"B02 North Porch of Hubbell Home" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Hubbell Trading Post

National Historic Site - Arizona

Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site is on Highway 191, north of Chambers, with an exhibit center in Ganado, Arizona.

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https://www.nps.gov/hutr/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubbell_Trading_Post_National_Historic_Site Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site is on Highway 191, north of Chambers, with an exhibit center in Ganado, Arizona. The squeaky wooden floor greets your entry into the oldest operating Trading Post on the Navajo Nation. When your eyes adjust to the dim light in the "bullpen" you find you’ve just entered a mercantile. Hubbell Trading Post has been serving Ganado selling goods and Native American Art since 1878. Discover Hubbell Trading Post NHS, sheep, rugs, jewelry and so much more.. Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site is located at mile post 446.3 on AZ state route 264. Visitors traveling on I-40 can take U.S. Highway 191 North to Ganado and drive west on Hwy. 264. If you are traveling from Gallup, New Mexico, you may take U.S. Highway 491 North to U.S. Highway 264 west toward Ganado, through Window Rock,Arizona. When you are driving south from Chinle, Arizona on Hwy. 191 you will drive east when you reach Hwy. 264. Hubbell Trading Post NHS Visitor Center The visitor center is located east of the trading post. Interpretive exhibits on Hubbell family, the Long Walk, weaving, and a children's trading post are located inside. Ask for brochures and other informational leaflets. Guided tour tickets for the Hubbell Home are available. An interactive video, and viewing of 1-2 minutes snapshots of different videos that are for sell at the trading post are all available inside. From East: drive 1/2 mile west of junction Hwy 364-191, entrance is on left-hand side. From West: drive 5 miles east on Hwy 191, drive over bridge, turn immediately to right after the bridge. We share entrance road with the Mormon Church (landmark). Navajo-Churro ewe with lambs Spring lambs with their Navajo-Churro ewe. Each spring Navajo-Churro ewes give birth to their lambs at Hubbell Trading Post. Front of Trading Post Steer skull greets visitors. Above the entry way into the trading post, there is a sun-bleached steer skull. Hubbell Family Home Inside the Hubbell Family home, looking south. Thousands of visitors have visited the Hubbell Family home in the past 50 years. Hubbell Trading Post bullpen Bullpen inside the trading post. Thousands of visitors and community members walk through the bullpen of the trading post. Interpretive exhibits inside the Visitor Center Interpretive exhibit has Mr. JL Hubbell holding his grand daughter LaCharles. New interpretive exhibits on the family, trading post, and weaving. 2011 SCPN-NAU Student Projects In spring 2011, the SCPN-NAU School of Communication collaboration began with a multimedia studies course focused on documenting park resources and resource projects. The class was taught by NAU professors Laura Camden and Peter Friederici. 2011 Student Projects The Colorado Plateau The Colorado Plateau is centered on the four corners area of the Southwest, and includes much of Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. Hazy Fajada Butte, Chaco Culture National Monument NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site, Arizona Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. [Site Under Development] trading post entrance Vegetation Characterization and Mapping on the Southern Colorado Plateau Vegetation mapping is a tool used by botanists, ecologists, and land managers to better understand the abundance, diversity, and distribution of different vegetation types across a landscape. Vegetation plots used for the classification and mapping of El Malpais NM Climate Change on the Southern Colorado Plateau The combination of high. elevation and a semi-arid climate makes the Colorado Plateau particularly vulnerable to climate change. Climate models predict that over the next 100 years, the Southwest will become warmer and even more arid, with more extreme droughts than the region has experienced in the recent past. One result of climate change may be more, larger floods, like this flash flood in Glen Canyon NRA Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Series: SCPN-NAU School of Communication Collaboration The Southern Colorado Plateau Network (SCPN) of the National Park Service has been partnering with the Northern Arizona University (NAU) School of Communication since 2011 to develop student multimedia projects that highlight resources and activities in network parks. This collaboration gives NAU students hands-on experience in creating multimedia projects and provides network parks with products that can help to promote their unique resources and scientific or educational project work. SCPN-NAU student projects Staff Spotlight: Vanessa Torres Meet Vanessa Torres, Program Manager of Interpretation, Education, and Community Engagement for Lyndon B Johnson National Historical Park and Waco Mammoth National Monument. Hear her story and advice she has for youth and young adults. Vanessa Torres enjoying a break in the Texas Bluebonnets
Hubbell Trading Post, Arizona Hubbell Hill Pueblo C olorado Wash Bunkhouse Bread Oven Chicken Coop Manager’s Residence Barn Guest Hogan Gazebo Hubbell Home Wareroom Shed Kitchen Garden Trading Post NPS Offices PA R K I N Corral G Root Cellar Blacksmith Shop Visitor Center Restrooms To Hogan in the Lane Paddock PA R K I NG
Hubbell Trading Post National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site The Long Walk–Hwéeldi For centuries before the coming of European settlers, The Navajo (Diné-The People) were accustomed to roaming freely over the vast distances of the great Southwest. This is the land that their Holy People had created for them, “Dinétah,” the land within their Four Sacred Mountains. Life was hard, but good. They traded with neighboring Pueblo tribes, which enriched them both materially and spiritually. Mother Earth supplied them with everything they needed: clothing, medicine, shelter, water and food. Spaniards came in the 16th century, introducing them to horses, cattle, and sheep, their religion and slavery. From the time of Spanish settlement to the occupation of Euro-Americans, Navajo history was marked by missionary activity, slave - raiding, warfare, broken treaties, challenges to peace and growing distrust from both Navajos and Euro-Americans. When the United States took possession of the southwestern territories in 1846 after the war with Mexico, the Euro-American inhabitants were promised protection from tribes perceived as warlike, such as the Navajo and Apache. Military posts were established within Navajo country, but the Diné fiercely resisted the intrusion into their sacred land. The oral history of the Diné is to protect this land that the Holy people had created for them. The Four Sacred Mountains were created for the Diné and while within them, they are protected. In the early 1860s, American expansion continued west into Dinétah. General James H. Carleton believed gold existed within Navajo country and he wanted to, “establish a military post in the very heart of the gold country. The people will flock into the country (once the Navajo are removed), and will soon farm and have stock enough for the mines…” Often, throughout history, the lure of gold was the motivation for terrifying campaigns around the world. In 1863, Carleton ordered Colonel Christopher “Kit” Carson to follow the “scorched earth” policy to destroy Navajo subsistence, break up family units, and round up the Navajo population. The People fled, hiding in canyons and mountains. Carson’s troops burned their crops, killed livestock, and massacred men, women, and children. Faced with starvation and so much loss, many Navajo surrendered during the winter of 1863 -1864. After surrendering, more than 8,000 Navajos were forced to march in “The Long Walk,” over 300 miles to a flat, 40-square-mile wind- swept reservation in east-central New Mexico, located on the east bank of the Pecos River, known as Fort Sumner or Bosque Redondo. Routes Used on the Long Walk EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Visit us at www.nps.gov/hutr From the start, the reservation experiment was doomed; Navajos had lived for generations in dispersed family groups and possessed no pattern of communal living on the scale imposed by the military. Pests, drought, and hail destroyed their crops. Irrigation water from the Pecos River contained so much salt that the land lost its productivity. Wood was scarce. Comanches raided and confiscated their livestock. Thousands of Diné died from diseases, starvation, and exposure. They believed that their Holy People had turn against them too. The People longed to go home. Cage the badger and he will try to regain his native hole. Chain the eagle and he will strive to gain his freedom And though he fails, will lift his head and look up to the sky… A Navajo leader, 1865 When the Navajo were first created, four mountains and four rivers were pointed out to us… that was to be our country… I think our coming here has been the cause of much death among us. Barboncito, Head Navajo man, 1868 In May of 1868, a federal peace commission headed by General William Sherman arrived at Fort Sumner to investigate complaints and to hear the Diné claims. Barboncito was chosen as the spokesperson for the entire Diné and three days later the two sides agreed to the Treaty of 1868. The Diné were to return to their homeland at last, closing this bleak episode in their history. But the memories of the suffering of Hwéeldi remain a dark cloud over the Diné even to this day. After we get back to our country, it will brighten up again, and the Navajo will be as happy as the land. Black clouds will rise, and there will be plenty of rain. Corn will grow in abundance and everything looks happy. Barboncito, 1868 Produced with funds donated by Western National Parks Association www.wnpa.org EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA 4/2006
Hubbell Trading Post National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site Arizona Churro Sheep Navajo-Churro sheep are descended from the Churra, an ancient breed from the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). The Churro was the first breed of domesticated sheep in the New World. Imported in 1598 by the Spanish explorer Juan de Oñate, the Churro was used to feed and clothe Spanish settlers and conquistadors. By the 17th century, the Churro became the mainstay of Spanish ranches and villages along the upper Rio Grande Valley in what is now New Mexico. Hispanic settlers relied on Churros for food and fiber, developing a style of weaving known as the Rio Grande Weaving Style. These sheep were acquired by the Navajo, became the focus of their economy, culture, and arts, and were the beginning of the renowned Navajo weaving tradition. The Navajo-Churro Sheep of today are descended from this genotype. An Endangered Breed Churro sheep remained the primary source of wool for the Navajo until 1863. During the 1850s, thousands of Churros were trailed west to supply the California Gold Rush. Most of those that remained behind were crossed with fine-wool rams to supply the demand for garment wool caused by an increasing population and, later, the Civil War. In 1863 the U.S. Army under the command of Colonel Kit Carson marched into the lands of the Navajo and began a systematic campaign of destroying all means of Navajo livelihood. The army slaughtered sheep by the thousands, as well as burning crops and killing other livestock. A few bands of Churro managed to survive because they were moved to remote canyons. Faced with starvation during the winter of 1863–1864, thousands of Navajo surrendered to U.S. Army troops in a forced removal policy from their traditional homelands known as the Long Walk. More than 8,000 Navajo walked more than 300 miles to Fort Sumner, New Mexico, to a reservation area called Bosque Redondo. Enduring extreme hardships, the Navajo were incarcerated at Bosque Redondo for four years. In 1868 the Navajo returned to their homeland under a treaty of agreement between the U.S. government and the Navajo Tribe. Churro Sheep Re-introduced After the incarceration at Bosque Redondo, the Navajo were issued new breeds of sheep and encouraged by Indian agents to increase their flocks. Federal agents gave two sheep to every man, woman, and child. In 1870 the U.S. government supplied the Navajo with native Mexican sheep—a cross between Churro and Kentucky Merino brought to the Southwest over the Santa Fe Trail. Other attempts were made by the U.S. government to build up mutton production. Each resulted in further contamination of the Churro breed. Hubbell Trading Post and the Churro Sheep When John Lorenzo Hubbell began trading at the present location in Ganado, Arizona, the Navajo sheep on the reservation numbered not less than 550,000 head. The corrals of the Hubbell Trading Post held lambs and sheep, purchased from HUTR 7091 Navajo stockmen, until they could be herded to the railroad. During the 1920s, the Hubbells were active in the sheep and goat trade, purchasing animals and collecting them at Ganado for resale in various markets. The Hubbells grazed and maintained the sheep on the Hubbell property as they accumulated sheep through their various trading operations. The sheep were held until shipping time and then driven to railroad loading pens at Chambers, Arizona, or Gallup, New Mexico. Along with the sheep on the Hubbell lands in Ganado, thousand of sheep were also kept at various herders’ grounds throughout Navajo lands and eventually herded to the railroads at Chambers or Gallup as well. Churro Sheep Reduction During the 1930s and 1940s, a U.S. government program of soil and range conservation called for the forced reduction of flocks of sheep on Navajo land. As a result, tens of thousands of sheep were killed. The economic impact among the pastoral Navajo was severe. By the 1970s, fewer than 450 Navajo-Churro sheep were left on Navajo land. Navajo-Churro Sheep Restoration In the mid-1970s several individuals began the work of preserving the breed and revitalizing the Navajo and Hispanic flocks. It was also hoped to revive the authentic Navajo and Rio Grande weaving traditions. Today there are organizations that promote restoration and development of the traditional NavajoChurro sheep breed. Navajo-Churro Sheep Breed Standard Navajo-Churro sheep have coarse, long wool, including an outer coat and a soft inner coat. Their colors are varied in shades of white, tan, brown, black, and grey. They also have patterns of color. The sheep have long, wool-less legs and narrow bodies. Their bellies have little or no wool. Some rams have four fully developed horns, a trait shared by few other breeds in the world. Navajo-Churro sheep are highly adaptable to extremes of climate and resistant to disease. They breed easily and twins or triplets are not

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