>Contribute to Park Paleontology News by contacting the <a href="https://www.nps.gov/common/utilities/sendmail/sendemail.cfm?o=5D8CD5B898DDBB8387BA1DBBFD02A8AE4FBD489F4FF88B9049&r=/subjects/geoscientistsinparks/photo-galleries.htm">newsletter editor</a></li><li>Learn more about <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/">Fossils & Paleontology</a> </li><li>Celebrate <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossilday/">National Fossil Day</a> with events across the nation</li></ul> devils tower Series: Grand Canyon Collections—Paleontology The fossils found within Grand Canyon span over a billion years of Earth history, from stromatolites found in the Bass Limestone (1.2 billion years ago) to Pleistocene megafauna (15,000 years ago) exhumed from cave sediments. The park’s fossil resource have been known to scientists for over 100 years. Recently, NPS scientists used imaging techniques to create virtual 3D fossils.The examples below are just some of your park’s paleontological treasures. 3d model of cheetah jaw Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Series: Parks in Science History Parks in Science History is a series of articles and videos made in cooperation with graduate students from various universities. They highlight the roles that national parks have played in the history of science and, therefore, the world's intellectual heritage. A woman looking through binoculars Series: Crystal Clear: A Call to Action In 2016, the nation celebrates the centennial of the National Park Service (NPS) as the steward of special places that represent our natural and cultural heritage. Many national parks were founded on the beauty and value of water. Since the preservation of the Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park in 1872, the National Park System has grown to include significant examples within majestic rivers, the Great Lakes, oceans and coasts, and other spectacular water resources. bright blue lake green islands in between Series: Park Paleontology News - Vol. 11, No. 1, Spring 2019 All across the park system, scientists, rangers, and interpreters are engaged in the important work of studying, protecting, and sharing our rich fossil heritage. <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/newsletters.htm">Park Paleontology news</a> provides a close up look at the important work of caring for these irreplaceable resources. <ul><li>Contribute to Park Paleontology News by contacting the <a href="https://www.nps.gov/common/utilities/sendmail/sendemail.cfm?o=5D8CD5B898DDBB8387BA1DBBFD02A8AE4FBD489F4FF88B9049&r=/subjects/geoscientistsinparks/photo-galleries.htm">newsletter editor</a></li><li>Learn more about <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/">Fossils & Paleontology</a> </li><li>Celebrate <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossilday/">National Fossil Day</a> with events across the nation</li></ul> Tule Springs Fossil Beds Series: Park Air Profiles Clean air matters for national parks around the country. Photo of clouds above the Grand Canyon, AZ Series: Recovering the Endangered Sentry Milk-Vetch in Grand Canyon National Park The tiny, federally endangered sentry milk-vetch (Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax) is a perennial herb that forms a one inch tall by eight inch wide mat in shallow pockets of soil on the Kaibab limestone. It is endemic to the Grand Canyon, and only grows within 25 feet of the canyon rim. Since 2006, when the Sentry Milk-Vetch Recovery Plan was completed, Grand Canyon National Park has partnered with other groups to help reverse the decline of this species. Small mat of flowering sentry milk-vetch Series: SCPN-NAU School of Communication Collaboration The Southern Colorado Plateau Network (SCPN) of the National Park Service has been partnering with the Northern Arizona University (NAU) School of Communication since 2011 to develop student multimedia projects that highlight resources and activities in network parks. This collaboration gives NAU students hands-on experience in creating multimedia projects and provides network parks with products that can help to promote their unique resources and scientific or educational project work. SCPN-NAU student projects Series: Grand Canyon Centennial Stories Learn about Grand Canyon's history, including events such as the first flight over Grand Canyon and the construction of the iconic Bright Angel Trail, in preparation for the park's 100th birthday. Yellowed photo of an old fashioned airplane flying over Grand Canyon. Permian Period—298.9 to 251.9 MYA The massive cliffs of El Capitan in Guadalupe Mountains National Park represent a Permian-age reef along the supercontinent Pangaea. The uppermost rocks of Grand Canyon National Park are also Permian. flat-top mountain Pennsylvanian Period—323.2 to 298.9 MYA Rocks in Cumberland Gap National Historical Park represent vast Pennsylvanian-age swamps. Plant life in those swamps later became coal found in the eastern United States. fossil tracks on sandstone slab Mississippian Period—358.9 to 323.2 MYA The extensive caves of Mammoth Cave and Wind Cave national parks developed in limestone deposited during the Mississippian. Warm, shallow seas covered much of North America, which was close to the equator. fossil crinoid Cambrian Period—541 to 485.4 MYA The flat layers of rock exposed in Grand Canyon National Park encompass much of the Paleozoic, beginning in the Cambrian where they record an ancient shoreline. rock with fossil burrow tracks The Precambrian The Precambrian was the "Age of Early Life." During the Precambrian, continents formed and our modern atmosphere developed, while early life evolved and flourished. Soft-bodied creatures like worms and jellyfish lived in the world's oceans, but the land remained barren. Common Precambrian fossils include stromatolites and similar structures, which are traces of mats of algae-like microorganisms, and microfossils of other microorganisms. fossil stromatolites in a cliff face Proterozoic Eon—2.5 Billion to 541 MYA The Proterozoic Eon is the most recent division of the Precambrian. It is also the longest geologic eon, beginning 2.5 billion years ago and ending 541 million years ago fossil stromatolites in a cliff face Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Quaternary Period—2.58 MYA to Today Massive ice sheets advanced and retreated across North America during much of the Quaternary, carving landscapes in many parks. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve contains geologic evidence of lower sea level during glacial periods, facilitating the prehistoric peopling of the Americas. The youngest rocks in the NPS include the lava of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and the travertine at Yellowstone National Park, which can be just a few hours old. fossil bone bed and murals of mammoths Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display in a visitor center NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. [Site Under Development] visitors on overlook of grand canyon Connie Rudd: Defining a Career Path Connie Rudd's career with the National Park Service began as a seasonal ranger in 1979. Her continual desire to learn propelled her to various sites and positions in interpretation, planning, and management until 2014, when she retired as Park Superintendent. In this Spotlight article, Rudd reflects on her career path, changes in interpretation, and being in upper management as a woman. Part of "Women’s Voices: Women in the National Park Service Oral History Project." Connie Rudd smiles for a portrait in an outdoor setting, wearing a NPS uniform and flathat Grand Canyon National Park Features Trans-Canyon Waterline to Celebrate Engineers Week 2021 How does Grand Canyon National Park provide water to its millions of visitors and residents? The answer: an amazing amount of engineering. Learn more about efforts to replace the park's 1960s-era pipeline with a modern water treatment system. An Engineer suspended above the Colorado River works on construction of the Trans-canyon Waterline More Than “Just” A Secretary If you’re only familiar with modern office practices, you may not recognize many of jobs necessary to run an office or national park over much of the past hundred years. Today, typewriters have given way to computers, photocopy machines have replaced typing pools, stenographers are rarely seen outside of courtrooms, and callers are largely expected to pick extensions from digital directories. Women skiing Two for the Price of One Companion, assistant, confidant, ambassador, host, nurse, cook, secretary, editor, field technician, wildlife wrangler, diplomat, and social director are some of the many roles that people who marry into the NPS perform in support of their spouses and the NPS mission. Although the wives and daughters of park rangers were some of the earliest women rangers in the NPS, many more women served as “park wives” in the 1920s–1940s. Three members of a family Blanket Cave National Youth Park—Activity Enjoy a fun activity and learn about caves even when you can't get out to a park. In this activity you will build your own cave and learn how to make it like a "real" natural cave. Find out about cave formations and wildlife, and how to be safe and care for caves. New "Blanket Cave National Youth Parks" are springing up all across America! Join the fun! cartoon drawing of a childs and a park ranger exploring a cave The Women Naturalists Only two early women park rangers made the transition to park naturalists. Having resigned her permanent ranger position after her marriage, Marguerite Lindsley Arnold returned to Yellowstone National Park under the temporary park ranger (naturalist) title from 1929 to 1931. Yosemite rehired Ranger Enid Michael as temporary naturalist each summer from 1928 to 1942. A handful of other parks hired a few new women under the newly created ranger-naturalist designation. Ranger showing a plant to a visitor The Job is His, Not Yours In the early 1950s, park wives continued to function as they had from the 1920s to the 1940s. The NPS still got Two For the Price of One, relying on women to keep monuments in the Southwest running, to give freely of their time and talents, to build and maintain park communities, and to boost morale among park staffs. With the creation of the Mission 66 Program to improve park facilities, the NPS found new ways to put some park wives to (unpaid) work. Man and woman with telescope Substitute Rangers As the 1940s dawned, the United States was still dealing with the economic woes of the Great Depression and trying not to get drawn in WWII. Even as it continued to manage New Deal Program work in national and state parks, the NPS remained understaffed as a government bureau. The emergency relief workers and about 15 percent of NPS staff enlisted or were drafted during the first couple of years of WWII. Winifred Tada, 1940. (Courtesy of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin) World CA Condor Update – 2020 An update on the world California Condor population for 2020, compiled by our partners at the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service as of December 31, 2020. A close-up of the pink bald head of a California condor with a ruffle of black feathers. Pleistocene Life and Landscapes—Grand Canyon Well known for its geologic significance, the Grand Canyon is one of the most studied geologic landscapes in the world. The park also has numerous caves and a rich and diverse fossil record. Rampart Cave fossils include not only bones, but also hair, skin, sinew, and other soft parts, mostly of sloths. Plant fossils in the sloth dung and packrat middens provide important information about the ecosystem and climate of the Rampart Cave area over thousands of years illustration of a ground sloth Top 10 Tips for Visiting Grand Canyon - Plan Like a Park Ranger Plan Like a Park Ranger in Grand Canyon National Park. Here's our top ten suggestions for visiting the busy South Rim of the Park during Summer 2021. a large group of sightseers behind railings at a scenic overlook. In the background Archaeogeophysical Survey through the Grand Canyon The terraces and deltas along the Colorado River contain hundreds of archeological sites, but is one of the most demanding environments in the U.S. for conducting fieldwork. A study designed to evaluate the usefulness of geophysical survey in this rugged terrain demonstrates that, with some modifications to standard methodologies, geophysical techniques are an effective tool for managing archeological resources along the river. Mindfulness Practice: At Our National Parks and In Life Incorporating a mindfulness practice, whether on a trail, a drive, or on your own personal ride through life, can help us to reconnect with greater presence and more compassion, for both our inner experience of life as well as our outer experience of the world. A small group of hikers ascend Bright Angel trail with a vast and colorful canyon as their backdrop. The Grand Canyon and the Antiquities Act Arizona's Grand Canyon ranks among the most famous of America's national parks. Archeological sites here show that ancient people inhabited the Grand Canyon area some 11,000 years ago. Protection of these sites and natural resources led President Theodore Roosevelt to declare the site a national monument in 1908 by authority of the Antiquities Act of 1906 as “an object of unusual scientific interest, being the greatest eroded canyon within the United States.” Horse figurines made from split willow twigs.
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Grand Canyon National Park Grand Canyon, Arizona Trip Planner Table of Contents WELCOME TO GRAND CANYON.................... 2 GENERAL INFORMATION................................ 3 GETTING TO GRAND CANYON....................... 4 WEATHER......................................................... 5 SOUTH RIM...................................................... 6 SOUTH RIM SERVICES AND FACILITIES.......... 7 NORTH RIM...................................................... 8 NORTH RIM SERVICES AND FACILITIES.......... 9 TOURS AND TRIPS........................................... 10 HIKING MAP.................................................... 12 DAY HIKING..................................................... 13 HIKING TIPS..................................................... 14 BACKPACKING................................................. 15 GET INVOLVED................................................ 17 OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL PARK...................... 18 PARK PARTNERS.............................................. 19 Navigating Trip Planner This document uses links to ease navigation. A box around a word or website indicates a link. Welcome to Grand Canyon Welcome to Grand Canyon National Park! For many, a visit to the Grand Canyon is a once in a lifetime opportunity and I hope you find the following pages useful for trip planning. Whether your first visit or your tenth, this planner can help you design the trip of your dreams. As we welcome over 6 million visitors a year to Grand Canyon, your safety is of the utmost importance to me. I want you to have an enjoyable and memorable visit but most importantly I want you to have a safe visit. Use this information to start planning how you will explore Grand Canyon but don’t be afraid to check in with park staff when you get here. Our knowledgeable rangers can help perfect any itinerary you put together and ensure you leave with happy memories. Exploring any park, Grand Canyon included, can have some dangers. Be sure you are drinking enough water and eating salty snacks (if hiking). Look down to see where your feet are; I know the views are breathtaking, but don’t forget to keep a safe distance from the rim of the Canyon. Wildlife can be cute or even majestic but maintaining a safe distance and not feeding the animals is best for you and the animal. Just by being aware of these few safety best practices and using all of the trip planning resources available here, I know that you will have a fantastic experience visiting us at Grand Canyon National Park! Thank you, Christine Lehnertz, Superintendent Grand Canyon National Park Trip Planner 2 General Information National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Located entirely in northern Arizona, the park encompasses 277 miles of the Colorado River and adjacent uplands. One of the most spectacular examples of erosion anywhere in the world, Grand Canyon is unmatched in the incomparable vistas it offers to visitors on the rim. Grand Canyon National Park is a World Heritage Site. Grand Canyon National Park Superintendent Christine Lehnertz PO Box 129 Grand Canyon, Arizona 86023 USA Park Headquarters 928-638-7888 Website www.nps.gov/grca/ Park Openings and Closings Park Entrance Fees The Village and Desert View on the South Rim are open all year and park entrances remain open 24 hours a day. North Rim facilities open mid-May and close midOctober. Park entrances remain open 24 hours a day during this time. Hours for visitor centers and businesses vary throughout the year. Fees collected support projects in the park. Admission to the park is $35 per private vehicle; $30 per motorcycle; and $20 per person entering the park via Grand Canyon Railway, park shuttle bus, private rafting trip, walking, or riding a bicycle. The pass can be used for seven days and includes both rims. Pay fees at park entrance stations or at some businesses outside the park. Every year the National Park Service offers entrance fee free days. For complete fee information, including Annual, Active Military, Senior, and Access passes visit Park Information The park produces a Pocket Map with a North Rim and South Rim edition that contains a map and information about services, facilities, and park ranger programs. It is available in French, German, Japanese, Italian, Spanish, Korean, and Chinese. A hiking brochure is available for those planning to hike one of the park’s main trails down into Grand Canyon. An Accessibility Guide is also available. Obtain publications at entrance stations, visitor centers, or at go.nps.gov/136ojl Accessibility For information about accessibility in Grand Canyon National Park, see go.nps.gov/1rtxl2 go.nps.gov/y5uu6f Sustainability Grand Canyon National Park incorporates sustainability into all aspects of its operations. Use your refillable water bottle to fill up on free Grand Canyon spring water at major trailheads, visitor centers, grocery stores,
Grand Canyon Grand Canyon National Park Arizona National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Pocket Map South Rim Services Guide Mather Point Services, Facilities, and Viewpoints Visitor Center Park Ranger Program Grand Canyon Visitor Center, trails, and Grand Canyon views Historic lodging, dining, gift shops, trails, and Grand Canyon views Grand Canyon Visitor Center Complex Shuttle stop for Kaibab/Rim Route, Village Route, and Tusayan Route; parking, drinking water, restroom, picnic tables Backcountry Information Center Shuttle stop; information, hiking maps, overnight backcountry permits; drinking water, restroom, 928-638-7875 Grand Canyon Association (GCA) Park Store at the Visitor Center G passport stamp, 928-638-7145 Grand Canyon Visitor Center Information, exhibits, theater; passport stamp, free local phone calls, AED, 928-638-7888 Mather Point Shuttle stop; sunrise and sunset canyon views Pipe Creek Vista Shuttle stop; canyon views South Kaibab Trailhead Shuttle stop, canyon views, drinking water (trailhead only), restroom, picnic tables. Access to steep trail with no water or shade for day hikes down to Ooh Aah Point, Cedar Ridge, and Skeleton Point. Ask for a hiking brochure at visitor centers or Backcountry Information Center. Yaki Point Shuttle stop, sunset and sunrise canyon views, restroom, picnic tables Yavapai Geology Museum/Yavapai Point G Shuttle stop; information, exhibits, GCA Park Store, canyon views; drinking water, restroom, passport stamp, AED, 928-638-7890 Bright Angel Lodge S B L D O H G $–$$ Shuttle stop; history room with exhibits, canyon views; two restaurants—one casual dining and one Arizona cuisine—entrees, burgers, sandwiches, salads; coffee shop, ice cream fountain (seasonal); drinking water, restroom, ATM, Wi-Fi (fee), transportation desk (tours, mule rides), AED, 928-638-2631 Bright Angel Trailhead Canyon views, mule corral; drinking water, restroom, emergency phone. Access to steep trail with day hikes down to 1 ½-Mile Resthouse, 3-Mile Resthouse, and Indian Garden. Ask for a hiking brochure at visitor centers or Backcountry Information Center. Hermits Rest (West of Village) Grand Canyon views and Rim Trail along 7-mile (11 km) Hermit Road; attractions and facilities listed from east to west Hermits Rest Route Transfer Shuttle stop for Hermits Rest Route; transfer to Village Route; canyon views Trailview Overlook Westbound shuttle stop; view of canyon, Bright Angel Trail, and village historic district Maricopa Point Westbound shuttle stop; view of canyon and former Orphan Mine Powell Point East- and westbound shuttle stop; canyon views, memorial to Major John Wesley Powell expeditions of 1869 and 1872 Hopi Point Westbound shuttle stop; canyon and Colorado River views; restroom Clinic Urgent care services, walk-ins welcome; first aid, AED, 928-638-2551 Community Library Wi-Fi (no fee), 928-638-2718 Mohave Point East- and westbound shuttle stop; sunrise and sunset canyon and Colorado River views; picnic tables El Tovar Hotel B L D O H G $–$$$ Canyon views; tapas, soups, salads, entrees; drinking water, restroom, Wi-Fi (fee), concierge (tours, mule rides), AED, National Historic Landmark, 928-638-2631 The Abyss Westbound shuttle stop; canyon views, 3,000 foot (914 m) drop off Garage Emergency repairs, tow service, 928-638-2631 Pima Point East- and westbound shuttle stop; hear Colorado River; sunrise and sunset canyon views Hopi House American Indian arts and crafts for sale, canyon views, National Historic Landmark, 928-638-2631 Monument Creek Vista Westbound shuttle stop; canyon views Hermits Rest S G $ Shuttle stop; canyon views, drinking water, restroom, picnic tables, AED, National Historic Landmark, 928-638-2631 Kachina Lodge H Canyon views; check in at El Tovar Hotel, 928-638-2631 Market Plaza Lodging, camping, groceries, and ATM; no Grand Canyon views Kennel Dogs and cats, proof of vaccinations required, day and overnight rates available, 928-638-0534 Camper Services Laundry, showers, dump station, Wi-Fi (no fee), pay phone, AED, 928-638-6350 Kolb Studio G Information, exhibits, GCA Park Store, canyon views, passport stamp, AED, 928-638-2771 Canyon Village Market “General Store” S B L D G $ Deli, groceries, camping supplies, gear rental, drinking water, exterior restroom, picnic tables, WiFi (no fee), 928-638-2262 Lookout Studio G Canyon views, AED, National Historic Landmark, 928-6382631 Hermit Trailhead Canyon views, picnic tables. Access to steep, rough, and unmaintained trail for experienced desert hikers only. Desert View (East of Village) Grand Canyon views, unmarked pullouts, picnic areas, and services along the 22mile (35 km) Desert View Drive; attractions and facilities listed from west to east Grandview Point Parking, canyon views, restroom, picnic tables. Access to very steep, unmaintained Grandview Trail—experienced desert hikers only. Chase Bank ATM, foreign currency exchange for members only, 928-638-2437 Maswi
Grand Canyon Grand Canyon National Park Arizona National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Pocket Map North Rim Services Guide Services, Facilities, and Viewpoints Inside the Park North Rim Visitor Center / Grand Canyon Lodge Campground / Backcountry Information Center Services and Facilities Outside the Park Information, lodging, restaurants, services, and Grand Canyon views Camping, fuel, services, and hiking information Lodging, camping, food, and services located north of the park on AZ 67 North Rim Visitor Center Park in the designated parking area and walk to the south end of the parking lot. Bring this Pocket Map and your questions. Features new interpretive exhibits, park ranger programs, restroom, drinking water, self-pay fee station, nearby canyon views, and access to Bright Angel Point Trail. 8 am–6 pm North Rim Campground Operated by the National Park Service; $18–25 per night; no hookups; dump station. Reservation only May 15 to October 15: 877-444-6777 or recreation. gov. Reservation or first-come, first-served October 16–31 with limited services. Features an amphitheater, park ranger programs, and access to Transept Trail. Kaibab Lodge Located 18 miles (30 km) north of North Rim Visitor Center; open May 15 to October 20; lodging and restaurant. 928-638-2389 or kaibablodge.com Grand Canyon Association Park Store Books, gifts, passport stamp; 8 am–6 pm Lost and Found Turn in found items at the North Rim Visitor Center. Inquire about lost items at the visitor center or Grand Canyon Lodge front desk. Grand Canyon Lodge Check at the lodge for same day availability. Make advanced reservations with Forever Resorts: 877-386-4383 or 480-998-1981; grandcanyonforever.com. Reserve as far ahead as possible since lodging is booked well in advance. Features park ranger programs, restroom, drinking water, and access to Bright Angel Point Trail, Transept Trail, and Bridle Path. Grand Canyon Lodge Dining Room Breakfast 6:30–10 am; lunch 11:30 am–2:30 pm; dinner 4:30–9:30 pm; reservations recommended for dinner Deli in the Pines May 15 to August 31, 10:30 am–9 pm; September 1 to October 15, 11 am–8 pm Chuckwagon Buffet Purchase an all-you-can-eat or a one-time-through ticket and take your dinner from the auditorium to the veranda, 4:30–7 pm Roughrider Saloon Beer, wine, and cocktails; ATM; 11 am–11 pm Coffee Shop Located in the Roughrider Saloon; coffee, bagels, baked goods, and other breakfast items; 5:30–10:30 am Gift Shop Souvenirs and books; 7 am–9 pm Post Office Window service Monday through Friday, 8 am to noon and 1–5 pm; closed weekends and federal holidays Religious Services Check the bulletin board in the lodge for a schedule of services Canyon Trail Rides One-hour rides along the rim, half-day rides along the rim, and trips down into Grand Canyon are usually available. Register at the Canyon Trail Rides desk in the lodge lobby, 7 am–5 pm, or call 435-679-8665. Hiker Shuttle Shuttle from the lodge to North Kaibab Trailhead; departs at 5:30 am and 6 am. Reserve space 24 hours in advance at the lodge front desk. Free, Daily Park Ranger Programs Grand Canyon National Park offers free, daily park ranger programs on the North Rim. Learn about geology, fossils, plants, animals, and people during walks, talks, hikes, demonstrations, evening programs, and more! Programs may be canceled in inclement weather or during special events. Check North Rim Visitor Center or go.nps.gov/gc_programs for a full listing. Laundry and Showers On the road to the campground; laundry 7 am–10 pm; showers 7 am–8 pm Service Station On the road to the campground; open daily 8 am–5 pm; 24 hour pay-at-thepump; gas and diesel available General Store Adjacent to the campground; groceries, gifts, camping supplies, ATM, Wi-Fi; 7 am–8 pm Backcountry Information Center Located in the Administrative and Backcountry Office, 11.5 miles (18.5 km) south of the north entrance station. Open 8 am to noon and 1–5 pm. Information, hiking maps, overnight backcountry permits; drinking water, restroom. Information: nps.gov/grca/planyourvisit/backcountry.htm Scenic Drive A winding scenic drive to diverse viewpoints, picnic areas, and hiking trails. Vehicles longer than 30 feet (9 m) not recommended. Allow a half- to a full-day. Point Imperial Parking, restroom, picnic area, access to Ken Patrick Trail and Point Imperial Trail. Highest point on the North Rim at 8,803 feet (2,683 m); overlooks the Painted Desert, Marble Canyon, and eastern Grand Canyon. Layers of red and black Precambrian rocks, not visible at Bright Angel Point, add contrast and color. Part of the viewpoint is accessible. Eleven miles (18 km) from North Rim Visitor Center; allow 20 minutes driving time one-way. Vista Encantada Parking, picnic area, canyon views Roosevelt Point Parking, access to Roosevelt Point Trail Walhalla Overlook / Walhalla Glades Pueblo Parking, canyon views, short trail to ancestral Puebloan home site. Cape Royal Parking, restroom, picn
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Grand Canyon National Park Grand Canyon, Arizona Hiking Into Grand Canyon Plan Ahead Whether a day or overnight trip, hiking into Grand Canyon on the Bright Angel, North Kaibab, or South Kaibab trails gives an unparalleled experience that changes your perspective. Knowledge, preparation, and a good plan are your keys to success. Be honest about your health and fitness, know your limits, and avoid spontaneity—Grand Canyon is an extreme environment and overexertion affects everybody at some point. Stay together, follow your plan, and know where you can call 911 with emergencies. Turning around may be your best decision. For information about Leave No Trace strategies, hiking tips, closures, roads, trails, and permits, visit go.nps.gov/grcabackcountry. Warning Hiking to the river and back in one day is not recommended due to long distance, extreme temperature changes, and an approximately 5,000foot (1,500 m) elevation change each way. While Hiking BALANCE FOOD AND WATER • Do not force fluids. Drink water when you are thirsty, and stop when you are quenched. Over-hydration may lead to a life-threatening electrolyte disorder called hyponatremia. RESTORE YOUR ENERGY If you think you have the fitness and expertise to attempt this extremely strenuous hike, please seek the advice of a park ranger at the Backcountry Information Center. Know how to rescue yourself. YOU are responsible for your safety and the safety of your family and friends. Rescue is not guaranteed, and assistance may take hours or days due to weather or other emergencies. Before You Go • Choose the appropriate trail for your abilities or consider walking the Rim Trail for an easier hike. • Check the weather and adjust plans; avoid summer heat. Remember the weather can change suddenly. • Leave your itinerary with someone who will notice if you are overdue and report it to 911. • Hydrate, but don’t force fluids. Eat a good meal, and get a good night’s sleep. If you do not feel well, do not hike. • Prepare yourself for a faster hike down with high impact on your joints and a slow, strenuous hike out that may take twice as long or longer. that may take twice as long or longer. • Eat double your normal intake of carbohydrates and salty foods. Calories play an important role in regulating body temperature, and hiking suppresses your appetite. TAKE CARE OF YOUR BODY • If you start to feel nauseated, dizzy, or disoriented, rest, eat, and drink until you feel better. This can take an hour or longer. • If you are hot, cool off by getting wet in creeks and water stations. If you are cold, put on layers and eat food. • Take plenty of breaks and enjoy the view while resting. 10 Essentials for Your Day Pack 1. Water: bring a sufficient amount and extra in case of emergency; always bring a water treatment method 2. Salty snacks and high-calorie meal(s) 3. First aid kit, prescriptions, blister care, duct tape, and pocket knife 4. Map or trail guide 5. Flashlight or headlamp with spare batteries 6. Sunscreen, wide-brimmed hat, and sunglasses 7. Whistle, signal mirror, and cell phone 8. Lightweight tarp or emergency shelter 9. Broken-in hiking shoes with good soles and hiking poles 10. Layers of clothing What to Expect Each Season SUMMER WINTER SPRING AND AUTUMN Plan for hot, mostly dry weather in May and September; extremely hot, dry weather in June; and hot with monsoon thunderstorms in July and August. Plan for short days and long, cold nights with potential snow and ice at the top and rain in the canyon. The upper portion of all trails can be icy and dangerous. The South Kaibab Trail receives more sun than the Bright Angel Trail. Plan for short days with highly variable weather. While the climate is typically cool, it can snow or be intensely hot. High winds are common. Average temperatures at the top: 48°F to 83°F (9°C to 28°C) Average temperatures at the river: 74°F to 104°F (23°C to 40°C); temperatures can feel like 140°F (60°C) in the sun and reach 115°F (46°C) in the shade. Average temperatures at the top: 19°F to 45°F (-7°C to 7°C) Average temperatures at the river: 38°F to 59°F (3°C to 15°C) Hiking Tips Hiking Tips Hiking Tips • Start hiking before dawn, in the evening, or at night to avoid dangerous heat. Do not hike between 10 am and 4 pm. • Wear light-colored, loose-fitting cotton clothing. Soak your shirt, bandana, and hat to stay cool. • Beware of lightning, falling rocks, and flash floods during storms. Stay away from edges, promontories, and individual trees. • Know the signs of heat illness: headaches, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, cramping, and decreased urine output. Rest in the shade, get wet, hydrate, and eat highenergy foods. • Know the signs of hyponatremia, caused by over-hydration: nausea and vomiting, headache, difficulty walking, confusion, and seizures. Balance hydration with salty snacks, eat well-rounded meals, and rest frequently. Average temperature
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Grand Canyon National Park A Living Canyon: Discovering Life at Grand Canyon 1 G rand Canyon's scale and beauty overwhelm the senses and inspire awe. At first glance the great chasm appears lifeless, but thousands of interconnected plants and animals bring this magnificent stone wilderness to life. The canyon's extreme elevation changes and dramatic topography produce a range of climates, creating homes for a surprisingly rich diversity of living things. These organisms' interactions with and adaptations to this rugged environment define Grand Canyon's ecology. Further Information Field Guide to the Grand Canyon by Stephen R. Whitney Field Guide to the Grand Canyon (Pocket Naturalist Series) by James Kavanagh nps.gov/grca/learn/nature WATERCOLOR AND SKETCHES © JOHN D. DAWSON COVER PHOTO: DESERT BIGHORN SHEEP © MIKE BUCHHEIT E X P E R I E N C E Y O U R A M E R I C A™ This living canyon is only one part of a larger story. Its forests, deserts, and rivers do not begin or end with Grand Canyon, just as threats to this ecosystem do not exist only inside park boundaries. As global climate changes, plants and animals must adapt or they will die. Whether by foot, bicycle, shuttle bus, or car, Grand Canyon provides you with unique opportunities to explore diverse biological communities and make your own discoveries. Living Communities Five distinct biotic communities exist in Grand Canyon's ecosystem. Interdependent plants and animals comprise each unique community. Elevation, light, temperature, slope, aspect, precipitation, and natural disturbances— such as fire and flood—contribute to the complexity and dynamics of these communities. As you travel through the park and beyond, notice how your surroundings gradually change. Mixed Conifer Forest Merriam's Canadian life zone See pages 4–5. Pinyon-Juniper Woodland This mixture of trees flourishes inside the canyon and along the warm, sunny areas of canyon rim. The trees are shorter because this community receives less precipitation than higher elevation forests. Desert Scrub Merriam's lower Sonoran life zone See pages 12–13. Riparian See pages 14-15. In 1889, C. Hart Merriam, head of the United States Biological Survey, studied Grand Canyon and the San Francisco Peaks, near Flagstaff, Arizona. In 50 short miles (80 km) from the summit of the peaks to the bottom of Grand Canyon, Merriam encountered 10,000 feet (3,048 m) of elevation change and observed the biological equivalent of traveling 1,750 miles (2,816 km) from Canada to Mexico. What Is the Key to Desert Life? Merriam revolutionized the concept of life zones, which forms the basis of modern ecology. He alleged that temperature alone dictated life in each zone. Today, we study communities instead of life zones and understand that many more factors contribute to each biotic community. How does Merriam inspire you to investigate Grand Canyon? Water—summer monsoon rain and winter snow play a vital role in shaping Grand Canyon's communities. Monsoons form when warm air from the south rises and cools over northern Arizona, creating quickly moving, violent thunderstorms. Conversely, winter storms originate from the north and west, bringing precipitation as snow. The park's diverse biotic communities provide a range of opportunities for many different species of plants and animals to thrive. In fact, Grand Canyon hosts the highest number of plant species of any national park. How many will you find? Vascular Plants: 1,750 species Birds: 373 species Mammals: 92 species Fish: 18 species (5 native) Reptiles and Amphibians: 57 species Exotic (non-native) Animals: 23 species Plants: 198 species Endemic (found only in the park) Animals: 20 species Plants: 9 species Invertebrates: 8,480 known species Look for numbers ( , , , etc.) in this brochure. Each species identified with a number is described on the back page. Data from Park Profile 2014 Summer temperatures: 75°F (24°C)–44°F (7°C) Winter temperatures: 39°F (4°C)–17°F (-8°C) Precipitation: Averages 25 inches (64 cm) per year, including 11 feet (3.5 m) of snow These forests thrive on the North Rim and South Rim, acting as a transition zone between the mixed conifer forest and pinyon-juniper woodland. Air temperatures are slightly cooler and precipitation is slightly greater than the pinyon-juniper woodland. Merriam's upper Sonoran life zone See pages 10–11. Life Zones of Grand Canyon Located only on the North Rim, this community is the highest and coolest in the park. Life here adapts to an extreme winter climate. Ponderosa Pine Forest Merriam's transition life zone See pages 6–7. What Makes Grand Canyon So Special? Summer temperatures: 82°F (28°C)–50°F (10°C) Winter temperatures: 44°F (7°C)–20°F (-7°C) Precipitation: Averages 15 inches (38 cm) per year, including 5 feet (1.5 m) of snow Found down inside Grand Canyon, this is the h
The Landscape The grandeur of Grand Canyon lies not only in its size, but also in the beauty of its landscape. In this respect, Grand Canyon shares many characteristics with its neighbors—Zion, Bryce, Canyonlands, Arches, and Capitol Reef national parks. Like Grand Canyon, these neighboring parks lie within the geologic province known as the Colorado Plateau, a region characterized by mostly flat-lying sedimentary rocks that have been raised thousands of feet above sea level, then carved by erosion. The River Below The Colorado River flows 277 river miles (446 km) from Lees Ferry to the Grand Wash Cliffs, the accepted beginning and end of Grand Canyon. Hidden in the narrow Inner Gorge, the river is visible from only a few spots along the rim. Today, the Colorado is seldom its natural muddy red-brown color. Only when tributaries downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, such as the Paria and Little Colorado rivers, contribute significant amounts of sediment during flash floods or spring snowmelt, does the river change from clear blue-green to its natural reddish-​ brown. Landforms here are beautifully sculpted and well exposed due, in part, to climate. The semiarid climate that predominates in the Southwest means that instead of tree-covered slopes and thick soils, bedrock is at the surface. Therefore, rain does not soak into the ground; instead it runs off in huge floods carrying away grains of rock. Cycles of freezing and thawing in the winter widen cracks in the rocks, eventually producing rockfalls. Soft layers erode more rapidly undermining the hard layers above. Bit by bit, flash flood by flash flood, and rock fall by rock fall, the canyon continues to grow. The North Rim The North Rim and the South Rim are only separated by ten miles (16 km) as the raven flies. Although it is not apparent, the north wall of the canyon rises a thousand feet (305 m) higher than the South Rim, giving the North Rim nearly twice the annual precipitation as South Rim. This considerable difference in elevation results from the fact that the apparently flat-lying rocks of the Kaibab Plateau are dipping gently to the south. Each of the rock units in the canyon erodes in its own manner, yielding the characteristic stepped-pyramid look of the canyon. Shales erode to slopes, while harder sandstones and limestones tend to form cliffs. The extremely hard metamorphic rocks at the bottom of the canyon produce the steep-walled and narrow Inner Gorge, as these rocks are more resistant to erosion than the softer sedimentary rocks above. Color is also an important feature of this landscape. Many of these colors are due to the presence of small amounts of iron oxides and other minerals that are either in the rock itself or stain the surface and mask the true color of the rock. The name Colorado is derived from Spanish for reddish, reflecting the heavy sediment loads the river once transported. Dams now bracket Grand Canyon—Glen Canyon Dam (Lake Powell) upstream and Hoover Dam (Lake Mead) downstream. As a result of these dams, the dynamics of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon changed dramatically. Gone are the large annual floods that carried hundreds of thousands of tons of sediment through the canyon each day. Toroweap Overlook in western Grand Canyon offers visitors a stunning view of the Colorado River. From the rim, the river looks puny, yet it averages 300 feet (90 m) wide and features a series of fierce rapids. From its origins high in the Colorado Rockies, the river drops more than 12,000 feet (3,700 m) and passes through a series of canyons, including Grand Canyon, on its 1,450-mile (2,300 km) journey to the Gulf of California. Expansive views from Cape Royal on the North Rim printed on 100% recycled paper 0915 National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Grand Canyon National Park Journey Through Time: Grand Canyon Geology The Geologic Record as Told by the Rocks Canyon Origins Nowhere on this planet are the scope of geologic time and the power of geologic processes as superbly and beautifully exposed as in these canyon walls. Rocks equivalent to many of these strata may be found scattered throughout the United States and flowing water has sculpted other landscapes. Yet, at Grand Canyon, a remarkable geologic assemblage is exposed in sequence and intact in an amazing erosional landscape. Although the origin of Grand Canyon is complex and not totally deciphered, the forces that shaped it are well understood. Grand Canyon is the result of erosion, specifically incision by a river into a high, arid plateau. The Colorado River carved the depth of the canyon as it cut its way through the Kaibab Plateau which is more than 7,000 feet (2,100 m) above sea level. Side canyons, scoured by summer thunderstorms and winter snow melt, produce much of Grand Canyon’s 10–16-mile (16–22 km) width. 1 2 3 4 5 The canyon walls reach about 5,000 feet (1,500 m) below the rim to the river. The thickness of all Grand Canyon rocks,
Plants Living on the Edge Rim Environment The arid environment of the South Rim poses a number of challenges for the plants living here. The rim averages only 16 inches/41 cm of rain a year, which varies widely from year to year. Periods of drought are common. Half of the precipitation falls as winter snow, when many plants are dormant and cannot use the moisture. The other half arrives with summer monsoon storms starting in July. Huge thunderclouds build as the day heats up, often producing violent torrents of rain. Since much of the ground surface is rock, only a portion of the rainwater penetrates the soil while the rest rushes away. Fractures within the rocks draw water deep into the ground, below the roots of the plants. Grand Canyon National Park Walk the Hermit Road portion of the Greenway Trail to learn about the South Rim’s plant communities and how they thrive in this challenging environment. entire trail or only a portion of it, picking up the free shuttle bus at Pima Point along the way. Enjoy the quiet overlooks and rest on benches along the trail. Water, snacks, and restrooms are available only at Hermits Rest. Carry water and snacks and wear clothing appropriate for the weather. The exposed rim becomes hot in the summer and quite cold with sharp winds in the winter. Be prepared and enjoy your learning adventure against the backdrop of Grand Canyon. This section of the Greenway Trail starts at Monument Creek Vista and ends at Hermits Rest, a distance of 2.8 miles/4.5 km. The paved trail is relatively level with some slight up and downhill sections. Walk along the The rim effect influences local environments. Warm, dry, summer air rising from the depths of the abyss spills over the rim, stunting trees that grow tall and stately just a few hundred feet back from the edge. Winter storms laden with snow and ice sweep across the canyon, blasting the plants close to the rim and exacting a toll on foliage and the next season’s leaf and stem buds. Rim Trail 7.8mi / 12.6km Hermits Rest to Grand Canyon Village N Greenway Trail 2.8mi /4.5km Hopi Point Hermits Rest to Monument Creek Vista Powell Point Mohave Point Pima Point oad / 2. 7km Trailview Overlook rm mi it R 1.7 He 1. 1m i/ 1. 8k m Maricopa Point Pinyon - Juniper Community Pinyon pine (left), Utah juniper (right) Woodlands dominated by pinyon pine and various species of juniper grow throughout the Southwest and dominate the vegetation along the edge of Grand Canyon’s South Rim. Pinyon pine is easily recognized by its dark bark, short, curved needles in groups of two, and small cones. The Utah juniper has shaggy bark, small scale-like needles, and light blue-green cones that look like, and are called, berries. A rich variety of shrubs, flowers, and grasses grow beneath these trees, comprising a complex, fascinating community. Hermits Rest Monument Creek Vista or Greenway Trail Greenway Trail - pedestrians only Rim Trail - dirt Rim Trail - paved Road 0 Shuttle bus stop 1/2 Village/Hermits Rest Route Transfer The Abyss 1 km 0 1/2 1 mile Grand Canyon Village Pinyon cones (left) and juniper berries (right) Microhabitats Both pinyons and junipers illustrate adaptations to this dry environment. Short, stout trees better withstand the strong winds battering the rim. Small, wax-coated needles use less water. Evergreen trees retain their needles Ponderosa pines for years and do not expend precious water and energy replacing all their foliage each year. These long-lived trees grow very slowly. Even the smaller trees are decades old and can survive more than 600 years. Temperature increases and rainfall becomes more scarce as you descend into the canyon. Desert plants replace pinyons and junipers. Biologist C. Hart Merriam documented this pattern of changing plant and animal communities with changes in elevation more that 100 years ago. He introduced the concept of life zones—broad bands of plant and animal species that could be associated with certain latitudes, elevations, and exposures. At elevations higher than those found on most of the South Rim, ponderosa pines replace the pinyon-juniper community. At even higher elevations on the North Rim, Engelmann spruce, subalpine fir, and aspen replace the ponderosa pine community. Within each landscape are microhabitats, areas with conditions ideal for a plant or community that otherwise would not be able to flourish. As you walk along the Greenway Trail west of Monument Creek Vista and leave the canyon’s rim, notice several ponderosa pines towering along the trail. Ponderosas have tall, straight trunks and long needles. Generally found at higher elevations than pinyons and junipers, here they grow together. Why would that be? First, by leaving the rim, you are leaving the rim effect, the strong winds and hotter air temperatures that would prevent a ponderosa from living right along the rim. Also, the trail traverses a drainage that holds more moisture below the grou
Perennial bunchgrass with leaves that are often folded or rolled down. Flowers March to September with loose and open seed heads. Perennial shrub with thick, crooked trunk and silvery gray-green foliage. Leaves wedge-shaped and hairy with 3 rounded lobes at the tip. Flower stalks emerge from ends of branches; August to September. Perennial forb of tall stalks with flowers along upper portion; March to September. Leaves opposite, triangular shaped, sometimes clasping the stem. Many penstemon species inhabit Grand Canyon. Eaton’s firecracker (left) with beautiful narrow, red flowers is most abundant at higher elevations. Palmer’s penstemon (right) exhibits showy pink flowers. Look for it farther down the trail. Grand Canyon rockdaisy One of the most widely distributed shrubs in the southwestern United States, sagebrush is known for its pungent odor. Native Americans and pioneers depended upon it for medicine, fuel, and food. Perityle congesta – Asteraceae Gray aster Perennial shrub to 1 ft / 30 cm tall with many slender stems. Leaves alternate, mostly along stem, oval, and sometimes toothed. Tiny yellow flowers June to October. This small, rounded plant has a delicate appearance. Watch for it growing out of cracks in the rock wall above the trail. Restricted almost exclusively to Grand Canyon, it thrives from river to rim. Perennial forb with alternate, pale green leaves. Violettinged white flowers with narrow petals and a yellow center; July to September. The showy flowers highlight the large, dense patches of gray aster. A powdery coating makes the firm, wide leaves appear grayish-green. © Lisa Kearsley Continue to the sign warning of the danger of hiking to the river and back in one day. Fernbush Chamaebatiaria millefolium – Rosaceae Shrub to 5 ft / 1.5 m tall. Leaves alternate and fernlike. White flowers with 5 petals; July to November. Fernbush is easily identified by its sticky leaves, which look like miniature ferns. The flowers, showy and sweetsmelling, attract bees. Deer and sheep browse the foliage. © Lee Dittmann (both) Artemisia tridentata – Asteraceae © Br. Alfred Brousseau, St. Mary’s College Elymus elymoides – Poaceae © Tom Chester © Lisa Kearsley © Lisa Kearsley © Lee Dittmann Big sagebrush Penstemon sp. – Scrophulariaceae Amelanchier utahensis – Rosaceae The foliage and berries are an important food for a variety of wildlife. People have long eaten the berries. The name originates from the early settlers who placed serviceberry flowers on grave sites. Squirreltail The seed heads look like a bushy squirrel’s tail or bottle brush. It survives when exposed to fire and competes well against invasive cheatgrass. Deer and elk graze the grass. Its seeds are eaten by rodents and rabbits. Penstemon Utah serviceberry Shrub to 15 ft / 5 m tall. Leaves alternate, oval, hairy, and toothed. White flowers with 5 petals appear April to May. Orange fruits ripen in summer. Brickellbush, while quite common, is often overlooked since its features are not distinctive. Can you find it along the trail? This drought-tolerant bush grows best in rocky areas with full sun. Walk down to the Bright Angel Trail information sign at the first switchback. A widespread grass often found in open woodlands and grasslands, this is an important food source for elk, deer, and bighorn sheep. The Havasupai grind and eat the seeds or boil them to make dumplings. Green ephedra Ephedra viridis – Ephedraceae Perennial shrub with many upright, green, jointed stems. Look closely at the stems for the small, scale-like leaves and in the spring, for small yellow-green cones. Eurybia glauca – Asteraceae Ephedra looks like a branched, upsidedown broom, its leaves hardly noticeable. Related to pines and juniper, it bears cones instead of flowers. Ephedra produce caffeine and ephedrine and have been used as decongestants to relieve colds and asthma. The stems are steeped to make tea. © Lisa Kearsley (both) Oak provides shelter and food for many animals. Early cultures ground the acorn into meal. Its hard wood is important for toolmaking, and its bark produces a tan dye for Navajo rugs. While the leaves turn brown in fall, many do not drop off until spring when new leaves replace them. Deciduous shrub to 5 ft / 1.5 m tall with smooth stems. Leaves opposite and oval. Tubular pink flowers with 5 lobes bloom May to August; followed by white berries. Perennial shrub to 1.5 ft / 50 cm tall. Reddish-tan stems with long, narrow leaves. Yellow flowers with a big, fluffy center and 5 narrow petals appear in the fall. Like Grand Canyon rockdaisy, these plants occur mainly along the rock wall above the trail. They also are endemic to (i.e. found only at) Grand Canyon. Botanists recently designated this plant as a new species. © Kristin Huisinga Tree to 15 ft / 5 m tall with gray, furrowed bark. Deeply lobed leaves are smooth above and hairy below. Large acorns mature in fall. Symphoricarpos oreophilus – Caprifoliacea
The Civilian Conservation Corps 2. Bright Angel Trailhead Ascend the stairway and walk to the right (west), following the rim a few hundred feet to the stoneand-pipe mule corral. A Legacy Preserved at Grand Canyon Village 1933 Severe economic depression challenged the confidence of the people of the United States. One in four people was unemployed. Many were homeless. Serious drought gripped large areas of the West and Midwest. The nation’s leaders felt that the economic and social problems demanded immediate action. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was sworn into the presidency on March 4. He called Congress into emergency session on March 9, introduced legislation for the Civilian Conservation Corps (ccc) on March 27, and he signed the bill on March 31. On April 7 the first enrollee took the ccc oath! By the end of 1935 the ccc employed more than 500,000 men at over 2,650 camps in every state. The creation of the ccc was a model of speediness. It became the most popular of Roosevelt’s New Deal programs. Unemployed young men (women were not eligible) signed up for a six-month “hitch.” The government provided enrollees with barracksstyle sleeping space, meals, basic health care, and $30 per month, of which $25 went home to assist their families. The ccc assigned enrollees to companies of about 200 men, supervised by regular and reserve military officers. The enrollees completed conservation work on lands across the United States. Grand Canyon National Park’s first ccc contingent arrived on May 29, 1933. Ccc crews worked on the South Rim, North Rim, and in the inner canyon until 1942. Companies 818, 819, 847, 2543, 2833, 3318, and 4814 served not only at Grand Canyon, but a few companies also undertook projects near Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona during the winter months. The original purpose of the ccc was to put young men to work on worthwhile conservation projects that would benefit the country. Early in its existence, however, the program added emphasis to teach “the boys” skills and trades. At Grand Canyon some men learned typing and bookkeeping, while others acquired carpentry, truck driving, plumbing, masonry, drafting, welding, and blacksmithing skills. In addition, the ccc educational advisor taught classes in mathematics, reading, history, grammar, photography, and “Laying Out and Planning a Job” after the days work. Over nine years more than 40,000 previously illiterate men nationwide learned to read, while 400,000 completed high school requirements and others worked on college credits. Area Information Restrooms : Restrooms are surprisingly rare in Grand Canyon Village, a reminder of the scarcity of water and proximity of the bedrock. Public restrooms are available at the train depot (when the train is at the station), El Tovar Hotel, Bright Angel Lodge, and the Backcountry Information Center in Parking Lot E. Accessibility: People with mobility restrictions may find the Grand Canyon Village area difficult to explore. The walk between Kolb Studio and stop 2 (Bright Angel Trailhead) rises steeply and is not wheelchair accessible. The route between stops 5 (North Rim View) and 6 (Navajo Street) contains multiple flights of stairs. Consider reaching stops 1 through 5 from the accessible parking spaces near Hopi House. Accessible restrooms are available in Bright Angel Lodge, El Tovar Hotel, and the Community Building (Stop 9, weekdays only). Reach the Bright Angel Lodge restrooms from the rim side of the building and only after obtaining a key from the front desk. American Indians used the route followed by the Bright Angel Trail long before the first pioneers arrived in the 1880s. Walk 800 feet (250 m) down the trail to just past the first tunnel and look high up on the cliff to see pictographs dating from centuries ago. The CCC Walking Tour The walking tour travels a circular route of approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km), although you can begin at any point and walk as much of the loop as you wish. Directions to each stop are in italics. Features are identified by name or description as there are no numbers. The full tour takes approximately one to two hours. Carry water with you during the summer. The National Park Service recommends sun protection, a hat and sunscreen, during the warmer months. Do not stand on exposed areas of the rim during thunderstorms. After winter storms, walkways may be slippery. The text starts at the stairway near Kolb Studio. You can reach Kolb Studio by walking along the rim from El Tovar Hotel or Bright Angel Lodge. Or ride the free shuttle bus to the Bright Angel Lodge stop and walk out to the rim. Or begin the tour at any convenient stop. 1. Stairway From Kolb Studio walk the short distance to the stairs going up. In 1891 local entrepreneur Ralph Cameron and his partners improved the trail and charged a toll of $1 per horse; hikers traveled for free. The trail was transferred to the National Park Service (nps) in 1928. The following year the nps began a major rec
Grand Canyon Village - South Rim Wotans Throne Cape Royal - North Rim Colorado River Chuar Butte Palisades of the Desert National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Grand Canyon National Park Panorama from Desert View Point Inspired Architecture Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter added a dramatic thread to this tapestry when she designed and supervised the construction of the Watchtower and adjacent kiva (1) in 1932. She described it as a “re-creation” of various towers in other Southwestern locations. She added the “ruin” beside the tower so that visitors could experience the current state of such towers as preserved in Hovenweep National Monument. The Fred Harvey Company employed Colter to build a view and rest area for the visitors at Desert View. She, in turn, used the railway engineers and bridge builders to erect the steel framework upon which the masonry walls stand. Colter envisioned the building as part of its surroundings. “One that would create no discordant note against the time-eroded walls of this promontory.” The foundation ties the building into the cliffs. “The color and texture of this weathered surface rock naturally matched our terrain as none other could, but we were at the necessity of using it in just the shape it was found, as any tool mark became a conspicuous scar on the face of our walls. So we were obliged to select carefully for size and shape every unit of stone built into our masonry.” Desert View Point Miss Colter insisted on personal attention to every detail. One day while she was away from the site for a time the masons completed two layers of stone thinking that she would be pleased. One stone was not to her liking and she made them disassemble and rebuild the layers. Search for some of the intentionally designed flaws, cracks, and partially finished decorative patterns that are visible on the exterior. Inspiration for the massive foundation stones came from a similar wall at Wupatki National Monument. Can you find Balolookong, the Pueblo Indian snake spirit, on the exterior wall? Step inside. The entry and sales room reflects the architecture of kivas used as ceremonial chambers by the ancestral Puebloan people and many of their descendents today. Glance up at the wood cribbing on the ceiling. Carpenters salvaged the wood from the old Grand View Hotel. In the center of the room is a symbolic fire ring and ladder to the world above indicative of kiva architecture. Notice that along the side of some of the large windows are reflector scopes. What happens to your perception of the canyon when you look into these scopes? Paintings by Hopi artist Fred Kabotie (left) decorate the first floor. The stories told by these paintings reflect meaningful aspects of his heritage. Notice the incised petroglyphs created by Chester Dennis, another Hopi artist. Climb the stairs to see the work of Fred Geary, Fred Harvey Company artist. He painted the walls and ceilings on the second and third floors, copying designs from original sites in the Southwest. The upper level ceiling (right) displays an adaptation of rock paintings found at Abo Caves, New Mexico. After climbing the 85 steps to the top floor, rest and reflect on the lives of those who inhabited the canyon long ago. As you journey along the rim, you follow the footsteps of many people from a variety of cultures. People have called this area home for at least 12,000 years. A broken spear point tells of ancient hunters tracking giant sloths. A 4,000-year-old split-twig figurine carefully placed in a nearly inaccessible cave hints at another culture’s beliefs. Ancestral Puebloans and people from other cultures built villages throughout this region 800 – 1,000 years ago. Spanish explorers, priests, trappers, prospectors, and tourists have all passed this way. Imagine how each must have perceived this natural wonder. From ancient nomadic hunters to today’s visitors, human experience has shaped Desert View’s cultural landscape. Your experience today is another thread in this rich cultural tapestry. Desert View Desert View Civilian Conservation Corps A tapestry of people and time. As you walk the path up the hill, reflect back to the men of the Civilian Conservation Corps (ccc) who lived and worked at Grand Canyon from 1935 to 1942. While living in barracks, they completed more than twenty projects at Desert View including trails, rock walls (below), roads, and buildings. Ccc crews built the stone-walled building on your left (2) in 1941 as a restroom. The crews’ attention to detail shows the pride they had in their accomplishments. The evolution of Desert View weaves a rich tapestry of human history. As you walk away from the rim, many strands left by early residents and later developers give life to the stories told. A short ¼-mile (½-km) walk leads past historic buildings. Each thread ties you to the rich cultural heritage of the area. The tapestry continues to evolve. We have a responsibility to ensure that genera
What’s in a name? The Marketplace Stories Coming to Life Many archeologists feel that strong evidence connects the people who lived here and in other sites throughout the Southwest with the modern Hopi and Pueblo communities of eastern Arizona and the Rio Grande Valley in New Mexico. Years ago when researchers first explored these sites the Navajo term Anasazi was used to describe the inhabitants. This term can be roughly translated as “ancient enemies.” Understandably, today’s Pueblo people do not appreciate having their forefathers referred to as enemies. The Hopi use Hisatsinom to identify the ancient ones. The National Park Service at Grand Canyon National Park has chosen to use ancestral Puebloans to emphasize the connection between ancient and modern people and cultures. The ancestral Puebloan people used the forest for their supermarket. Piñon (top right) was used for construction, heating, and cooking. Pine needles, high in vitamin C, can be brewed as a tea. Its pitch was used to waterproof baskets, and even as a bandage to hold cuts together. Pine nuts are high in fat, protein, and carbohydrates. As you look over the pueblo before you, imagine the families who have chosen to make this their home. They, like you, had dreams and hopes and worries. They bore children and raised them to take part in community life. This was home, the anchor of their world. Farm Area Farm Area Paved Trail Gravel Trail The path goes down to the area thought to have been the fields for this community. Recent stock tanks and other disturbances have destroyed much of the evidence. Eight hundred years ago check dams and terraces caught and held the scant rain. Seeds were placed deep in the soil in small plots, much as occurs on the Hopi mesas today. To Farming Area Living Area Yucca (below) provided fibers that could be twisted or braided into twine or rope or made into sandals. The flowers and seeds pods could be eaten. Some native people still use yucca root soap for ceremonial purposes. Parking Museum Utah Juniper Creating a Community Dating View of San Francisco Peaks They made beautiful baskets. Some so small they may have been for decoration or toys—evidence that life was more than mere survival. Why did they choose this place? Why did these families stay for only twenty years? What happened to these people? The villagers took the answers with them. Utah juniper (lower right) was also used for firewood. Its shreddy bark peeled readily and provided insulation, padding, or the sole of a sandal. Juniper berries could be eaten raw, but were more often used as a flavoring for stew or venison. Ashes of the scale-like leaves were added to bread as a leavening agent and for flavor. Storage Rooms Kiva Piñon Tree ring dating explained on this exhibit helps determine the age of sites like this one. Archeologists study pottery sherds found here and at other sites and develop a time line based on style, form, color, and decoration. By law national parks protect all plant and animal life. Plants are fragile and should be left undisturbed. Modern digestive systems may not be prepared for the sudden intake of berries and wild plants. Please do not pick or eat any plants. Building size, style, and construction reflect the Grand Canyon and its people in several ways. Limestone, the building blocks available here, is fairly hard and difficult to shape. Piñon and juniper tend to be short and twisted, but provide excellent support beams, insulation, and caulking materials, as well as firewood. The plaza faces south to take advantage of the warmth of the low winter sun. Grand Canyon has been home to people for thousands of years. Considered sacred by many, it has been a nurturing place, a place of spiritual and physical enrichment. Many visitors share this connection today. The National Park Service strives to protect the integrity of the experience and the natural environment. We hope that what you learned will generate more questions about the lives of the ancestral Puebloan people. Our goal is that your enhanced level of interest and knowledge will help us to preserve and protect this wonderful legacy. National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Grand Canyon National Park Arizona Tusayan Ruin Tusayan Ruin Painting by Roy Andersen Grand Canyon National Park Welcome to Tusayan Pueblo Ruin. As you walk the relatively flat 0.1 mile (200 meter) trail around the village, keep in mind that no attempt has been made to reconstruct the structures. During the summer of 2001 with funding through the Vanishing Treasures program, park archeologists stabilized the ruin in an effort to protect it from ongoing degradation. Room blocks have been only partially excavated to allow you to experience an archeological site. Saving our National Stories Please respect this place as you would your own home. Do not walk or stand on the walls or enter the rooms. Many stories of the past preserved here have yet to unfold. T
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Grand Canyon Phantoms of the Past A Historic Walking Tour Like a long-forgotten diary in a dusty cellar, Phantom Ranch tells stories of a time gone by. It is a memory of a era before cell phones, computers, and energy bars, when few people visited Grand Canyon. Shaped by entrepreneurs, presidents, architects, and work crews, Phantom Ranch sits humble and rustic. It still remains and reminds us, like musings in an old journal, of an era of changes, challenges, and achievements. On this walking tour, follow along in the diaries—and footsteps—of Phantom Ranch’s pioneers. Stop 1: Rust’s Camp (at Mule Corral) “An ill omen for us, a heart breaker. We had salty coffee for breakfast, but that isn’t the trouble. Just as we have finished the platform. . .we load the cage. . .and start her across. All goes lovely and jubilant until the car is nearly half way over, then buzz! Whang! Ka-splash. She sinks out of sight…a pall comes over me, stunning, like some friend were stricken dead. We…go to camp sad, sad!” “[N]early pulled end of finger off the other day. . .No use to say more - the tram runs o.k. and looks pretty good.” ~David Rust, September 22. National Park Service (NPS) photo ca. 1910. Cover Image: Sierra Club members perform a skit at a Phantom Ranch campfire. NPS photo ca. 1948. ~David Rust, April 1, 1907 A few years after the Santa Fe Railroad started bringing tourists to the South Rim, David Rust on the North Rim hoped to capitalize on increased tourism as well. A tourist here in 1907 would have seen a different landscape, with no permanent structures and little vegetation. Rust and several men worked hard to build a camp at the bottom of Grand Canyon. Against many challenges, Rust persevered. He and his crew improved trails, planted trees, built an irrigation system, and constructed several tents and ramadas for overnight guests. Eventually, his modest accommodations— not so modestly known as Rust’s Camp—allowed prospectors, hunters, and a “few sturdy and adventurous tourists” to stay comfortably in the canyon. Grand Canyon National Park 1 President Teddy Roosevelt, while on a hunting trip, enjoyed the tram so much he rode it multiple times and even cranked the winch! At that time no reliable way existed to cross the Colorado River. To move tourists and their mules over the river, Rust installed a cable tramway. This system—a cage suspended 60 feet (18 m) above the river on a 450-foot (137 m) long cable—relied on gravity to propel tourists halfway across the river. At a winch on the other side, a tram operator cranked the cage the rest of the way. One early tourist described riding in the cage on a windy day as “being the clapper in a bell.” Rust’s Camp operated from 1907 to 1919, when Grand Canyon officially became a national park. Though his camp did not survive, Rust is one of the most important—and most overlooked—figures in the development of inner canyon tourism. Rust’s achievements were the first to change the face of Phantom Ranch. Unfortunately, little evidence of Rust’s Camp remains today. Portions of his improved trail do exist in the form of the North Kaibab Trail, enjoyed today by many “sturdy and adventurous tourists.” Ellsworth Kolb and a young woman dine at Rust’s Camp. NPS photo ca. 1907. As you meander along the trail, think about the challenges (imagine: salty coffee!) Rust and his crew faced while making changes to the area. Walk north from the corral back toward the ranger station. 2 Phantom Ranch: A Historic Walking Tour Stop 2: Orchard “Our first dollar...I feel something like Lincoln felt over his first $1.00…We are puttering around on the farm. Radishes, peas, lettuce, oats up nicely. Alfalfa put in yesterday.” Phantom Ranch orchards (top, ca. 1933) and early Ranch guests (bottom, ca. 1925). Try to match the photos with what you see today. Do you see any resemblance? NPS photos. ~David Rust’s diary, February 22, 1909 Pass by the ranger station on your way to the Phantom Ranch canteen. In the area between both mule corrals and spanning across the canyon floor, Rust, and later the Fred Harvey company, grew an orchard and alfalfa field for livestock. Because of the remote location, Rust’s Camp and Phantom Ranch had to be as self-sustaining as possible. Guests at meals often delighted in the fresh food: peaches, plums, apricots, and pomegranates from the orchard; chicken and eggs from a chicken house; and rabbits from a rabbit run. And you thought ice-cold lemonade was the cream of the crop! With all the hard work Rust, the Fred Harvey company, and architect Mary Colter put into this area, it started to look less like a desert and began to evolve into the hypnotic hideaway you find today. How will your dinner compare to that of early guests? Will you have steak and cake at the canteen? Or create your own feast in the campground? Stop 3: Mary Colter Buildings “Phantom Ranch is one of the earth’s most rest
I U nkar Delta trail is a 0.8 mile loop, over alluvial terraces and drainages. Allow approximately forty-five minutes, round-trip. This trail system has been developed to permit visitation while protecting the fragile desert environment and prehistoric remains. The walk you are about to take will pass by the ruins of many ancestral Puebloan dwellings. Remember that the sites along the low terraces were occupied earlier in the history of the delta (AD 8501050), those on the talus slopes, later (AD 11001200). It is unlikely that any dwelling was occupied for more than thirty years, and not all were in use at the same time. Length of life for the people living on Unkar was not long, averaging thirty-four years. UN-8 Three distinct architectural components found at this site suggest that modifications were made during the years it was occupied. The shallow, circular pit was probably a pithouse used early in the site’s history (AD 1000). The masonry habitation rooms, storage rooms, enclosures, and adobe-lined basins were added sometime between AD 1070 and 1175. The site was probably occupied by a small family, providing both living quarters and storage space. ✹ UN-6 At some time during its history (AD 1070-1175) this site burned and was rebuilt. Four discrete living episodes were identified, all but the first involving architectural modifications. It is likely that only one habitation room was used at any one time by a family. The adjacent walls and alignments suggest that the site may have been used for agriculture before final abandonment. N G T O U R ✹ ✷ U N K A R D E L T A UN-11 These two rooms were constructed of limestone blocks, cobbles, and slabs wetlaid with adobe sometime between AD 1070-1170. The larger room was probably used for living, the smaller for storage. A single occupation of the site is suggested by the limited features and deposits. Visible walls represent foundations, with original wall height in the larger room being about 2H feet. The presence of adobe mortar suggests that the interior of the rooms had been plastered. Exterior alignments may indicate agricultural features. UN-9 ✹ ✹ UN-14 F roof. Since only a portion of the site was excavated, functions for the visible features are not known. UN-42 At this more recent site (AD 1130-1200), a single semisubterranean room with firepit was constructed by lining at least two walls with masonry. Entrance into this structure was probably at the ground level, with upright slabs being placed in the southeast corner marking the entry. The presence of small beams, poles, and sticks lying in the fill above the floor indicates that the room was probably covered by a full UN-15, 16 & 17 ✷ ✷ UN-1& ROCK CAIRNS DEFINE THE TRAIL AND MARK CREEK CROSSINGS. 2 UN-3 ✷ U N KA R C REEK ◆ ◆ ◆ ✹ ◆ ✷ C ✹ UN-11 ✷ UN-42 ✷ UN-4 ✷ UN-9 Beach Talus Trail ✷ Terrace ◆ ✷ UN-6 Site Rock Cairn Dune UN-4 O The layering of trash deposits found at this site suggests at least three occupations between AD 1070 and 1175. One large “living” room is present. An external firepit and two clusters of wall alignments are also present on the site. Only a small portion of the site was excavated, consequently, only a partial story can be told. R RIV E K DO L A OR OL A BOAT LANDING ✷ UN-8 ] W ] W living at Unkar. Both groups used the same elcome to Unkar Delta, home to many type of clay to make their pottery. prehistoric peoples of the Grand Canyon By the year AD 1200, the ancestral Pueblo —most notably, ancestral Pueblo people. To some, they are known as “Anasazi,” but people appear to have left Unkar Delta and, for to the Hopi people, they are “Hisatsinom,” that matter, most of Grand Canyon. Evidence people of long ago, the ancestors of the Pueblo suggests that areas of the South Rim were occupeople. pied until AD 1225. Thereafter, the Canyon Human use of Unkar Delta began around was uninhabited for some seventy-five years. By AD 850. While the excavators suggested four AD 1300, ancestors to the Hualapai and distinct phases of occupation, recent interpreHavasupai occupied western portions of the tation suggests a gradual process of growth to a park, and groups of Southern Paiute and peak population around the Navajo moved into parts of year AD 1100. For reasons the Canyon. No other pernot yet fully understood, the manent residents were Pueblo people migrated known until the “Anglo” away from the delta by AD expansion of the late 1800s. 1200. To the modern Hopi, ✹ their clans that migrated To date, more than 2700 from Unkar did so in fulfillarcheological sites have been ment of the covenant with found in Grand Canyon. the spiritual guardian, These ancient remains are Ma’saw, so that today, the silent testimony to the lives Hopis see Unkar as a “footof people who made the print” of the clans who once Canyon home for more than inhabited this 4000 years. village. If you find an archeologiFarming was the key to cal site while at
At Bright Angel Point Arrival at Bright Angel Point places you on the edge of a vastness of scenery, time, and opportunity. The view confirms the tremendous uplift that has occurred, leaving the canyon’s North Rim 1,000 feet/300 meters higher than the South Rim. The dark depths of the inner canyon, barely visible from this point, record events that stretch our understanding nearly halfway back in the earth’s 4.6-billion-year history. Multicolored rock layers record the rise and fall of oceans and continents, and the evolution of plants and animals. They record the appearance of trilobites (the first creatures in the fossil record that have eyes), the passing of giant dragonflies, and tales of the pursuits and wanderings of reptiles on ancient sand dunes. The walls of the canyon are much more than layers of rock. They are pages in the earth’s journal, written over a period of nearly two billion years. Though invisible at Bright Angel Point, the Colorado River is the erosive force responsible for the depth of Grand Canyon. Over the past 5 million years or so, it has carved a canyon one mile deep. The rate at which the Colorado River accomplishes this varies greatly depending upon many factors, including rock type and the volume of water the river carries at any given time. The flood of 1884 left debris 40 feet/12 meters above the current river level. The Colorado River is not directly responsible for the canyon’s width. The ten-mile gap between the North and South Rims is the result of erosion from other sources. Freezing and thawing, heating and cooling, and gravity all play a role in breaking down the rocks that the Colorado River has exposed. Returning to the Lodge Very little movement occurs until weather conditions conspire to produce canyon-widening flash floods. In 1966 an unusual storm dropped 14 inches/36 cm of rain on the North Rim in thirty-six hours, sending a 40-foot/12-meter debris flow rampaging down Bright Angel Canyon. The flow in nearby Crystal Creek exceeded the normal flow of the Colorado River itself. This flood washed away a 1,000-year-old pueblo and created a new rapid on the Colorado by dumping house-size boulders into it. Floods wash debris from side canyons into the river. The river carries it to sea. There is no such thing as a finished landscape; it is constantly being reshaped by cycles of slow change punctuated by cataclysm. Understanding geologic time brings us to the realization that human activities are a remarkably small part of the canyon’s story and are by no means the end of it. What of future rock layers? They will certainly come, but on a time scale that verifies our tenuous place in geologic time. To humans, longterm planning means 50 to 100 years, not 50 to 100 million years. Will the trends of environmental change unleashed by human impact have a consequence in geologic time? Photo Right: The original North Rim lodge, circa 1928. Gilbert Stanley Underwood designed the rustic lodge and cabins to complement rather than conflict with their setting. NPS photo Published by Grand Canyon National Park in cooperation with Grand Canyon Association. Dale Schmidt, NPS Writer; Tom Pittenger, NPS Editor; Faith Marcovecchio, GCA Project Editor; Ron Short, GCA Art Director.  Copyright 2001 Grand Canyon Association, Post Office Box 399, Grand Canyon, AZ 86023. Printed on recycled paper. People have chosen to build in and use this area, and it is ours for a time. Environmentally sensitive planning on the North Rim resulted in buildings that complement rather than conflict with their setting. Gilbert Stanley Underwood designed a rustic lodge and cabins rather than a single hotel unit. A crew of 125 men, earning between 50 and 85 cents per hour, worked throughout the harsh winter of 1927-28 to build the lodge. When it opened to the public in 1928, staff would line up at the door to sing a song of welcome. In the evening they put on a talent show followed by a dance. Visitors would depart to strains of a farewell song sung by the accommodating staff. On September 1, 1932, fire razed the four-year-old Grand Canyon Lodge. Rebuilding began in 1936. The design was altered somewhat: steepened roofs replaced flat rooftop observation decks, more stone was used, and less wood. Interior space became more massive with high, gabled ceilings and exposed beams; durability under snow load and resistance to fire were improved. The tower, with its museum and natural history exhibits painstakingly assembled by park naturalist Eddie McKee, was never replaced. When the Union Pacific Railroad, builder of the lodge, ceased passenger operations in 1971, it had no incentive to promote accommodations like Grand Canyon Lodge. The lodge and cabins were donated to the National Park Service, which now leases the buildings to a concessioner. The lodge is on the National Register of Historic Places, ensuring that this aesthetically appealing structure will be maintained in its present condition until, millennia fr
7. Aspen 11. Oak and Maple 13. The Transept The grove of aspen before you is an old one, very different in appearance from the younger groves of aspen that are common throughout this forest. The black blemishes on these older trees are cankers caused by fungi. The rough bark at the base of these larger trees is the result of old age. Younger groves of aspen throughout the forest are commonly found in areas that have been disturbed by fire. Eager pioneers of these naturally cleared areas, aspen provide shade for the seedlings of other trees, like white fir, that will eventually displace them. The mighty oak of the eastern United States does not grow in this area of the American West, but its smaller cousins do. Scrub oaks (Quercus gambelli) have adapted to the dry western climate. These trees seldom grow to more than 15 to 20 feet/5 to 6 meters in height. The maples of the Grand Canyon region, also a scrub variety adapted to the more arid western climate, go unnoticed here except during the early weeks of fall when, like their cousins in the East, they turn bright red, giving a vivid splash of color to the slopes below the rim. You are standing at the head of The Transept which takes on truly grand proportions as it carves into the plateau. Far below you its gravel bed reveals the main course of erosion. More than likely you will not see water flowing in its bed; these streams flow only during times of heavy rain or flash floods. Yet the canyons they carve are nearly as deep as the Colorado River itself. 8. Ponderosa Pine 9. Ancient Reptiles Fire plays a major role both in maintaining and altering the character of this forest. Large ponderosa pines have a thick bark that is resistant to all but the hottest of wildfires and may survive many generations of smaller fires. Many of the large trees seen here bear the scars of fires that damaged their bark, but did not kill them. Yet another picture from the scrapbook of Grand Canyon’s past tells of a vastly different environment. The Coconino Sandstone (the light-colored, cliff-forming unit evident several hundred feet below the rim) is made up of windblown sands, evidence of an arid environment very different from those in which the strata above or below it were deposited. The highangle cross-bedding is the clue to its windblown origin, but a closer examination reveals the footprints of ancient reptiles that wandered these dunes long before the dinosaurs existed. For many years the National Park Service (NPS) suppressed all fires until it became apparent that they are an important factor in the growth of these forests. In the 1960s the NPS adopted a policy that allowed some fires to burn, while they immediately suppressed those that threatened human life or structures. Today we recognize the importance of fire in maintaining the natural environments in our national parks while at the same time we acknowledge the threat that uncontrolled wildfires may present to life and property. Photo Top: Ancient reptile footprints in the Coconino Sandstone. NPS photo by Michael Quinn More than a layer of rock, the Coconino Sandstone is a vivid picture of ancient life in this region of the world at the end of the Paleozoic Era, some 270 million years ago. 10. The Largest Ponderosa This is one of the largest ponderosa pines along the Widforss Trail—nearly 13 feet/4 meters in circumference. Trees like this are increasingly rare outside national parks because of their commercial value (ponderosa pine is one of the major lumber trees of western North America). A ponderosa of this size may be 300 to 500 years old. When this tree was a seedling, the environment of North America was very different. Humans had had little impact on the landscape. 12. Lightning Time and the massive amount of water that comes from infrequent but powerful floods carve these tributary canyons. In the six-million-year history of Grand Canyon there must have been thousands of floods the likes of which we might see only once in a thousand years. 14. Sculptured Rocks Landscapes change like the frames of a motion picture. Change is a part of this landscape. Rest awhile in this unique setting of rocks sculpted by nature. This huge ponderosa pine was killed by lightning that struck it in 1988. The bolt rent the tree from top to bottom, creating the scar you see before you. An average of one out of every ten large ponderosas along the rim shows evidence of lightning strikes. Lightning is also a hazard to unwary (or unlucky) visitors. The rate at which the landscapes of our earth change is accelerating as the changes brought about by humans become more profound. Many national parks were set aside to provide places in which the forces of nature remain the predominant agents of change. But even here the environment is subject to changes that result from increased visitation, decreasing air quality, and a host of other, more subtle changes. Only concerned and active citizens who care about protecting
North Entrance 8,824 ft / 2,690 m Saddle Mountain ail Tr perial .Im Pt. Impe ria Point oint Imperial mperial erial 8,803 ,803 ft / 2,6 2,684 m d lR il Tra ick Greenland eenland d tr Lake e Vista ta Encantadora cantadora Ke n Pa Arizona Trail k o weap Trail Pt ↑ To Jacob Lake, 40 mi. Nan Roosevelt lt Point Traill Roosevelt oo Point nt Uncle Jim Uncle m Point Ro y a l R d ➣ pe Visitor tor Center nter & Lodge odge e Bright right Angel g Point Ca WALHALLA P L AT E A U P Cape C pe Final Scale 1.0 0 2.0 Miles es 0 1.6 3.2 Kilometerss P B R I G H T A N G E L C A N Y O N C o l or a Cape Royal a do Ri ve r Paved Road Unpaved Road Trail P Walha alhalla a lha Overl Overlook verlook v rl Walhalla Glades Scale Miles 0 0.5 Cliff Spring p g Trail Parking Angels gels Window Restroom Picnic Tables Ranger Station & Visitor Center P Walhalla Walha Overlook C p Cape Royal yyal Trail il The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River is the major topographic feature of the Colorado Plateau. Elevation ranges from 8,800 feet/2,860 meters above sea level on the North Rim to 2,000 feet/610 meters above sea level along the Colorado River. Within this range of elevation, wide variation is found in both the plant and animal life. Aspen, fir, spruce, and ponderosa pine trees found at higher elevations are replaced by desert cactus and shrubs in the inner canyon. Animal life changes as well, from mule deer, coyote, and mountain lion on the rims to bighorn sheep, lizards, and other desert animals within the canyon. Split-twig figurines made of willow and cottonwood are the earliest definitive evidence of human occupation of the canyon. These artifacts have been found in caves in the Redwall Formation below the rim where they were left 3,000 to 4,000 years ago. The people who made them are thought to have followed a hunting and gathering lifestyle known as Archaic, and most likely they made the figurines for purposes of imitative hunting magic. Arrowheads made by the Archaic people have been found in the inner canyon, as well as on the canyon rims. These early people adjusted their hunting and gathering lifestyle to the environment based on seasonal availability of plants and animals. They would have lived on the rim in the summer and in the canyon during the cold months. Recent research has provided a hint that people used the canyon earlier than 4,000 years ago. A portion of a paleo-Indian projectile point has been found, opening the possibility that people were in the canyon as early as 10,000 years ago. Regardless of exactly how long ago people lived in the canyon, occupation continued from early Archaic times through the period of time known as Basketmaker. During this time, nearly 2,000 years ago, the lifestyle of the people became more settled. They built pithouse dwellings and, as the name suggests, made baskets. National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior During the Pueblo period, pottery was used for carrying and storing water and as vermin-proof vessels for storage of food and seeds. Because styles varied regionally and through time, archeologists use the remains of this pottery for dating habitation sites. Grand Canyon National Park Arizona Walhalla Glades Permanent masonry dwellings and pottery appeared about 1,200 years ago, during the Pueblo period. At Grand Canyon two separate cultural groups from this period have been identified. Both ancestral Pueblo people and the Cohonina left pottery, chipped stone, and the remains of their houses as reminders of their presence. These people lived at Grand Canyon for at least 500 years, after which they migrated from the area. The Pueblo period was characterized by farming, hunting, and gathering. People lived in houses constructed of stone and mud, similar to modern-day pueblos. As you tour Walhalla Glades you will stop at six rooms that were common to most structures of the Pueblo period. The map of the ruins will serve as a reference as you are guided through this ancient dwelling. Cape Royal 7,685 ft/2,343 / m Photo Above: Split-twig figurines have been found throughout Grand Canyon and are believed to be relics of ritual practices. NPS photo Photo Right: Large ollas such as the pot above were fitted with fiber lattice for carrying as much as twenty gallons of water. Photo by Tony Marinella, courtesy of the Museum of Northern Arizona Further reading: Archaeology of the Grand Canyon: The Walhalla Plateau by Schwartz, Douglas W., Jane Kepp, and Richard C. Chapman; Grand Canyon Archaeological Series, vol. 3, 1981, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe. Published by Grand Canyon National Park in cooperation with Grand Canyon Association. Jan Balsom, NPS Writer; Tom Pittenger, NPS Editor; Faith Marcovecchio, GCA Project Editor; Ron Short, GCA Art Director.  Copyright 2001 Grand Canyon Association, Post Office Box 399, Grand Canyon, AZ 86023. Printed on recycled paper. Walhalla Glades Walking Tour of Walhalla Gl
Grand Canyon National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Grand Canyon National Park Tuweep At 3,000 vertical feet (880 m) above the Colorado River, the sheer drop from Toroweap Overlook offers a dramatic view. The volcanic cinder cones and lava flows in this ancestral home of the Southern Paiute people make this area unique. A visit to Tuweep provides an opportunity for an uncrowded, rustic, and remote experience. Access is challenging and demands skill at negotiating difficult roadways. Services are non-existent: there is no water, gas, food, lodging, or phone service. Need to Know Prohibited • High clearance vehicles required • Day use area: open sunrise to 30 minutes past sunset • Camping requires reservation permit; permitted campers must arrive by sunset • Vehicle numbers limited; carpool • Pets must be leashed; restricted to open roads and campground • Pack out all trash; there is no water • Vehicles and vehicle combinations longer than 22 feet (6.7 meters) are prohibited—this is the total length from end to end, including anything towed • Off-road vehicles, ATVs, side-by-sides, and dirt bikes not displaying highway license plates are illegal; stickers and non-highway plates not valid; proof of highway insurance required • Fires and charcoal grills prohibited • No hunting or collecting Directions and Access Bring tire plugs and a portable air compressor to repair flat tires. Ensure you have enough fuel, full size spare tire, jack/lift, and owner’s manual. Tow service costs $1,000–2,000 and assistance is not guaranteed. Carry extra water, food, and warm clothing in case of emergency. Access the three main routes to Tuweep from AZ 389 between Fredonia, Arizona, and St. George, Utah. Allow two to three hours driving time. Bring the BLM Arizona Strip Visitor Map, and do not rely solely on your GPS unit. Muddy conditions exist during summer monsoons and from winter precipitation. Sunshine Route: County Road #109, the most reliable route, leaves AZ 389 eight miles (13 km) west of Fredonia or six miles (10 km) east of Pipe Spring National Monument. This 61-mile (98 km) road features sharp rocks, washboarding, and dust. Please do not stop on tribal land when traveling this route. Clayhole Route: County Road #5 leaves AZ 389 at Colorado City, Arizona. It is 56 miles (90 km) long and impassable when wet. Main Street Route: BLM Road #1069 and County Road #5 from St. George is 90 miles (145 km) long. This scenic route is impassable in winter due to snow and mud. Tuweep Airstrip: Closed. The stunning view from Toroweap Overlook can only be reached by negotiating difficult roads. © MIKE MCTEER Vehicles have become stuck for several days (top). Conditions require a high clearance vehicle (bottom). © MARJORIE CASSE (top); NPS (bottom) Camping and Overnight Use Permits are required for camping and overnight use at Tuweep Campground and in all backcountry use areas. To obtain a permit, visit http://www.nps.gov/grca/planyourvisit/ tuweep.htm. Permits cannot be issued at Tuweep. Camping is prohibited on the land adjacent to the park and at the airstrip. Tuweep Campground: There are nine small, group campsites for one to six people with a maximum of two vehicles, including motorcycles, and one large, group campsite for 7–11 people with a maximum of four vehicles, including motorcycles. • Campers must arrive by sunset • Fires and charcoal grills prohibited; fossil fuel stoves allowed • Picnic tables and composting toilets provided; no water available Tuweep Hiking Trails • Vehicles and vehicle combinations longer than 22 feet (6.7 meters) are prohibited—this is the total length from end to end, including anything towed • Store all food and garbage in a vehicle; pack out all trash • Seven night limit; affiliated groups are limited to one campsite • Horses and mules prohibited Tuweep’s hiking trails are marked with cairns (piles of rocks). Shade is scarce and water non-existent. Walk only on trails, roads, and washes. Each footstep off trail may destroy fragile biological soil crusts and damage native plants. All trails are closed to pets, bicycles, and vehicles. Tuckup Trail: Experience Tuweep’s unique geology on this six-mile (10 km) roundtrip trail. There are two access points: the first is signed before arriving at Tuweep Campground and the second leaves from campsite 10. Saddle Horse Loop Trail: This 45-minute loop offers spectacular views of the Colorado River. Access the trail along the road between Toroweap Overlook and Tuweep Campground or from a trailhead near campsite 5. Trail to Access the Colorado River Whitmore Trail: Located at Whitmore Overlook, a 3-hour drive west of Tuweep, this moderate fourmile (6.5 km) roundtrip trail takes you down to the Colorado River. Access Whitmore Overlook from the Main Street Route; high clearance required. Information http://www.nps.gov/grca/ planyourvisit/tuweep.htm EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA™ printed on 100% recycled paper 0417

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