"The Liberty Bell" by NPS photo , public domain

Independence

National Historical Park - Pennsylvania

Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia preserves several sites associated with the American Revolution and the nation's founding history. The park comprises much of Philadelphia's most-visited historic district. The park has been nicknamed "America's most historic square mile" because of its abundance of historic landmarks, and the park sites are located within the Old City and Society Hill neighborhoods of Philadelphia. The centerpiece of the park is Independence Hall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, where the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted in the late 18th century. Across the street from Independence Hall, the Liberty Bell, an iconic symbol of American independence, is displayed in the Liberty Bell Center.

maps

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/inde/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independence_National_Historical_Park Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia preserves several sites associated with the American Revolution and the nation's founding history. The park comprises much of Philadelphia's most-visited historic district. The park has been nicknamed "America's most historic square mile" because of its abundance of historic landmarks, and the park sites are located within the Old City and Society Hill neighborhoods of Philadelphia. The centerpiece of the park is Independence Hall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, where the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted in the late 18th century. Across the street from Independence Hall, the Liberty Bell, an iconic symbol of American independence, is displayed in the Liberty Bell Center. The park represents the founding ideals of the nation, and preserves national and international symbols of freedom and democracy, including Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell. The Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution were both debated and signed inside Independence Hall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Independence National Historical Park is located in an urban area served by Interstates 95 and 676. The park is also easily accessible by public transportation, including SEPTA and PATCO mass transit routes. Whether you choose driving, the bus or the train, we recommend that you start your visit at the Independence Visitor Center at 6th and Market Streets. See the park's website for specific directions. Independence Visitor Center The Independence Visitor Center is located at 6th and Market Streets. Pick up a park map, plan your visit, and watch films in the Independence Visitor Center. Ask knowledgeable park rangers about programs, walking tours and special events. City concierge staff will gladly assist you with information about lodgings and restaurants. The Independence Visitor Center is located on 6th and Market Streets and can be reached by car from Interstates 95 and 676. Parking may be available (fee applies) at the Independence Visitor Center underground garage. Enter on either 5th or 6th Street, between Market and Arch Streets. There is also a parking garage (fee applies) on 2nd Street between Chestnut and Walnut Streets. The visitor center is also easily accessible by public transportation, including SEPTA and PATCO mass transit routes. The Liberty Bell Color photo of the Liberty Bell with Independence Hall in the background. Recognizable for its crack, the Liberty Bell remains significant today for its message of liberty. Independence Visitor Center A color photo of the Independence Visitor Center showing a brick building with tall windows. Plan your visit, use the restrooms, and take advantage of the free WiFi in the Independence Visitor Center. Independence Hall Color photo of Independence Hall as seen from the north side of Chestnut Street. Known as the birthplace of the United States, Independence Hall houses the room where the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution were both signed. The Assembly Room in Independence Hall A color photo of the Assembly Room showing 18th century chairs and green, cloth covered tables The Assembly Room in Independence Hall is where the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution were both signed. The Benjamin Franklin Museum A color photo of the exterior of the Benjamin Franklin Museum in Franklin Court. Explore Franklin's life and character in the Benjamin Franklin Museum. The museum features artifacts, computer animations, and interactive displays that are geared toward visitors of all ages. The Franklin Court Printing Office A color photo of a printing press in the Franklin Court Printing Office. Franklin's printing office no longer survives, but it would have had equipment similar to what you'll see in the Franklin Court Printing Office. Portrait Gallery in the Second Bank of the United States The exterior of the Second Bank of the United States showing a marble building with eight columns. The Second Bank of the United States houses a fine collection of over 100 portraits, many of them by 18th century artist Charles Willson Peale. Women's History Self-Guided Walking Tour at Independence Explore women's history at Independence National Historical Park with this self-guided walking tour. Be inspired by the actions of women who worked within and without the system to contribute to society, and to effect societal change. Black and white illustration of women carrying woman suffrage signs The Justice Bell Rings for Women's Suffrage on Independence Square The Justice Bell pealed in celebration of women's voting rights on Independence Square on September 25, 1920. Speeches, pageantry, and the bell ringing linked women's rights to the nation's founding on this historic landscape. Detail, front page of newspaper from 1920 showing a young woman next to a large bell. June 14, 1787: The Small States Prepare to Rebel Concerned for the interests of the small states, William Paterson of New Jersey asked for time to prepare an alternative to the Virginia Plan. Head-and-shoulders portrait of William Paterson in profile. June 1, 1787: National Executive Debated The Committee of the Whole debated issues related to the national executive - term of office, method of selection. James Madison (VA) proposed a single executive aided by a council, but the Convention postponed voting on the matter. Color pastel portrait of James Madison, showing a man with white hair in a gray suit. June 2, 1787: Debate Continues on the National Executive Benjamin Franklin (PA) produced a written speech proposing that the executive serve without pay. The Convention discarded this proposal without debate or vote. Color portrait of Benjamin Franklin holding papers, and with his chin resting on his thumb. June 3, 1787: Convention Adjourned Connecticut nationalist Jeremiah Wadsworth had some concerns about one delegate in particular. Detail, color pastel portrait of Jeremiah Wadsworth showing a man with white hair in a blue coat. Thomas Jefferson and Robert Hemings in Philadelphia Thomas Jefferson and his enslaved servant Robert Hemings slept, worked, and shopped in Philadelphia in the summer of 1776 while Jefferson was attending the meetings of the Second Continental Congress. Color photo of a bedroom with a four poster bed with green bed curtains, side chair, and trunk. Archeology at Franklin Court How do you celebrate the enduring legacy of Benjamin Franklin, one of our most familiar inventors, scientists, and “inquiring minds” of the revolutionary era? Archeologists assessed the archeological research that has been done at Franklin Court in Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia. The archeological collections provide insight into Franklin at home with his family and reveal more about his fascination with science. Franklin portals. Suffragists Rally on Independence Square, 1911 and 1912 Alice Paul championed strategies fairly new to the suffrage movement, like open-air meetings and rallies. The rallies on Independence Square in 1911 and 1912 drew large crowds and spread the message of "Votes for Women." Black and white photo of Alice Paul, a young woman seated at a desk. June 22, 1787: Debate Over Congressional Pay The delegates meeting inside the Assembly Room of the Pennsylvania State House (Independence Hall) discussed the substance of "fixed stipends to be paid out of the National Treasury." Color illustration of a two story brick building with steeple. June 24, 1787: Sunday Recess On this Sunday recess, delegates like Rufus King took time to write letters. Others may have reflected on the major issues they debated in convention that week. Color head-and-shoulders portrait of Rufus King, showing a balding man in a dark suit. June 15, 1787: The New Jersey Plan William Paterson (NJ) introduced what would become known as the New Jersey Plan. The plan included nine resolutions, and reflected the small states' interest in maintaining an equal vote in Congress. Image of manuscript showing handwritten notes in dark ink on white paper. Designing the Parks: Learning in Action The Designing the Parks program is not your typical internship. Each year since 2013, this program at the Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation has introduced a cohort of college students and recent graduates to NPS design and planning professions through projects related to cultural landscape stewardship. In the internships, made possible by partner organizations, participants focus on an in-depth project that directly engages with a national park unit. A group of young people stand on forest trail and listen to two maintenance employees May 31, 1787: Debate on the Legislature The Committee of the Whole took a vote on portions of the Virginia Plan, including the bicameral legislature and popular election for members of the first house (today's House of Representatives). Detail, George Washington's copy of the Virginia Plan, showing black ink on white paper. May 29, 1787: Virginia and Pinckney Plans Submitted Virginia Governor Edmund Randolph addressed the inadequacies of the Articles of Convention, and put forth 15 resolutions comprising a new framework of government. Black and white image of Edmund Randolph, showing a head-and-shoulders portrait. May 26 - 27, 1787: Adjourned until Monday The Rules Committee worked on Saturday, but delegates like James Madison took time during the two-day recess to write letters. Color portrait of James Madison, showing a man with white hair wearing a gray suit. May 30, 1787: Committee of the Whole Nathaniel Gorham of Massachusetts presided over the Committee of the Whole on this day, and for the next 15 days, as the delegates debated the Virginia and Pinckney plans. Black and white image of Nathaniel Gorham, showing a head-and-shoulders portrait. May 28, 1787: Nine States Now Present Oliver Ellsworth and other delegates from his state of Connecticut arrived, along with delegates from Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Color image of a portrait of Oliver Ellsworth, showing a man in a high-collared coat. May 14 - 24, 1787: No Quorum for the Convention Delegates gathered in the Pennsylvania State House each day to check progress towards a quorum. Color photo of a two story, red brick building with bell tower and adjacent wing building. May 25, 1787: Quorum With quorum achieved, the delegates got down to the business at hand, naming Alexander Hamilton and two other men to a Rules Committee. Color image of a portrait of Alexander Hamilton showing his face and neck. The “Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States” Philadelphia’s July Fourth, 1876 celebration kicked off the nation’s one-hundredth birthday celebration to large, enthusiastic crowds. Among those in the city for the festivities was the National Woman’s Suffrage Association (NWSA), an organization founded in 1869 to advocate for a constitutional amendment insuring women’s right to vote. An illustration of Richard Henry Lee reading the Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1876. June: A Month of Milestones The times are a changin’, and there’s no better time to honor those moments of change than in June. Over the course of America’s history, the month of June is filled with cultural changes, and some seasonal ones too. So just before the season changes and summer begins, take some time to visit these parks that commemorate extraordinary moments. Painting of suffragist on a horse Emancipation and the Quest for Freedom Although the abolition of slavery emerged as a dominant objective of the Union war effort, most Northerners embraced abolition as a practical measure rather than a moral cause. The war resolved legally and constitutionally the single most important moral question that afflicted the nascent republic, an issue that prevented the country from coalescing around a shared vision of freedom, equality, morality, and nationhood. Slave family seated in front of their house The Philadelphia LGBTQ Heritage Initiative The history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer people (LGBTQ) is a vital part of the history of our city and our nation. The Philadelphia LGBTQ Heritage Initiative encourages citizens to ensure that this chapter of history is not only preserved, but celebrated. Pennsylvania state marker commemorating Annual Reminder Days in front of Independence Hall June 29, 1787: Hot Debate Over Representation After some hot debate over representation, Oliver Ellsworth (CT) put forth a compromise for proportional representation in the lower house, and equal representation in the Senate. Color head-and-shoulders portrait of Oliver Ellsworth, a man with white hair in a blue coat. June 30, 1787: Fireworks of All Sorts Heated - and sometimes bitter - debate marked this day's proceedings as the delegates argued over representation in the legislature. Color photo of a room with rows of desks facing one main table in the front of the room. June 23, 1787: Eligibility for Other Federal Offices The debate on eligibility for members of the lower house to hold other federal offices took most of the day. Color image of the handwritten U.S. Constitution, showing Article 1 June 18, 1787: Hamilton Speaks Alexander Hamilton (NY) spoke for hours, comparing the Virginia and New Jersey Plans, and introducing his own plan of government. Detail, color portrait of Alexander Hamilton showing his face. June 20, 1787: Abandoning the Articles of Confederation The delegates considered the one-house legislature of the Articles of Confederation, and voted against it. Detail, image of handwritten Articles of Confederation document, showing large text at top. June 16, 1787: Comparing the Plans James Wilson (PA) put forth a point-by-point comparison of the Virginia and New Jersey Plans, with arguments in favor of the Virginia Plan. Detail, color portrait of James Wilson showing his face with round-frame spectacles. June 17, 1787: Sunday Recess On this Sunday recess, delegates may have been reflecting on the arduous work still ahead of them. Color Birch view of 2nd and Market Streets showing the steeple from Christ Church. May 13, 1787: Washington Arrives in Philadelphia Washington initially resisted attending the federal convention but then served as its presiding officer. He arrived in Philadelphia one day before the convention was due to begin. Detail, color portrait of George Washington showing his head and shoulders. June 9, 1787: Debate Over Proportional Representation Luther Martin (MD), an ardent support of state's rights, appeared and took his seat today, on the day when the small states launched their attack on proportional representation. Print of Luther Martin, showing a head-and-shoulders view of a man in colonial garb. June 12, 1787: State Ratifying Conventions The Committee of the Whole had a busy day with topics ranging from the process of ratifying conventions for their new framework of government to age requirements for senators. Color photo of a room with rows of desks facing one main table in the front of the room. June 11, 1787: Representation in the Legislature Roger Sherman (CT) moved that representation in the legislature be proportional in the first house, and by state with one vote per state in the Senate. Color head-and-shoulders portrait of Roger Sherman, showing a man with brown hair in colonial garb. June 10, 1787: Recess The delegates enjoyed a day of recess after a week of progress on all three branches of government. Color print of the State House yard showing people strolling near a brick wall. Philadelphia's Heritage of LGBTQ Activism From American colonists declaring independence from Great Britain, to abolitionists fighting against slavery, to women's suffragists demanding voting rights, to civil rights activists calling for equality, Philadelphia has a deep history of social and political conflict and engagement. Philadelphia's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer (LGBTQ) history follows this rich tradition of protest and action. Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell. NPS Photo by Megan Springate The Schuylkill River Sojourn: Fostering Environmental Stewardship and Community Kayaks gathered at a stop on the Schuylkill River Sojourn / Image courtesy of Schuylkill River National Heritage Area Kayaks gathered at a stop on the Schuylkill River Sojourn June 27, 1787: Retain the Articles of Confederation? Luther Martin, delegate from Maryland, spoke at length in defense of a general government that would represent state governments, not individuals. Detail, black and white engraving of Luther Martin, showing his head and shoulders. June 25, 1787: Election of Senators This day's debates centered on the election of members of the upper house. Robert Morris, delegate from Pennsylvania, later served in the U.S. Senate from 1789 to 1795. Detail, color portrait of Robert Morris showing a man with white hair in a blue suit. June 26, 1787: Terms of Service for Senators The battle over terms of service in the Senate may have caused some of the delegates, like Oliver Ellsworth, to feel somber over the task at hand. Detail, color portrait of Oliver Ellsworth, showing a man with white hair in a blue coat. June 28, 1787: Franklin's Proposal for Prayer At the end of a day of heated debate, Benjamin Franklin put forth a motion to begin the daily sessions with a prayer. Detail, color portrait of Benjamin Franklin showing an older man with a receding hair line. 2012 Freeman Tilden Award Recipients In 2012, seven rangers were awarded the national and region Freeman Tilden Awards for innovative and exciting interpretive programs. Learn their stories and more about their award-winning programs. Renee Albertoli June 21, 1787: Work Resumes on the Virginia Plan The delegates turned their attention back to the Virginia Plan, with much debate over the lower house. Detail, color portrait of William Blount showing his face and shoulders in an oval frame. Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail e-Newsletter Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail, WARO quarterly e-newsletter June 6, 1787: Electing the Lower House John Adams was not present at the Constitutional Convention but his newly published book (advertised for sale in a Philadelphia newspaper this day) would prove to have significant influence. Detail, color portrait of John Adams showing just his face. June 8, 1787: Veto Powers Charles Pinckney (SC) moved to give the legislature power to veto state laws. Some of the delegates vehemently opposed that plan. Print of Charles Pinckney, showing a heads-and-shoulder view of a man in 18th century suit. June 5, 1787: Debate on the Judiciary James Wilson (PA) argued that the judiciary should be appointed by the executive rather than the legislature. Detail, color portrait of James Wilson showing his face with round-frame spectacles. June 4, 1787: A Single Executive Resolved into the Committee of the Whole, the Convention considered Charles Pinckney's (SC) motion for a single executive. Print of Charles Pinckney, showing a heads-and-shoulder view of a man in 18th century suit. June 7, 1787: Electing the Senate Election of Senators proved to be a hot topic. U.S. Senators would later meet in the room shown here in the 1790s. Color photo of a room with desks and chairs facing a central dias. The Declaration of Independence -- Draft Copy Though he “turned to neither book or pamphlet,” Thomas Jefferson relied on his knowledge of philosophy as well as the sentiments of the Virginia Constitution, the Declaration of Rights, and Richard Henry Lee’s resolution when he drafted the Declaration of Independence. Black and white image of the rough draft of the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independence -- Engrossed Version There is only one original, engrossed version of the Declaration of Independence. It is housed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C. Color image of the handwritten Declaration of Independence with brown ink on cream paper.The The Declaration of Independence -- Stone Facsimile While the original engrossed Declaration of Independence is faded, this facsimile on copperplate is much easier to read. William J. Stone engraved the facsimile at the request of Secretary of State John Quincy Adams. Color image of the Declaration of Independence with black handwritten text on cream paper. The Declaration of Independence -- Dunlap Broadside Intended to spread the word, the Dunlap broadside printings were distributed through the colonies. Color image of the Declaration of Independence printed by John Dunlap. The Declaration of Independence -- John Binns This version of the Declaration of Independence designed by John Binns reflects growing patriotic sentiment in the early 1800s. Color image of the Declaration of Independence designed by John Binns in 1816. The Declaration of Independence -- Goddard Broadside Mary Katharine Goddard first printed the names of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Color image of the Declaration of Independence printed by Mary Katharine Goddard. Memory and Truth: Excavating “Liberty” at the President’s House Located near the Liberty Bell and Independence Hall in Philadelphia, the President's House site is a historical paradox of freedom and enslavement. George Washington and John Adams stayed there during their time as president, along with their families and household staff. The experiences of Washington's enslaved workers provide a sharp contrast to the symbols of liberty and freedom that lie just blocks away. An archeologist discusses the President’s House site with visitors. June 19, 1787: Deficiencies of the New Jersey Plan James Madison made eight arguments against the New Jersey Plan, moving the Virginia Plan back to the center of consideration. Color portrait of James Madison, showing a man with white hair wearing a gray suit. June 13, 1787: Report from the Committee of the Whole Had today's Committee of the Whole report been accepted without change, the U.S. Constitution would have been quite different. Image of handwritten U.S. Constitution showing dark ink on parchment-colored paper. Ona Judge Escapes to Freedom Martha Washington was going to give Ona Judge to her granddaughter. Judge decided to seize her freedom while the Washington family was eating dinner. Color illustration depicting a woman in 18th century clothing holding needlework in her hands. Mary Katharine Goddard Takes a Stance Look carefully at the bottom half of this printed Declaration of Independence. Do you see the name Mary Katharine Goddard? Read more about a woman who played an important role in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and American history. Color image of the bottom half of the printed Declaration of Independence. Junior Ranger Challenge Up for a challenge? The Junior Ranger Challenge program is a series of challenges for kids to work on with their families, or classmates and teachers. Begin with the Liberty Bell challenge, and then keep on going! Color photo of the Liberty Bell, a cracked bronze bell with wooden yoke. Sara Karpinski, Park Ranger, Independence National Historical Park Sara Karpinski is a Park Ranger at Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia. This park includes Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell. Watch the video to learn about her career in the National Park Service. Screen Capture of Sara Karpinski in a storage area Sara Falch, Park Ranger, Independence National Historical Park Sara Falch is a Park Ranger. She works at Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia. Watch the video to learn about her career in the National Park Service. Screen capture of Ranger Sara Falch The Civilian Experience in the Civil War After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians both near and far from the battlefields became unwilling participants and victims of the war as its toll of blood and treasure grew year after year. In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material, and began to expect that their government should do the same. Painting of civilians under fire during the Siege of Vicksburg Did You Know: The Justice Bell and the Fight for Women's Access to the Vote The bell is called the Justice Bell, but has also been known as the Women’s Liberty Bell and the Suffrage Bell. It was commissioned by Katharine Wentworth Ruschenberger in 1915. She was one of the 70,000 members of the Pennsylvania Woman Suffrage Association, and a leader of the organization in Chester County. A close replica of the Liberty Bell, the bronze Justice Bell was cast without a crack. Casting the Justice Bell, Troy, NY. Courtesy LoC Mary Newport Founds a Baking Dynasty Mary Newport established a successful pastry business in Philadelphia in the 1700s. Two of her nieces claimed the title of "Successor." Illustration of a newspaper ad with the words "Pastry Cook" appearing most prominent. The Second Bank of the United States: Ordovician Fossils in 19th Century Flooring The National Park Service preserves dozens of examples where fossils occur within the building stones of historic structures. At Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, fossil rich stone quarried in Vermont are visible on the floor of the Second Bank of the United States. inside of bank building The Civil War in American Memory America's cultural memories of the Civil War are inseparably intertwined with that most "peculiar institution" of American history - racial slavery. But in the struggle over Civil War memory which began as soon as the war was over and continues to this day, rival cultural memories of reconciliation and white supremacy have often prevailed. Therein lies the challenge as the National Park Service - a public agency - seeks to "provide understanding" of the Civil War era's lasting impact upon the development of our nation. Elderly Union and Confederate veterans shake hands at the fiftieth anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg Tree of Peace Traditional Mohawk Chief Jake Swamp created the Tree of Peace Society in 1982 to commemorate the Great Law of Peace. His organization planted White Pines all over the country. On April 29, 1988, the Iroquois returned to Philadelphia to plant a White Pine by the First Bank of the United States. White Pine tree with night watch box in background. A small fence with other trees can be seen. The Declaration House Through Time Follow the story of the many changes to the property where Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence. It was newly built when Thomas Jefferson and Robert Hemings took up residence in 1776, but soon changed in function and appearance. Exterior view of a four story red brick building on a corner lot with a National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map Calling All B.A.R.K. Rangers You and your four-legged friends can join the ranks of B.A.R.K. Ranger at Independence. The green spaces in the urban environment are great places to explore - responsibly - with your pet. A German Shepherd dog with his dog hanging out looks at the viewer. The Prequel: Women’s Suffrage Before 1848 Most suffrage histories begin in 1848, the year Elizabeth Cady Stanton convened a women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York. There, she unfurled a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments, seeking religious, educational and property rights for women – and the right to vote. While Seneca Falls remains an important marker in women’s suffrage history, in fact women had been agitating for this basic right of citizenship even before the first stirrings of the Revolution. drawing of a group of women in front of a counter Series: On Their Shoulders: The Radical Stories of Women's Fight for the Vote These articles were originally published by the Women’s Suffrage Centennial Commission (WSCC) as a part of the WSCC blog, The Suff Buffs. The Women's Suffrage Centennial Commission was created by Congress to commemorate 100 years of the 19th Amendment throughout 2020 and to ensure the untold stories of women’s battle for the ballot continue to inspire Americans for the next 100 years. In collaboration with the WSCC, the NPS is the forever home of these articles Logo of the Women's Suffrage Centennial Commission Series: The Treaties of Fort Stanwix The history of Fort Stanwix, from first contact through the end of the fort's useful military life, symbolizes the broader contest of nations (European, United States and American Indian) for economic and political control of the Oneida Carrying Place, the Mohawk Valley, the homelands of the Six Nation Confederacy, and the rich resources of North America. The following web pages focus on treaties and land transactions negotiated and concluded at Fort Stanwix. An old parchment paper document. In the top margin Series: The Military History of Fort Schuyler Although the fort is most famous for it's role in the Siege of 1777, numerous other battles and events happened near and in conjunction with the soldiers of Fort Schuyler. A group of Continental Soldiers stand saluting underneath the American flag. Series: The Constitutional Convention: A Day by Day Account for June 1787 The events of June 1787 begin with debate on the national executive on June 1, and end with arguments over representation in the legislature on June 30. Color engraving showing a street scene in Philadelphia in 1800. Series: Park Paleontology News - Vol. 12, No. 1, Spring 2020 All across the park system, scientists, rangers, and interpreters are engaged in the important work of studying, protecting, and sharing our rich fossil heritage. <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/newsletters.htm">Park Paleontology news</a> provides a close up look at the important work of caring for these irreplaceable resources. <ul><li>Contribute to Park Paleontology News by contacting the <a href="https://www.nps.gov/common/utilities/sendmail/sendemail.cfm?o=5D8CD5B898DDBB8387BA1DBBFD02A8AE4FBD489F4FF88B9049&r=/subjects/geoscientistsinparks/photo-galleries.htm">newsletter editor</a></li><li>Learn more about <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/">Fossils & Paleontology</a> </li><li>Celebrate <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossilday/">National Fossil Day</a> with events across the nation</li></ul> two people standing outdoors near a fossil tree base Series: The Declaration of Independence Through Time The presentation of this document through time may surprise you. Color image of the Declaration of Independence designed by John Binns in 1816. Series: The Constitutional Convention: A Day by Day Account for May 1787 The events of May 1787 begin with the arrival of George Washington in Philadelphia on May 13, and continue through the approval of a bicameral legislature on May 31. Color photo of a room with rows of tables draped with green cloth facing a central table and chair. Take the Junior B.A.R.K Ranger Challenge Complete the activity to earn your virtual Junior B.A.R.K. Ranger badge. Since you have to find the waste piles (poop), it's a good thing this is a virtual activity, right? Black and white illustration of a badge with the words Virtual Bark Ranger above a paw print. Early Supreme Court Justices Ride the Circuit Early justices on the Supreme Court found themselves quite busy - and rather unhappy - due to the demands of their duty as circuit judges. Originally, a Supreme Court appointment was something less than the political plum of the modern era. Interior view of a courtroom with judges bench on raised dias, jury box, and table for lawyers. The Bells and Clocks of Independence Hall Take a few moments to explore the story behind the many bells and clocks associated with Independence Hall. You may have heard of the Liberty Bell, but what about the Centennial Bell? View of 13,000 pound bell suspended in tower. These Boots Aren't Made for Walking The 1970s was a decade of sweeping social and economic change in the United States. The era of disco and bellbottom jeans also built upon laws and programs developed in the 1960s to provide increased opportunities in the workplace and new economic freedoms for women. A woman wearing a tan dress with a white color, white capped sleeves and a tan boots. Congress Establishes the First Bank of the United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton's bill to establish a national bank generated debate on the floor of Congress. Some opponents argued that the Bank was unconstitutional, opening an on-going battle over the interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. Head-and-shoulders portrait of Alexander Hamilton, a man wearing a blue coat and yellow vest. The Supreme Court Decides in Chisholm v. Georgia The very first decision made by the Supreme Court of the U.S. tested the strength of the new national judiciary against state power. The Court's decision created a tremendous backlash. A document box sits on a table surrounded by a candlestick, walking stick, and bundled papers. The Courts in Old City Hall The courtroom in [Old] City Hall served many courts. Here, on any given day, the drama could focus on anything from assault and battery to crimes on the high sea. Interior view of a courtroom with judges bench on raised dias. How Was the Assembly Room Furnished in the 1700s? What did the Assembly Room look like when the delegates signed the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution? How do we know what we know? Channel your inner curator and get the details. Interior view of a room with two rows of tables facing a central table.

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