"Park wetlands, Lewis and Clark National Historical Park, 2016." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Lewis & Clark

National Historic Trail - ID,IL,IA,KS,MO,MT,NE,ND,OR,SD,WA

The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail is a route across the United States commemorating the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 to 1806. It extends for some 3,700 miles (6,000 km) from Wood River, Illinois, to the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon. The trail is not a hiking trail, but provides opportunities for hiking, boating and horseback riding at many locations along the route. The trail is the second longest of the 23 National Scenic and National Historic Trails. Beginning at the Camp Dubois recreation in Illinois, it passes through portions of Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.

maps

Official visitor map of Lewis & Clark National Historic Trail (NHT) in Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota and Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Lewis & Clark - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Lewis & Clark National Historic Trail (NHT) in Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota and Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/lecl/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_and_Clark_National_Historic_Trail The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail is a route across the United States commemorating the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 to 1806. It extends for some 3,700 miles (6,000 km) from Wood River, Illinois, to the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon. The trail is not a hiking trail, but provides opportunities for hiking, boating and horseback riding at many locations along the route. The trail is the second longest of the 23 National Scenic and National Historic Trails. Beginning at the Camp Dubois recreation in Illinois, it passes through portions of Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail is approximately 4,900 miles long, extending from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to the mouth of the Columbia River, near present day Astoria, Oregon. It follows the historic outbound and inbound routes of the Lewis and Clark Expedition as well as the preparatory section from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Wood River, Illinois. Lewis & Clark National Historic Trail Headquarters Visitor Center is located inside DOI, National Park Service, Interior Region 3,4,5 Office. We are right on the Missouri River next to the Bob Kerrey Pedestrian Bridge in downtown Omaha, NE. Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Visitor Center Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Headquarters visitor center is located inside the Interior Regions 3, 4, 5 office at 601 Riverfront Drive in Omaha, NE. The visitor center will be closed on Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year's Day each year. The visitor center is located inside the Interior Region 3, 4, 5 office building along the Missouri River in downtown Omaha, NE, next to the Bob Kerrey Pedestrian Bridge. Giant Springs Small waterfall with brown rocks and green moss Giant springs is a site along the Lewis and Clark National Historic Site located in Great Falls, Montana Sunset at Missouri Headwaters State Park, Montana sun dips behind mountains. In the foreground and meandering river catches the light. Leafy trees sur Sunset over Missouri River headwaters Biking the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Cyclist biking dirt path along riverfront. Leafy trees and wetlands habitat in distance. Cyclist along the riverfront along the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Beacon Rock Water in the foreground with large conical rock on shore Beacon Rock along the Columbia River in Washington. Park overlooking Ohio River in Wheeling, West Virginia Interpretive sign overlooking park and river in the background Lewis and Clark interpretive sign overlooking park and the Ohio River Big Bone Lick Known best as the home to the “Nine Young Men from Kentucky,” the members of the Corps recruited by William Clark in the late summer of 1803, Kentucky has several significant sites where you can learn more about the Expedition. One of the most notable locations is Big Bone Lick, today a Kentucky state park. rock sign for big bone lick state park Lewis and Clark in Louisville, Kentucky One of the first objectives of Meriwether Lewis’s journey down the Ohio River in the fall of 1803 was to meet William Clark near the Falls of the Ohio. Clarksville in Indiana Territory was on the north side of the falls and Louisville, Kentucky was on the south. bridge over river Ohio River Towns in Kentucky John Colter, one of the “Nine Young Men from Kentucky” was born in Virginia, but grew up in Maysville, Kentucky. After the Expedition, Colter would explore the area that today is Yellowstone National Park. A downtown marker recognized Colter’s contributions to the Expedition. Henderson, Kentucky also commemorates the Corps of Discovery. It’s believed that William Clark was a friend of John James Audubon, who lived in the area, so the keelboat likely made a short stop. dirt with artifacts visable William Clark: A Master Cartographer When Meriwether Lewis and William Clark set out towards the Pacific Ocean in 1803, they carried a supply of mathematical instruments and tools for navigation. In addition to helping them chart a course, these instruments enabled them to document the newly-acquired landscape of the young United States. Their efforts also continue to be important today for understanding the land, its inhabitants, and the cartographic skill of Captain William Clark. The gleaming metallic curves of a sextant stand out against a red fabric background. Beads Traders and trappers who traveled and worked throughout the Upper Missouri knew how that glass beads were loved and adored by the Native people. This information would have been shared with Captains as they prepared in the fall and winter of 1803-1804. So Meriwether Lewis included plenty of beads – purchasing them by the card, the bunch, or pound. blue trade bead Blacksmith Tools The Lewis and Clark Expedition had three blacksmiths – Willard, Bratton, and Shields. Today, let’s learn a bit about the tools they used to repair and create so many useful things for the Corps and for the Native people. blacksmith tools Camas One of the most important vegetable plants for the Native peoples of the high plateau was the camas bulb. They were usually eaten raw, boiled, or roasted in earthen ovens. But they could also be ground and shaped into cakes for storage, for the women to cook later in boiling water. Camas bulbs have a sweet taste and roasted camas has a “smoky fig” flavor. purple flower Chief Blackbird It was on August 11, 1804 when the two captains and 10 men ascended Blackbird Hill to honor the former Omaha chief. At his grave they placed a white flag bordered in white, red, and blue. overlook with interpretive signs Seaman Nearly Stolen Near the Cascades of the Columbia on April 11, 1806, the Corps’ camp was crowded by Watlalas, who Captain Lewis declared were “the greates thieves and scoundrels we have met with.” During the evening, some Watlalas stole Seaman, Lewis’s dog. newfoundland dog with tongue out Homemade Beer It seems Private Collins had realized that some camas bread obtained several days before from the Nez Perce had become wet, moldy, and “soured.” So, being resourceful, he made a little trail-brewed beer. Some of you may recall that Collins seemed to be a fan of a good drink – he earned 100 lashes for stealing whiskey and drinking on sentry duty back in June 1804. tin bucket with bread Ft. Mandan Departure Day 1805 On April 7, 1805, the members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition departed from Fort Mandan – one group headed downstream, the other upstream. view of the Missouri River Reuben Gold Thwaites For various reasons, the story of Lewis and Clark nearly disappeared from the minds of Americans by the end of the 19th century. Fortunately, Reuben Gold Thwaites edited and published his revised journals in 1904-06 and their legendary story’s reputation recovered. man sitting at a desk Yellowstone Gateway Museum I stamped my Lewis and Clark Passport at the Yellowstone Gateway Museum today. toy dog near passport stamp That is one fancy keelboat! In the Orion Command Module mockup behind me, I trained for a future deep-space mission, like to the vicinity of the Moon, or even Mars -- farther than a pup like me or anybody has ever gone before! This was my favorite part of my visit to NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston: the Orion Command Module mockup. Orion is not as big as Lewis’ and Clark’s keelboat, which had a crew of 27. toy dog near space module Prairie Areas on the Lewis and Clark Trail When you travel along the Lewis and Clark Trail throughout much of the Midwest today, you primarily see mile-after-mile of croplands. Depending on the state, you’ll see endless acres of corn, soybeans, wheat, alfalfa, oats, rye and even sunflowers. Gone are the limitless acres of prairie. Prairie with clouds Counterfeit Narratives of the Lewis and Clark Expedition While the American public awaited the publishing of Lewis and Clark’s official history of the Expedition, several presses in both the U.S. and Great Britain began printing counterfeit narratives, pulling information from a variety of sources, many not associated with the Expedition. book about Lewis and Clark O Joy Day, November 7, 1805 “Great joy in camp we are in View of the Ocian, this great Pacific Octean which we been So long anxious to See. and the roreing or noise made by the waves brakeing on the rockey Shores (as I Suppose) may be heard distictly" -William Clark, Thursday, November 7, 1805 View of the Columbia River Drams and Gills It’s often mentioned in the Lewis and Clark journals that whiskey was rationed out by the gill or dram. Joseph Whitehouse wrote on June 9, 1805, “…the officers gave the party a dram, the fiddle played and they danced late &c…” How much was a gill? diagram of measurements Clark Knew They Were Near Pacific The men of the Corps finally reached the Pacific Ocean in the middle of November 1805. But about two weeks before, the Captains knew the Expedition was closing in on its goal. How? By simple observation. I’ll need more than a leash to go for a walk in space Here I am with the spacesuit I learned about at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. Astronauts wear suits like these for spacewalks. That’s when they go outside the International Space Station to install new devices or complete repairs on the space station. toy dog near space suit River, Rails and Trails Museum and Visitor Center Hi, Dakota here! Today I arrived in Boonville, Missouri at the River, Rails and Trails Museum and Visitor Center. Here, I met with some nice ladies that showed me around. I saw a half scale replica of the keelboat that Lewis and Clark traveled in with Seaman. toy dog near keelboat Western National Trails- Seaman Jr. I am so excited to learn more about the National Trails System! The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail is one of 30 National Scenic and Historic Trails, and since the whole system is turning 50 this year, I wanted to learn more about all the trails! I had an opportunity to visit six historic trails in the west- Some of them even cross paths with the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. toy dog on pony express sign Sit! Stay! Science! Did you know Lewis and Clark did science experiments during their expedition, just like astronauts do in space? All the experiments inside the International Space Station are controlled from the Payload Operations Center at NASA’s Marshall Spaceflight Center in Huntsville, Ala. payload communication specialist with toy dog Crazy Mountain Museum I am in Big Timber, Montana to check out the Crazy Mountain Museum. They sure have awesome views here! The museum is dedicated to teaching visitors about Sweet Grass County’s history, which I learned is pretty exciting! It includes European settlers, Lewis and Clark, mining, ranching, and lots of other stuff too! Here I am sitting outside in the Lewis & Clark Garden. toy dog near Lewis and Clark garden Shake, rattle and roll! NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Engineers at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, walked me through their integration and testing facility and put me through a series of tests in preparation for my journey. Just like Meriwether Lewis needed to train for his expedition, NASA needed to ensure I could withstand the rigors of launch and spaceflight. toy dog in NASA testing facility Katy Trail State Park and Clark's Hill/Norton State Historic Site It was really exciting to arrive at the trail head for Clark’s Hill/Norton State Historic Site after I learned it follows the same route that Lewis and Clark took on their journey! The Corps of Discovery camped here at the base of what’s called Clark’s Hill. It’s called that because he climbed the hill and wrote about it in his journal. He measured the hill, the Osage and Missouri Rivers, and wrote about Indian mounds that he spotted. Girl with toy dog and Osage Trail sign Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site Rocky here! I’m lending a hand at Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site! The first thing I did was help Ranger Sierra greet visitors. Another ranger built me a travois that I wore all day. Dogs like me used to help the Hidatsa and Mandan people carry heavy loads with travois. They piled up these small sleds with wood used for farming tools, building earthlodges, and more! toy dog at Knife River Indian Villages Forgotten Trail When the Corps of Discovery exited from the Clearwater River into the Snake, they also crossed from today’s Idaho into Washington. Today, Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington, share the confluence of these two great rivers. You’ll find many sites in the sister cities, including the Lewis and Clark Garden and Riverfront Timeline in Clarkston. Sculpture garden First Peoples Buffalo Jump State Park After going to First Peoples Buffalo Jump State Park I got to go to Tower Rock State Park. Meriwether Lewis helped name this place. In his journal he said “At this place there is a large rock of 400 ft. high which stands immediately in the gap which the Missouri makes on its passage from the mountains… This rock I called the tower. It may be ascended with some difficulty nearly to its summit and from there is a most pleasing view of the country we now are about to leave.” stuffed pup near Tower Rock Lewis and Clark on the Kansas/Nebraska border The Corps of Discover stopped to rest just south of the Kansas/Nebraska border – White Cloud and Highland, Kansas in 1804. According to local legend, their names are said to be carved in a stone somewhere close to today’s White Cloud. This was the land of the Ioway tribe. After Lewis and Clark, the tribe’s chief, Ma-Hush-Kah, or White Cloud, lived near the river at a place called Iowa Point in a double-hewn log house. sunrise over the river Salt and the Lewis and Clark Expedition In pioneer times, salt was indispensable for preserving meat and tanning hides. The countryside around this salt spring was considered ideal for settlement and by 1810 had acquired the name “Boone’s Lick Country.” Today, you’ll find it’s a Missouri State Historical Site, about 40 miles northwest of Columbia. interpretive sign about salt Lewis and Clark near St. Joseph, Missouri The St. Joseph, Missouri area boasts a past sprinkled with fur traders, Native peoples, pioneers, successful merchants, notorious outlaws, and the legendary Pony Express. But with its proximity to the Missouri River, it’s also home to the Lewis and Clark story. Wildflowers near river DeSoto and Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuges DeSoto and Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuges are two sites along the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. These refuges are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. I love the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service because they help conserve habitat for my fellow wild animals. Both DeSoto and Boyer Chute were areas where my ancestor Seaman, along with Lewis and Clark, stopped to camp and rest during their long journey up the Missouri River. Stuffed pup by wetland Hitchcock Nature Center The Hitchcock Nature Center is one site along the 3,700 mile Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Even though this park is pretty far off the Missouri River it is still an important stop along my journey on the Lewis & Clark trail. The Loess Hills are an important land-form that stretches the entire western side of the state of Iowa and the unique hills were written about by Meriwether Lewis & William Clark during their time on this stretch of the river. pup on Loess Hills Lodge sign Giant Springs State Park Giant Springs State Park, located in Great Falls, Montana, is one site along the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Giant Springs State Park encompasses all of the falls that the Corp of Discovery portaged in 1805. Only four of the five Falls are visible today -- Colter Falls, the shortest of the falls, is now covered by Rainbow Reservoir. Stuffed dog at Giant Springs Ft. Atkinson State Historical Park What a day on the bluff— the Council Bluff at Fort Atkinson! This site is where Lewis and Clark had their first meeting, our first council, with the Oto and Missouria tribes. At the suggestion of William Clark, a fort was established here in 1820. Stuffed dog near fort Fleas/Lice Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Throughout the journals, we read how the men frequently battled mosquitoes. But on several occasions, they also were confronted with smaller, equally irritating insects – the men believed them to be fleas. Or were they something else? Man itching Reuben and Joseph Field Private Reuben Field was born about 1772, about two years before his brother, Joseph. Since the Fields were raised in Kentucky, they were a part of the “nine young men from Kentucky.” Wayside marker for Lewis and Clark Citadel Rock The Corps of Discovery passed this unique outcropping on May 31, 1805, which William Clark remarked in his journal, “high Steep black rock riseing from the waters edge.” He described it, but didn’t name it. canoe passing by large rock Osage Plum Tree When Meriwether Lewis spent time at the residence of Pierre Chouteau in St. Louis in the early spring of 1804, he noted two trees which he had not observed before – the Osage Apple (later renamed the Osage Orange) and the Osage Plum. Plum tree The Journey On May 14, 1804, the expedition was officially underway. The party numbered more than 45, and their ages ranged from 17 to 35, with an average age of 27. On July 30 the Corps set up camp near what would become Fort Atkinson, and shortly after Lewis and Clark had made contact with the Oto and Missouria. On August 3 they held the first formal meeting between representatives of the U.S. Government and western tribes. 1871 photo of Nez Perce tribal member in front of tipis Traditional Games-Tchung-kee Tchung-kee (chun-kee), a game of skill using a ring and pole, was played on a special field constructed outside of the villages where the ground was smoothed and packed hard for a distance of about 50 yards. Played by Mandan and Hidatsa men and boys – the game was likely observed and possibly played by the Corps in the early Spring of 1805. drawing of traditional game Traditional Sleds Who doesn’t enjoy watching the luge, bobsled or downhill skiing at the Winter Olympics? Rocketing downhill at such outrageous speeds is almost beyond belief. The children of the various Sioux tribes, like children all across the world, enjoyed rushing down hills covered in snow and ice. traditional sled The Whale The Corps of Discovery journeyed 14 to 15-mile from Fort Clatsop to the Pacific coast by Captain Clark and party to see the beached whale. What type of whale could this have been? whale on wall Soap Weed (Yucca) None of the Expedition’s writers ever mention the common yucca plant which they surely would have seen in the drier western prairies, on either side of the Continental Divide. green pod of yucca Beginnings of the Auto Tour Route Interest in providing access to Lewis and Clark’s expedition route grew in the 1920s. Although railroads existed throughout the west, there was not a significant highway network. Historians, like Wallace G. Lewis, noted that highways might provide easier access to the trail taken by Lewis and Clark. historic photo of Lewiston, Idaho Autos and the Auto Tour The genesis of today’s auto tour route can be traced back to 1929. As automobiles grew in popularity throughout the 1920s, the federal government decided to increase funding for construction of long-distance highways in the western United States. historic photo of a gravel road Auto Tour Signs in the 1960s In 1965, the Lewis and Clark Trail Commission approved a sign for the Lewis and Clark Trail highway. Before this date, the auto route was marked in a myriad of ways, but the commission sought to unify the auto route under a single marker. 2019 Connecting with our Homelands Awardees Hopa Mountain, in partnership with the National Park Service, is pleased to announce the 2019 awardees of the Connecting with our Homelands travel grants. Twenty-one Indigenous organizations, schools, and nonprofits have been awarded travel funds for trips to national park units across 12 states/territories within the United States. An elder and young student talk while sitting on a rock. June: A Month of Milestones The times are a changin’, and there’s no better time to honor those moments of change than in June. Over the course of America’s history, the month of June is filled with cultural changes, and some seasonal ones too. So just before the season changes and summer begins, take some time to visit these parks that commemorate extraordinary moments. Painting of suffragist on a horse Home Is Where the Heart Is Guess what? I’m home! I returned aboard SpaceX’s Dragon CRS-16 commercial cargo flight in January. It was with a sad puppy heart that I left the International Space Station. Being at Space Station really changed my perspective of our home planet. It’s just as they say: there are no country borders visible from space – only this one, breathtaking, fragile world that we all share! two astronauts on the space station Yellow Fever Yellow fever would be one of several ailments that would worry the Captains, simply because of the many marshy areas they encountered along the Trail. But due to common beliefs of the time, they were only concerned about the quality of the air, not the mosquitoes that also thrived in such environments. Meriwether Lewis wrote about the huge number of mosquitoes in the area of the “council bluff” where they met the Otoes and Missouris. mosquito photo Horses Early in the Lewis and Clark Expedition “When beginning the Expedition in May 1804, did the Corps take any horses with them?” Most people would quickly answer “nope,” thinking that horses wouldn’t appear in the Expedition story until the crossing of the Rocky Mountains. But it does appear, by carefully reading the journals, that two horses were a part of the Expedition from nearly the very beginning. horse in a field Astronauts and dogs are weightless in space-NASA's Glenn Research Center Everything inside the space station floats unless it is tied down, because the station is in a state of free fall as it orbits Earth. Human astronauts fly in a special airplane to learn what it feels like to be weightless. I learned at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio where scientists create microgravity on Earth for inanimate objects including “pupstronauts” like me. toy dog looking down Soulard map: a pre-expeditionary planning tool for Lewis and Clark Many people think that when Lewis and Clark started their journey from Camp River Dubois, they were entering completely uncharted territory. Actually, quite a bit was known as far upstream as the Mandan villages. Captain Lewis carried aboard the keelboat several different maps of the area between the confluence and the Mandans, including one by Antoine Pierre Soulard, a surveyor-general of Spain. line drawn map American Coot Many people confuse the American Coot with different species of ducks. In fact, Captain Lewis, when writing in March 1806 at Fort Clatsop, called the coot a “black duck.” black bird with white beak Getting Lost and Found on the Lewis and Clark Expedition On almost a daily basis, the Corps’ hunting parties would leave the trail in search of game. It wasn’t uncommon for the hunters to get lost in their quest for fresh food. After all, when tracking game the men could easily become disoriented in the vast wilderness on either side of the rivers. metal cone shaped instrument What happened to Seaman after the Lewis and Clark Expedition? “What happened to Seaman after the Expedition?” It’s a short, logical question that deserves a long, detailed answer. newfoundland dog How did Captain Lewis acquire Seaman Little is known about Seaman, but we do find in Lewis’s journal that he paid $20 for the Newfoundland dog. drawing of newfoundland dog Seaman's Collar Is the collar thought to be that of Seaman proof that the Newfoundland returned with the Corps, remaining by Lewis’s side until his death in 1809? newfoundland dog Long-Leaved Sage Meriwether Lewis collected at least 11 specimens of five different varieties of sage. This is the one he collected and sent back to President Jefferson on the keelboat. long leafed sage If the capsule fits, climb aboard I visited a SpaceX Dragon capsule on display at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex to make sure my ride to the International Space Station was going to be comfortable. Astronauts call this a “fit check.” toy dog in front of space capsule Lewis and Clark State Park (Iowa) Today I went to Iowa to visit Lewis and Clark State Park and experience one of the many sites that the Corps of Discovery stopped at during their adventure. Here I am getting spoiled by some of the young park visitors. They are learning about the expedition too! We got to see lots of cool stuff inside this building where we learned about what Lewis and Clark saw and did while they were here. toy dog with keelboat and lake in the background Lewis & Clark State Historic Site Dakota visited Lewis & Clark State Historic Sitein Hartford. Here is what Dakota wrote in his journal about his visit: "I had a blast at Lewis & Clark State Historic Site in Hartford, IL. The Interpretive Center and reconstructed camp tell the story of the expedition’s winter encampment at Camp River Dubois." stuffed pup and live dog Camp River Dubois Also known as Wood River Camp, it was at Camp River Dubois, across from the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers, where the Lewis and Clark and their men camped during the late fall, winter and spring of 1803-04. Large tower with blue sky Pompeys Pillar National Monument Pompeys Pillar National Monument is one site along the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Today, I (Keelie) learned that the Lewis and Clark Expedition separated into two groups for a while when they were on their way home. So Meriwether Lewis (and my illustrious foredog, Seaman) took folks to explore the Marias River farther north. William Clark went southeast to explore the Yellowstone River (my personal favorite). He had all sorts of misadventures on his way. stuffed pup near rock tower Preparing an Expedition Lewis had volunteered to lead another expedition that Jefferson had proposed years earlier. When Jefferson was elected President in 1801, he asked the 29-year-old Lewis to serve as his personal secretary (assistant). Some believe that Jefferson was grooming Lewis to lead the new expedition he was proposing. 1954 stamp commemorating the lewis and clark expedition Washington County Historical Association- Museum The Washington County Historical Association-Museum is one site along the 3,700 mile Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Located in the old Fort Calhoun State Bank, this museum works to teach visitors of all ages about both Lewis and Clark and the history of Washington County, Nebraska. They have wonderful, unique exhibits, including one on Lewis and Clark’s first council meeting with the Otoe-Missouria tribe at nearby Fort Atkinson. Stuffed dog near cardboard cutout of Lewis Mosquitoes Contribute to Louisiana Purchase How did mosquitoes help America buy the Louisiana Territory from France? The answer takes us to the second largest island of the West Indies known today as Hispaniola. General Charles Leclerc in military uniform Christmas Eve at Fort Mandan Christmas Eve at Fort Mandan, 1804, according to Joseph Whitehouse fire in a fireplace Auto Tour and Tourism As highways continued to expand, congressmen realized the potential tourism they could provide. One such congressman was Washington Senator Warren Magnuson, who in 1950 led the first congressional effort to establish an official roadway for Lewis and Clark’s expedition trail. Auto Tour Surveys By the early 1960s, the Department of the Interior joined the efforts to establish an official auto route. In 1962, Secretary Stewart L. Udall directed the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to work with federal, state, and local agencies to plan an official auto route. Chief Twisted Hair The Corps of Discovery encountered the Nez Perce people in late September 1805. They were exhausted from the grueling trek over the Bitterroot Mountains and the sight of the friendly Nez Perce must have been somewhat comforting. Among the Nez Perce leaders who offered guidance was Walamottinin, or Twisted Hair. William Clark described him as “a Cheerful man with apparant siencerity.” statue of lewis and clark and the Nez Perce Phantom Volcano in South Dakota In the past we’ve discussed the Ionia Volcano observed by the men in today’s northeastern Nebraska. But other “volcanoes” were believed to be scattered along the Trail. William Clark wrote in September 1804: “I walked on Shore with a view to find an old Vulcanio, Said to be in this neighbourhood by Mr. J. McKey of St. Charles. I walked on Shore the whole day without Seeing any appearance of the Villcanoe…” floodplain view Osage Chiefs in Washington City In early July 1804, a dozen Osage chiefs arrived in Washington City. They were the first to make the long trip at the invitation of Captains Lewis and Clark. President Jefferson made it clear to the Captains that he wished as many chiefs as possible to visit the new capital city and meet him face to face. painting of Osage chief First Election West of Mississippi On August 22, 1804, about 30 miles upstream from the burial site of Charles Floyd, the captains decided to appoint a replacement for the deceased sergeant. What would become the first official election held west of the Mississippi River, all the men cast their votes. lewis and clark campsite sign Pronghorn Pronghorn are the fastest land mammals in the western hemisphere. How fast, you ask? A four-day-old pronghorn can outrun an average human. By four weeks, it can outrun a coyote or bobcat. The Corps first spotted the pronghorn on September 3, 1804 on the prairie near today’s Springfield, South Dakota. pronghorn with hill in background Powder Horns In addition to carrying a rifle, each hunter on the Lewis and Clark expedition would have also carried a powder horn for the weapon’s gunpowder. Powder horns were usually made from the horn of a cow or ox, which were lightweight, durable and, if sealed properly, watertight. horn used for gun powder Louisiana Purchase Transfer Document Once the U.S. Congress ratified the treaty which purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in October 1803, the actual transfer took place in two phases. Lower Louisiana was transferred in New Orleans in December 1803, but due to difficult winter travel conditions up the Mississippi River, Upper Louisiana wasn’t transferred in St. Louis until the following spring, in March 1804. signed document Grave Creek Mound Grave Creek Mound, in Moundsville, West Virginia, is one of the largest conical-type native burial mounds in the U.S., standing 62 feet high and 240 feet in diameter. It’s believed that members of the Adena culture moved more than 60,000 tons of dirt to create it in about 100 BC. mound covered in grass Lewis Chased by Grizzly Meriwether Lewis took a small party of men with him and they explored upstream, ultimately finding the Great Falls of the Missouri. On June 14, 1805, Lewis assigned a variety of duties to the men and he took off on his own, with his gun and espontoon in hand. two grizzly bears Choppunish Camp For nearly a month, from May 14 to June 10, 1806, the Corps of Discovery settled into a camp along the Clearwater River in today’s Idaho County, Idaho, to wait for the high-country snows to melt. The captains viewed this location as a perfect spot defensively, as it had once been a Nez Perce village – it was about four feet below surrounding ground and rimmed by earthworks. Close to the river for the soon-to-arrive salmon, the site was near plenty of excellent horse pasture sign for Long Camp Snowberry and the Lewis and Clark Expedition The men of the Expedition were eager to find the Shoshone Indians in mid-August 1805. But while they searched for the Native people, Captain Lewis noticed near Pattee Creek “a species of honeysuckle much in it’s growth and leaf like the small honeysuckle of the Missouri only reather larger and bears a globular berry as large as a garden pea and as white as was.” plant with white berries White Cliffs From mid to late May 1805, the Corps of Discovery traveled through a very rocky and barren landscape. Patrick Gass wrote, “We have now got into a country which presents little to our view, but scenes of bareness and desolation…” So imagine how surprised the men of the Corps would have been when they rounded a bend in the Missouri River on May 31, 1805 and first spotted the magnificence of what we call the Missouri Breaks and the White Cliffs of the Missouri. white cliffs Floyd’s Journal Found Reuben Gold Thwaites is best known as the editor of “The Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” which was published in 1904-05 as an eight-volume set. But Thwaites is also known as the person who found and saved the original journal of Sergeant Charles Floyd, the only member of the Corps to die during the Expedition. hand written note William Clark’s Epaulet: Captain or Lieutenant? So, this makes us wonder – on his dress military uniform, did Clark wear a lieutenant’s or captain’s epaulet (ornamental fringe)? Personal honor and integrity were the hallmarks of a gentlemen and it is possible that Clark would not have presented himself as a captain unless he had official sanction to do so. USS Lewis and Clark Submarine The U.S. Navy commemorated the captains of the Corps of Discovery in 1965 with the Benjamin Franklin-class, nuclear-powered, ballistic missile submarine, the USS Lewis and Clark. Corporal Richard Warfington Richard Warfington was born in the area of Louisburg, North Carolina in 1777 and he joined the U.S. Army in 1799. His enlistment information stated he was five feet ten inches tall, had brown hair and black eyes, with a fair complexion. He transferred to the Corps of Discovery from Captain John Campbell’s company of the 2nd Infantry Regiment in November 1803, with the rank of corporal. Roadside marker honoring Richard Warfington in Louisburg, North Carolina. Andrew Ellicott On April 19, 1803, Meriwether Lewis arrived in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, to begin his studies with Andrew Ellicott. Considered the nation’s premiere astronomer, Ellicott would provide the explorer-to-be with the necessary skills and principles of astronomical observations and surveying, which could be applied to the techniques of navigation. line drawing of man Engagés on the Lewis and Clark Expedition The red pirogue was sometimes referred to as the “French pirogue” because when the Corps of Discovery departed in May 1804 from Camp River Dubois, it was filled with French hired boatmen, or engagés. Rocky Visits Knappton Cove Heritage Center Since my hosts live nearby, I started my day with a visit to the statue of my great ancestor, Seaman, in Seaside, Oregon. The town of Seaside is at the end of the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, right on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. What a hero Seaman was! Will I ever be that big? Then, it was off to Knappton Cove! two women holding a toy dog McNary Dam and the Pacific Salmon Visitor Information Center Hello, Keelie here! Today I visited McNary Dam and the Pacific Salmon Visitor Information Center. The facility is owned and operated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Lewis, Clark, and of course my ancestor Seaman passed through this area October 19, 1805 on their journey to the Pacific Ocean. toy dog near information center Rover in the Rover: Seaman Jr. at NASA’s Johnson Space Center This is one of NASA’s Space Exploration Vehicles at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, where I learned about robotics in space. toy dog on a space vehicle Welcome to Rocket City! While I was training at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, Moriah Fordham of the U.S. Space & Rocket Center showed me a full-scale Saturn V rocket replica. woman holding toy dog in front of rockey Making a Splash with the Big Dogs! Hi, everyone! While I was at NASA’s Langley Research Center I trained at the Gantry. Who Really Built the Lewis and Clark Keelboat? Part 1 Who built the keelboat for Meriwether Lewis, and the location, remains one of the ongoing mysteries of the Expedition. A Lewis and Clark exhibit at the Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center states that the big boat was built in a boatyard of William Greenough. But Elizabeth, one of the oldest towns in the Monongahela Valley, has long claimed the boatbuilder was its own highly accomplished Captain John Walker. keelboat on water PawPaw Sickness on the Lewis and Clark Expedition In mid-September 1806, as the Expedition rushed to return to St. Louis and civilization, food took a back seat to speed. The biscuits were nearly gone, the deer were meager and scrawny. What was easily available was the juicy fruit, native of this stretch of the Missouri – the Pawpaw. As they devoured the fruit, John Potts and George Shannon got sick, then others suffered from inflamed and swollen eyes. pawpaw plant York's Early Life York, a slave of William Clark, is a remarkable yet mysterious part of the Expedition. Little is actually known about him, and what we do know is primarily revealed through the journals or correspondence by Clark. Clark family records indicate that York was the son of Rose and “old” York, who were also owned by the family. statue of York Women’s History Month: Sacagawea Woman throughout history have had a powerful impact on our country’s growth, direction, and success. March is Women’s History Month and we’ll look at several woman who made significant impact on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Apart from the two Captains, a young Shoshone woman is perhaps the best known member of the entire Expedition. Fact and fiction have made Sacagawea a legendary figure whose name often appears in lists of the country’s most admired women. statue of Sacagawea Practice, practice, practice Here is my new friend Cory Bartholomew posing with a TG-14 motorized glider. It has an engine – see the propeller over Cory’s shoulder? – but it can fly without one. Cory invited me to be his co-pilot for a proficiency flight. That’s a practice run pilots make to keep their skills sharp and their flight certifications current. toy dog in an airplane Faster than a speeding bullet The International Space Station is speeding around Earth at about 17, 500 mph. That’s 25 times the speed of sound. That’s “Mach 25” in astronaut language. toy dog near two pilots Technology drives exploration at NASA's Ames Research Center Seaman Jr. here! I visited NASA in Silicon Valley, California! Silicon Valley is known for cool technology that’s changing the world and NASA’s Ames Research Center, over its 80-year history, has inspired the area to be what it is today! toy dog looking at microscope Dillon Visitor Center Keelie’s first stop was Beaverhead Rock State Park located 14 miles northeast of Dillon, Montana. Keelie learned that Sacagawea recognized the rock formation and knew she was in the vicinity of her relatives. two girls hold toy dog near river Don’t worry, NASA! I went to Obedience School At Mission Control at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, I met the flight controllers who control the International Space Station. That’s where I am now, living and working and helping astronauts with scientific research from all over the world! At NASA, many trails lead to the launch pad (Seaman Jr.) Like every astronaut who’s gone before me, I visited NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida to practice climbing aboard before the actual launch. Here I am in front of the big Vehicle Assembly Building where they put together the Saturn V rockets that carried human astronauts to the Moon 50 years ago. toy dog in front of the Vehicle Assembly Building Missouri River Basin Lewis & Clark Interpretive Center Just outside Nebraska City, Nebraska, sitting up above the Missouri River on a scenic 79-acre wooded bluff is the impressive Missouri River Basin Lewis & Clark Interpretive Center. Here, in the 12,000-square-foot visitor center, you can explore and discover the world that unfolded to Lewis and Clark as they first passed through this area in 1804 and returned in 1806. Large visitor center Council Bluff Here at the headquarters of the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail we’re sometimes asked where in Council Bluffs (our Iowa neighbor directly across the Missouri River) did the Corps of Discovery meet or “council” with the Native people of the area? Guests are surprised to learn that the council location was actually on the Nebraska side of the river, about 20 miles north of Omaha near Fort Calhoun. Three men near a cannon High Potential Historic Sites Story Map This story map highlights the High Potential Historic Sites identified along the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Rock cairns Dugout Canoes (Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail) During the Expedition’s return trip in late April 1806, in the area where the Snake River meets the Columbia, the seven or eight dugout canoes that carried the men and their limited cargo from Fort Clatsop were left behind and the men returned to traveling by foot and horseback. Native man in canoe Gass Journal Announced (Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail) In the spring of 1807, David McKeehan, who owned and operated a book and stationary store in Pittsburgh, convinced Patrick Gass to let him publish the first journal of the Expedition. As such, McKeehan released a prospectus of the forthcoming book in the April 28, 1807 edition of the Pittsburgh Gazette (see far left column). Newspaper article announcing Gass Journals McBaine Burr Oak (Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail) Near Columbia, Missouri you’ll find a rare natural landmark. For nearly 400 years it has stood strong, withstanding storms, droughts, floods, vandalism and the progress of humankind. It’s the McBaine Burr Oak tree. Burr Oak tree with sunset in background Salmon (Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail) In the life of the Chinookans, no other animal equaled the importance of the salmon. In the area of the Columbia River and its tributaries, five different species of salmon (all belonging to the genus Oncorhynchus) spawned. Salmon in shallow water Honoring Tribal Legacies Honoring Tribal Legacies: An Epic Journey of Healing (HTL) is a virtual handbook providing educators with resources to teach a more collective history of Lewis and Clark’s Corp of Discovery and the nation’s journey west. Painting of a river Brunot’s Island, Part Two Brunot Island (or Brunot’s Island) is a 129-acre island located in the Ohio River approximately 1.25 miles from downtown Pittsburgh. It was named for Dr. Felix Brunot (1752-1838) who moved to Pittsburgh in 1797. He was a French surgeon who came to America to serve on the medical staff of the Marquis de Lafayette. historic photo of an island Settling into Fort Mandan By early December 1804, the men of the Corps were nicely settled into Fort Mandan. The majority of the men moved into their “huts” on November 19, even though most of the roofs weren’t finished. The two Captains moved into their rooms on November 20. The fort wouldn’t be considered fully complete until the evening of November 27. fort in the snow Frederick Bates, Part 1 In 1807, Meriwether Lewis was appointed governor of the Territory of Upper Louisiana by President Jefferson. But Lewis had his hands full back East – trying to prepare the journals for publication, attending to family business, even seeking a suitable wife. As such, he didn’t assume his new post in St. Louis until March 1808. portrait of a man Tea on the Lewis and Clark Expedition Meriwether Lewis’s supply inventory mentions purchasing two pounds of “English” tea. Our immediate assumption today is this tea would have been in the little bags of loose tea similar to what we’re accustomed to using. brick of tea Auto Tour and Recreation The extension of the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail provides Americans with many new opportunities to explore. Auto Tour on the Trail Extension In 2019, the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail increased by 1,200 miles, stretching now from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to the Pacific Ocean. Supporting Communities Along the Trail By investing in tourism development and promotion, the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail creates economically stable and distinct communities that reflect the landscape during the famous Lewis and Clark expedition. trail leading to a large rock with a flat top Lewis and Clark Leaving Fort Clatsop Today, March 22, 1806, Coboway, chief of the Clatsop people, made his final visit to Fort Clatsop, knowing the men of the Corps were making their final preparations for departure. wooden fort Chinook woman saved Private Hugh McNeal’s life On January 8, 1806, Captain Clark and a small party of men were visiting some Tillamook and Clatsop people near the Necanicum River (in today’s Seaside, Oregon). In the evening, McNeal went off with a woman, through an arrangement by a Tillamook man – a man who intended to kill McNeal and take his possessions. historic photo of river Lucy Meriwether Lewis Marks While she’s often overlooked, Lucy Meriwether Lewis Marks made an indirect but important contribution to the Lewis and Clark Expedition’s outcome. Meriwether Lewis’s mother was a talented and resourceful woman who effectively shaped her son to become an outstanding man capable of leading a group of soldiers across the continent. Painting of Lucy Meriwether Lewis Marks Ink and the Lewis and Clark Expedition Of all the items purchased by Captain Lewis in preparation of the great westward journey, few would be more valuable than a simple, every-day item: ink. glass bottle of ink Early Report on the Lewis and Clark Expedition The earliest disclosure of the progress of the Corps of Discovery was released by President Jefferson in February 1806. historic paper Joseph Garreau One of the traders who Captains Lewis and Clark encountered in the area of Fort Mandan during the winter of 1804-1805 was Joseph Garreau. U.S. military persons in Indian village Celestial navigation- NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory At NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, I saw all the precision and preparation that goes into making a long voyage across the solar system. And I found out that NASA's robotic missions are continuing Lewis’ and Clark's tradition of scientific exploration, with spacecraft blazing trails to lots of other planets, as well as observing Earth from space. toy dog overlooking mission control Sioux City Lewis & Clark Interpretive Center The Sioux City Lewis & Clark Interpretive Center and the adjoining Betty Strong Encounter is a great place to visit. A non-profit institution, it was built and is sustained by Missouri River Historical Development, Inc. (MRHD). The Center spotlights the expedition’s adventures in the present-day Sioux City area. Rocky (toy dog) sits at the 14-foot-tall bronze sculpture, Spirit of Discovery Ice Harbor Lock and Dam Visitor Center I enjoyed visiting Ice Harbor Lock and Dam Visitor Center were I learned that this was the last dam on the Snake River before the river merges with the Columbia River! toy dog near dam Up above the sky in an ER-2 During my training at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center, pilot D. Stuart Broce took me from Palmdale, California, to the skies above Santa Barbara and the Channel Islands in a NASA ER-2 aircraft. He’s wearing a pressure suit to help him breathe, because the air is very thin where we went. We flew to an altitude of 65,000 feet! toy dog high above earth Look out below! NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center Here I am in a modified Gulfstream G-3 research aircraft, flying with test pilot Troy Asher of NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center at 41,000 feet – almost eight miles high – above the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. toy dog in an airplane Remington Nature Center Today I visited the Remington Nature Center. It was so much fun! It is located in St. Joseph, Missouri, directly situated on the Missouri River. There were outdoor walking trails I could run up and down, right by the River! I saw lots of other dogs on the trail too. toy dog with snake The Lewis and Clark Trail from Space The Lewis and Clark Trail from Space 2018 marks the 40th anniversary of the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, the 50th anniversary of the National Trails System, and the 60th anniversary of NASA. In order to commemorate these historic events, the National Park Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and NASA have collaborated to assemble a collection of satellite images highlighting important sites along the route taken by Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery. Story map featuring NASA, NPS and USGS logos Bringing distant horizons near A telescope was one of the tools Lewis and Clark used for navigation. NASA uses a really big telescope – the Hubble Space Telescope – to look at distant galaxies and stars, and even the planets in our own solar system. toy dog on model of telescope Seaman Jr. in Space Woof, fellow earthlings! This is Seaman Jr., writing from space! Right now, I’m aboard the International Space Station, a giant laboratory that circles the Earth at more than 17,000 miles per hour! toy dog in astronaut suit Court martial at Kaw Point Park The Corps rested at Kaw Point Park for about three days in 1804 -- just long enough for two of the men to get into trouble. During the early morning hours of June 29 (just after midnight), Private John Collins was on guard duty. Being the only man awake, he helped himself to one of the whiskey barrels. One sip led to another and soon, Collins was drunk. When Private Hugh Hall came to relieve him, Collins offered a drink and Hall accepted. Soon they were drunk together. Kansas City riverfront from river bank Gateway Arch National Park and Lewis and Clark While the Corps of Discovery didn’t officially begin from St. Louis, the young city was vital to Captains Lewis and Clark – here they obtained many of their final goods and supplies, and received assistance from those who had already traveled up the river as far as the Mandan villages in today’s North Dakota. The city was, however, the celebrated return site of the Expedition in September 1806. Arch statue during a sunrise Lewis and Clark in Kansas After leaving the area of the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, the Corps moved northwest. It was on July 2, 1804 when the men first encountered the vacated Kansa or Kaw village near today’s Leavenworth, Kansas. It’s believed the Kansa people lived here in the 1740s and 1750s, but had moved farther west into the lower areas of the Kansas River. Lewis and Clark liked what they saw in Kansas. They commented on the abundance of game and the beauty of the prairie. brick downtown buildings Katy Trail State Park An amazing recreational trail stretches across most of the state of Missouri – it’s a wonderful way to experience much of the Missouri River valley and the route of the Corps of Discovery, whether you’re a walker, biker, nature lover or history buff. Katy Trail is America’s longest “rails-to-trails” project at 240 miles, spanning from Machens, northwest of St. Louis, to Clinton, southeast of Kansas City. Biker on trail Kaw Point Park The Missouri River meets the Kansas (Kaw) River between today’s Kansas City, Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri. It’s believed the confluence in 1804 was only about 0.25 miles north of where it is today. The Expedition camped at a wooded point where the Kansas enters the Missouri from June 26-28, 1804. stone benches with Corp names Departure Day On May 14, 1804, the Corps of Discovery, minus their leader, began the 28-month trek across the newly acquired Louisiana Territory. A river with two forks William Clark, Appointment to Indian Agent It was on March 9, 1807, just five months after the return of the Corps of Discovery, when President Jefferson appointed William Clark brigadier general of militia and principal agent of Indian affairs for the Louisiana Territory. Oil painting of William Clark Training Meriwether Lewis Thomas Jefferson, in his February 28, 1803 letter to Dr. Caspar Wistar, mentioned that Meriwether Lewis had recently learned how to calculate latitude and longitude, a skill that he and Captain Clark would use every day during the Expedition. Painting of Robert Patterson Music, Dance & Popular Songs of Period You may not think that a group of tough military men would find joy and delight in music, but it was clearly a part of their lives during the Expedition. Not only was Cruzatte’s fiddle and the lively dancing of the others common during holidays and layover days, it was an important part of the Corps’ relations with Native people, who often requested demonstrations of song and dance. musical notes William Clark & Julia Hancock Wedding, Jan. 5, 1808 In 1808, William Clark was 37 years old. Julia Hancock, the young woman whom he married on January 5, was just 16. The ceremony probably took place at Santillane, the estate of Julia’s father Colonel George Hancock, just outside of the village of Fincastle, Virginia. portrait of Julie Hancock Clark Winter Holidays on the Lewis and Clark Expedition December 1803 - January 1804 Starting during the holidays of 1803, the expedition was set up at Camp Dubois which is near present day Wood River, Illinois. Captain Meriwether Lewis was in St. Louis so only Captain William Clark was there. two men standing before a fort Winter Holidays on the Lewis and Clark Expedition December 1804 - January 1805 The holiday season of 1804 was celebrated at Fort Mandan near present-day Washburn, North Dakota. On Christmas Eve, many different expedition members noted the upcoming Christmas celebration. historic paining of Fort Mandan Lewis and Clark's Fourth of July 1804 in Kansas On July 4, 1804, the Corps of Discovery observed the first Independence Day west of the Mississippi. The men camped in the area of today’s Atchison, Kansas. It was here where Captain Clark named two small streams in honor of the holiday – 4th of July 1804 Creek and Independence Creek. memorial marker Winter Holidays on the Lewis and Clark Expedition December 1805 - January 1806 This was the third Christmas being celebrated during the expedition, and it took place in Fort Clatsop near the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon. reconstructed fort The Accidental Shooting on Brunot’s Island Even before Meriwether Lewis and his initial group of men got out of sight of Pittsburgh in 1803, tragedy nearly struck the Expedition. For some reason that’s not entirely clear, the Captain stopped the keelboat’s voyage to go ashore at Brunot’s Island. Possibly it was to bid farewell to someone he knew who lived on the small island, just west of Pittsburgh. During the short visit, someone asked him to demonstrate his newly acquired air gun. historic drawing of burnots island Osage Apple (Orange) The tree and fruit that Meriwether Lewis would call the Osage Plum or Apple when he wrote back to President Jefferson in March 1804, is today known as the Osage orange (Maclura pomifera). But most people now know the large, lumpy fruit as a “hedge apple.” fruit of osage apple tree Badgers A badger was killed by Joseph Field north of today’s Omaha, Nebraska, on July 30, 1804. Captain Clark wrote a short journal entry about it, but Meriwether Lewis, during the long winter of 1805-06 at Fort Clatsop, wrote a lengthy description of the American badger, Taxidea taxus. badger with stripes on face James Wilkinson When Congress organized the Louisiana Territorial government in 1805, President Jefferson chose Brigadier General James Wilkinson to be governor. Wilkinson was a senior officer in the U.S. Army and commander of the country’s western military. drawing of a man Fort Benton, MT Fort Benton, Montana is often referred to as the “birthplace of Montana.” And for good reason – it’s the first permanent settlement in the Montana territory. aerial view of town near river Lewis and Clark Ride at Disneyland, Missouri? After Walt Disney completed Disneyland in California, he toyed with the idea of developing a second park in the middle of the country – St. Louis. According to History.com, he had plans drawn for a five-story, two-square-block indoor theme park (for the less tropical climate of the Midwest) and even named it Riverfront Square. Lewis in Cincinnati After traveling nearly 500 miles down the Ohio River from Pittsburgh, Meriwether Lewis and his limited crew docked at Cincinnati, Ohio to rest. Arriving on September 28, 1803, he wrote to William Clark, providing a brief update on their progress, and that he’d found two young men who he’d taken on “trial” – they are believed to have been George Shannon and John Colter. plat map of Cincinatti John Pernia When Meriwether Lewis returned to Locust Hill after the Expedition, he seemed to have had no desire to take up his old role as plantation owner. In 1808, after his visit with family, he traveled back to St. Louis to assume his role as governor of Upper Louisiana, Lewis chose not to take any of the slaves from Locust Hill with him. paper and quill Home! Sept 23, 1806 Huzzah! Huzzah! Huzzah! After two years, four months, and 10 days of hardships, challenges, joys, and adventures, the Corps of Discovery returned home at about 12 noon, September 23, 1806 Statue of Lewis and Clark Bridge of the Gods, Part 1 Standing tall above the Columbia River at Cascade Locks, Oregon is a 1,858-foot-long cantilever bridge named the Bridge of the Gods. A few miles downstream is the huge Bonneville Dam; a few miles upstream are the historic canal and locks. toll bridge over river Bridge of the Gods, Part 2 Bridge of the Gods is an impressive steel structure connecting Cascade Locks, Oregon with Stevenson, Washington. But geologists believe that about 600 to 1,000 years ago a giant landslide from nearby Table Mountain on the north shore of the Columbia River blocked the Gorge and stopped the river’s flow. Clatsop Welcome Pole Along the banks of Ecola Creek, where it empties into the Pacific Ocean at Cannon Beach, you’ll find a 10-foot cedar “welcoming pole.” The wooden statue of a young Clatsop man was erected in July 2016 to represent the centuries-old area that was a welcoming place for members of the Clatsop, Nehalem, and Tillamook tribes. Jon Valle´ and Cheyenne River By October 1, 1804 the Corps of Discovery was well into today’s central South Dakota. The final days of autumn were fleeting. The early signs of winter were near. The Blacksmiths Several of the men of the Corps were qualified blacksmiths, including Privates Alexander Willard and William Bratton. But John Shields was considered the “chief” blacksmith as he was the most skilled. blacksmith Clark Historic Homesite- Falls of the Ohio State Park Meriwether Lewis was surely anxious on October 15, 1803. Being nervous navigating the keelboat and the pirogues through the long rapids of the Ohio, he hired local pilots to get everything safely to Clarksville in Indiana Territory. When the boats tied up, he immediately set off to find his old friend and new partner, William Clark, who was living with his brother, George Rogers Clark. Lewis would have likely found both men at a small cabin set above the banks of the Ohio. two log cabins Fort Mountain (Square Butte) Standing about 1,000 feet above the surrounding plains, Fort Mountain was noticed by the men of the Corps on July 15, 1805. They estimated they were about 10 miles from the prominent feature. According to Captain Lewis, “…this mountain has a singular appearance it is situated in a level plain, it's sides stand nearly at right angles with each other and are each about a mile in extent. large square plateau Decision Point From June 3 -12, 1805, the men of the Corps were perplexed. Before them were two rivers, one coming from the north, the other from the south. Which was the Missouri? At their camp on the lower side of what would eventually be named the Marias River, they measured both rivers. The southern river was 372 yards across; the northern was 200 yards. But the northern stream was deeper and had all the characteristics of being the primary stream. winding river Historic Fort Steuben Approximately 80 miles down the Ohio River from Pittsburgh, Meriwether Lewis and his initial party passed by Fort Steuben, one of the early military installations of the western frontier. Built in 1786, the fort protected the surveyors of the Northwest Territory — land that would become the states of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois and Wisconsin. reenactor at fort Eye Gnats Photo: University of Florida The Lewis and Clark Expedition put up with lots of insects all along the Trail, including the troublesome mosquitoes, ticks, and “green” or “blowing” flies. But from July 10 through August 7, 1805 when the Expedition had just passed the Great Falls on the way to the Missouri headwaters, the men endured lots and lots of gnats – the journals note these tiny insects over 10 times during this one month. bug with black and tan body More on the Red Pirogue Once the Expedition returned to the river in the spring of 1805, and the keelboat departed for St. Louis, the two pirogues were loaded with all supplies and materials. While the white pirogue made it to the foot of the Great Falls, the red pirogue only made it as far as the mouth of the Marias River, in mid-Montana, in June 1805. river confluence La Charette A small French settlement of about seven houses, about 50 miles upriver from St. Charles, La Charette was the final white settlement that the Expedition would encounter as they journeyed toward Fort Mandan. The Corps spent one evening here on May 25, 1804. line drawing of settlement Departing St. Charles, May 21, 1804 After a five-day hiatus in St. Charles, the Corps of Discovery returned to the river on Monday, May 21, 1804. Since May 16, Captain Clark and the group of nearly 50 men made final preparations in St. Charles as they waited for Meriwether Lewis to arrive from St. Louis, which was about 25 miles away by land. Dog Days at NASA’s Langley Research Center Hi everyone! Here I am sitting on a model of the X59 QueSST. toy dog on a toy plane Keelie at Lewis and Clark National Historical Park Hello from Lewis and Clark National Historical Park near Astoria, Oregon. toy dog near fort Cannon Beach History Center and Museum Keelie here, checking in from beautiful northwest Oregon! Today I am visiting the Cannon Beach History Center and Museum. They collect lots of neat things here like artifacts and local oral histories from Cannon Beach to preserve its past. They have both permanent and temporary/rotating exhibits, that all celebrate Cannon Beach! toy dog in grasses near ocean Watkuweis and the Lewis and Clark Expediton After the men of the Expedition finished the brutal crossing of the Bitterroot Mountains and reached the home of the Nez Perce in September 1805, some warriors considered killing the exhausted and starving explorers. After all, they carried an ample supply of firearms, ammunition, and trade goods. black and white photo of tents Human Exploration, Horsepower, and Doggone! NASA's Stennis Space Center When I was at the Stennis Space Center in Mississippi, I trained at the Test Control Center A-1 and A-2 Test Stands. toy dog with a baby gator Pilot of the Keelboat: T. Moore When Meriwether Lewis departed Pittsburgh at the end of August 1803, he was accompanied by a crew of 15 men. This included seven soldiers, four other civilian hands, and three young men who were “on trial,” hoping to continue with the Expedition for the entire journey. historic photo of river What Happened While Lewis and Clark Were Gone? It’s possible that when the men of the Corps stopped on September 22, 1806, at the newly constructed Fort Belle Fountaine, north of St. Louis, they would have been informed of another explorer and his expeditions. In 1805, U.S. Army General James Wilkinson ordered Zebulon Pike to lead 20 soldiers on a reconnaissance of the upper Mississippi River. portrait of Zebulon Pike Harbor Seal: Lewis and Clark “…The Seal or Phoca are found here in great numbers, and as far up the Columbia as the great Falls, above which there are none,” wrote William Clark on February 23, 1806. The seals which Clark observed were likely Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina richardii). Today, Pacific Harbor Seals share the waters of the lower Columbia River, from Clatsop Spit all the way upstream past the Bonneville Dam, with California Sea Lions and the Stella Sea Lion. harbor seal Arrow Rock State Historic Site Dakota here! Today I arrived in Arrow Rock, Missouri to visit Arrow Rock State Historic Site. Lewis & Clark passed by the Arrow Rock bluff on June 9, 1804. Clark reported “Several small Channels running out of the River below a {Bluff} & Prairie (Called the Prairie of Arrows) where the river is confined within a width of {300} yds.” toy dog near interpretive sign Elliot Coues’s Book on Lewis and Clark Nicholas Biddle’s and Paul Allen’s first sanctioned narrative of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was released in 1814 and it would be another 79 years before another book on the journey would be published. Elliot Coues’s account of the Expedition was released when nostalgia for the American frontier was high and interest in the Lewis and Clark story was returning. photograph of Elliot Coues Big Hole National Battlefield-Newfie News Hi, Y’all! I made it to Big Hole National Battlefield and, boy, is it neat here! Part of The Corps of Discovery adventured through here in 1806 and crossed the north fork of the Big Hole River a few hundred yards from the Battlefield. My ancestor, Seaman, didn’t make it on this leg of the journey, so I’m here to see what’s what! Slaughter Creek On May 29, 1805, during the westward journey, the Corps of Discovery came upon a location scattered with over 100 buffalo corpses. The Captains assumed the animals were the result of a buffalo jump, one of the techniques used by Native plains peoples to hunt the large animals. grass with trees in the background Water taste test Lewis and Clark completed a challenging mission of science and exploration for our nation, just like the women and men continue to do at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. They build and test parts for rockets and space telescopes and more, with a proud history helping NASA complete amazing missions. toy dog in urine processing lab I like my kibble with a side of cabbage My ancestor, Seaman, had to hunt for his food. I had to learn how to grow my own vegetables for my long journey in space. Here I am tending the “Veggie” garden in the food production labs at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. toy dog in veggie garden I believe I can fly! Did you know NASA is with you when you fly? Every commercial airplane in the United States has NASA technology on board. toy dog with four men at a table Sharing my watchdog know-how I paid a visit to the Space Operations Center at NASA Headquarters, where agency leaders keep up on what’s happening aboard the International Space Station. toy dog near computer screen Getting “vetted” for flight at NASA's Kennedy Space Center I spent several days at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida preparing for my first launch. First, I had to get my health check-up at Astronaut Crew Quarters where they made sure I was fit enough to fly. toy dog near "astronauts only" door Harrison County Welcome Center and Historical Village What an experience I had at the Harrison County Welcome Center and Historical Village! Even though this wasn’t a stop for Meriwether Lewis & William Clark, they helped pave the way for later generations of people, who were the pioneers I learned about while on my visit at the Historical Village. This is a great place to learn about the Loess Hills and the Lincoln Highway, which was the first transcontinental highway! stuffed pup in car cut out North Dakota: Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site The Missouri River has long supported life as it stretches thousands of miles through America’s heartland. Close to the Canadian border in North Dakota, the stories of a number of Plains Indian peoples intersect along the banks of the Missouri and Knife Rivers. Here, an hour north of present-day Bismarck, several tribes formed great villages on the plains. Today, the remains of some of these villages are preserved in the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. Knife River salt-making camp begins, December 28, 1805 On December 28 in 1805, five men of the Corps started hiking toward the Pacific coast from Fort Clatsop. All were privates: Joseph Field, William Bratton, George Gibson, Alexander Willard, and Peter Weiser. two men near the ocean Flint, Part 2 Flint has been used by humans to make stone tools for at least two million years, according to an article in the February 2000 issue of “Journal of Archaeological Science.” The very brittle nature of flint causes it to break into sharp-edged pieces. weapon diagram Frederick Bates, Part 2 Frederick Bates was the secretary of the Louisiana Territory under Meriwether Lewis. From the very beginning, the two men were adversaries and much is written about their on-going rivalry and disagreements. historic home Arrival at Camp River Dubois Today in December 1803, William Clark wrote in his journal: “…nearly opposite the Missouries I came to in the mouth of a little River called Wood River, about 2 oClock…” Almost immediately upon landing at this site, which Meriwether Lewis had previously selected based on local information, a severe early winter storm would pummel the men. York as Clark's Body Servant In 1784, an enslaved boy was assigned to be 14-year-old William Clark’s personal “body servant.” Like many slaves, the boy didn’t have a legal right to a last name, so he was known just as York. closeup of York statue Sugar Loaf Rock One of the first prominent rock features encountered by the Corps of Discovery was Sugar Loaf Rock, just a few miles upstream from today’s Jefferson City, Missouri. Also referred to as Lead Mine Hill, the outcropping was described by William Clark in early June 1804 as “a hill of about 170 foot.” Samuel Lewis, Samuel Harrison and William Clark's Map William Clark’s famous map of the Louisiana Territory from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean was published in 1814 as part of the original Biddle/Allen journals. Purple Prairie Clover In late July 1804, Meriwether Lewis documented his first sighting of the Purple Prairie Clover (Dalea purpurea), a beautiful plant of the plains and prairies. purple flower Sacajawea’s Rest Park Parks come in all shapes, sizes, and places. For example, take Darby, Montana’s “pocket park” named “Sacajawea’s Rest Park.” Nestled between two retail buildings in downtown Darby, the tiny park features local artwork commemorating the Corps of Discovery journey through this area, and a statue dedicated to the only woman of the Expedition. people near statue Lewis’s Death Meriwether Lewis died a violent death in the early morning hours of October 11, 1809 – at the age of 35, just three years after the completion of the most successful exploration mission in American history. His death, by a gunshot wound to the head and another to the abdomen, remains a heavily debated mystery. monument near grave site Wendover Ridge Hike One of the toughest hiking sections of the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail is without a doubt the trail from the Lochsa River up to Wendover Ridge in the Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests in eastern Idaho. forested hiking trail Marker for Council Bluff Location The original site of the council between the Corps of Discovery and the Oto and Missouri peoples took place in the area that would become, about 20 years later, one of the largest military installations of the Louisiana Territory -- Fort Atkinson. Today it is a Nebraska state historic park. York Cares for Clark York, William Clark’s personal slave, is noted several times in the journal writings as being a concerned caregiver. He not only nursed Charles Floyd prior to the sergeant’s untimely death in August 1804, he is also documented as helping his master in June 1804. statue with York on right Ripples on the Ohio River As Meriwether Lewis and party journeyed down the Ohio in the early fall of 1804, the keelboat frequently encountered ripples or “riffles “ – short sections of the river where the autumn water level was so low the large vessel had to be lifted or dragged. drawing of the Ohio River Yellowstone River Believing they were close to the mouth of the Yellowstone, Captain Lewis took a few men and some of his instruments and walked to the confluence in order to take navigational observations. He wrote in his journals, “I could not discover the junction of the rivers immediately, they being concealed by the woods, however, sensible that it could not be distant I determined to encamp on the bank of the Yellow stone river which made it's appearance about 2 miles South of me.” river confluence White-Tailed Jackrabbit One of the mammals identified by Lewis and Clark was the white-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii). rabbit in the snow Tax Day in Early 19th Century Income taxes, as we know them today, really didn’t exist at the beginning of the 19th century. But there were taxes on such things as tobacco, distilled spirits, carriages, refined sugar, property sold at auction, corporate bonds, slaves, and, even for a time, glass windows. York After the Lewis and Clark Expedition Despite his many contributions to the Corps of Discovery, Clark refused to release York from bondage upon their return to St. Louis in 1806. This gesture wasn’t unheard of at the time, and Clark actually had released a man named Ben in 1802 “in consideration of the services already rendered.” But York was forced to remain at Clark’s side during his time in St. Louis and when the family traveled back to Virginia and Washington City. statue of York Alcohol and the Lewis and Clark Expedition From the National Archives, here is the receipt signed by Meriwether Lewis on June 1, 1803 for “30 Gallons Strong Sp. Wine @ 233 1/3 $70” and “6 Iron Bound Kegs 1.20 7.20” On his original list of goods needed for the Expedition, Lewis used the term “rectified spirits.” But what he actually purchased was labeled as “Strong Sp. Wine.” What exactly was this? alcohol keg Lewis’s Compass In the spring of 1803, when Meriwether Lewis was buying scientific and mathematical instruments for his pending expedition, he purchased three pocket compasses for $2.50 each, and this silver-plated pocket compass for $5.00. All were created by Philadelphia instrument maker Thomas Whitney. compass with leather case Astoria Column Standing tall, 600 feet above sea level, the Astoria Column provides unequaled views of the Columbia River, the Coast Range, Young’s Bay, the city of Astoria, and the Pacific Ocean. View of tower with blue sky in the background Getting my marching orders- NASA Headquarters I got a view of the rooftops, including the dome of the U.S. Capitol, from the roof of NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. I had lots of fun at NASA Headquarters! I learned that the people at Headquarters make decisions about space policy, like how America will send explorers back to the Moon to get ready to go to Mars. toy dog on a roof overlooking the U.S. Capital Wages of the Lewis and Clark Expedition While there are lots of factors to consider, in 1805 the average adult male wage-earner across all types of employment earned between $400 to $450 per year, according to the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts. How does this compare to the men of the Expedition, most of whom worked for about 33 months during their service in the Corps? coin with photo of a women William Clark Officially Made Captain William Clark was not actually a Captain in the Corps of Discovery, at least in the eyes of the U.S. Army. While Meriwether Lewis had requested that Clark be reinstated in the military in 1803 as a Captain, his request wasn’t granted and Clark was officially commissioned as a Lieutenant. text of law making William Clark a captain Multnomah Falls Hi! It’s your favorite, pink bandana-wearing, newfie Harper! I have just arrived at Multnomah Falls in beautiful Oregon! It is part of the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area which is a protected area that covers land in both Washington and Oregon. There are spectacular views where the river cuts through mountains and forests to create awesome cliffs, canyons, and waterfalls! toy dog near waterfall Coffee and the Lewis and Clark Expedition If you begin your day with a “grande” cup of coffee, you should stop and think about how quick and easy it is for you to get your morning fix. In 1804, Captain Lewis bought 50 pounds of coffee beans. The bag is mentioned in the journals on April 16 and then re-appears when inventories are done at Fort Clatsop. coffee beans Return Home Day for Lewis and Clark, September 23, 1806 Home at last! William Clark wrote in his Tuesday, September 23, 1806 entry, “we Suffered the party to fire off their pieces as a Salute to the Town. We were met by all the village and received a harty welcom from it’s inhabitants…” statue of Lewis and Clark York York, the life-long slave of William Clark, is one of the most interesting members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. His role throughout the Expedition was remarkable and he seems to have been treated much like the rest of the men during the journey. statue of York So, What Happened While Lewis and Clark Were Gone? When they returned to St. Louis in September 1806, the men of the Lewis and Clark Expedition surely asked, “So what happened while we were gone?” How shocked they must have been to hear that the country’s Vice President, Aaron Burr, shot and killed a founder of the country, Alexander Hamilton, in the infamous duel of July 11, 1804, on the banks of the Hudson River in New Jersey. William Clark's Estimate of Eastern Indians in 1805 During the long winter of 1804-1805 at Fort Mandan, William Clark painstakingly summarized what was known about the Plains Indian tribes. This enormous chart was his attempt to collect a vast amount of information into a neat, systematic format. If he only had a PC with Excel! hand written chart of Eastern Indian tribes 1805 Checking out my ride at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Just like other astronauts, on the day before my big day, I visited my launch pad at Space Launch Complex 40. This historic pad is at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, just next door to NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. toy dog with rocket in the background Artificial Horizon: Navigation for the Lewis and Clark Expedition In order to map the progress of the Corps of Discovery, Captains Lewis and Clark needed to know their latitude and longitude, and as the journals tell us, they calculated their position frequently. But to do so, they had to measure a current position relative to something outside of Earth – the sun or stars. sextant on neutral background Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase consisted of three different written agreements between the United States and France. The first was a treaty of cession and the other two outlined the details of the financial transactions. Book documenting the Louisiana purchase Beargrass Several times throughout the Lewis and Clark journals, the writers refer to a plant they named beargrass. This common wildflower (Xerophyllum tenax) is actually not a grass, but a member of the family. beargrass plant Sacajawea State Park Hello! Harper here! Today I arrived at Sacajawea State Park, which is located at the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers near the town of Pasco in southeastern Washington. Lewis and Clark first passed this spot on October 16, 1805 on their way to the Pacific Ocean. They camped at a well-established gathering place for Native people and it was here the explorers knew where they were for the first time since entering uncharted territory. toy dog on sign for Sacajawea State Park Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Interpretive Center - Great Falls Lewis and Clark spent more time in Great Falls than anywhere else on the trail that wasn’t the winter quarters. The Interpretive Center is a big museum built into a cliff side on the Missouri River. The folks in Great Falls really love Seaman – the Interpretive Center has a special volunteer, Buddy, who portrays the great dog himself! Buddy is a licensed therapy dog who comes out to the Interpretive Center twice a week to let people see what Seaman was like. Outdoor sign for the Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center Meet Seaman Jr. One giant leap for mankind’s best friend… “The greatest traveler of my species” is blazing a new trail in space. Seaman Jr., a plush toy, standing in for the original SEAMAN, the Newfoundland dog of Captain Meriwether Lewis, is headed to the International Space Station! In honor of the 50th anniversary of the National Trails Act and NASA’s 60th anniversary, Seaman Jr. will interact with astronauts and encourage others to learn more about their National Trails System. plush dog toy Bonneville Lock and Dam Harper here! I arrived at Bonneville Dam today and saw the spring flows through the Bonneville Spillway. Rangers here work for the US Army Corps of Engineers. They tell me that there is 455 thousand cubic feet per second flowing through the spillway and powerhouses right now. That is about enough water to fill 5 Olympic sized swimming pools every second. stuffed pup near dam Tamástslikt Cultural Institute Today I visited Tamástslikt Cultural Institute on the Umatilla Indian Reservation, outside Pendleton, Oregon. I was greeted by Director Roberta Conner and her horses Hero and Squeezy. Did you know Tamástslikt is the only Tribally owned and operated museum along the historic Lewis & Clark and Oregon Trails? stuffed pup with two horses and rider Charbonier Bluff Charbonier Bluff is a High Potential Historic Site on the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Open field with bluff in the background Eye of the Needle Formation In the spring of 1805 as the Corps of Discovery slowly climbed along the upper Missouri River they would have marveled at a formation known as the Eye of the Needle, an 11-foot-tall sandstone arch formed by water and wind. rock formation with river in background History of Pittsburgh In 1803, Meriwether Lewis found Pittsburgh to be a booming port town of some 2,400 people, nearly 2,000 more than had been recorded in the first national census of 1790. The town supported two glassworks, a glass factory, a paper mill, powder, iron, and saltworks, lumber and flour mills, a brewery, and eight boatyards. historical photo of pittsburgh and ohio river Lewis Arrives in Pittsburgh July 15, 1803 On Friday, July 15, 1803, Meriwether Lewis arrived in Pittsburgh intending to stay just a few days before beginning his journey down the Ohio River. It wasn’t to be. Instead he waited six long, frustrating weeks. keelboat- wooden with rope Edible Thistles Have you ever been hungry enough to eat a thistle? Most thistles found in road ditches or along the edges of farm fields wouldn’t be appealing. But when writing about a variety of topics in his January 1806 journal entries, Captain Lewis explained that the local native people enjoyed the root of an edible thistle: “…it is from 9 to 15 Inces in length and about the size a mans thumb . . . . " edible thistle flower Death of Jean-Baptiste Charbonneau Born on February 11, 1804 at Fort Mandan, in today’s North Dakota, Jean-Baptiste Charbonneau lived a remarkable life. He wouldn’t remember it, but he was the youngest member of the Corps of Discover to travel to the Pacific Ocean and back. burial site with an American flag in the distance Cous Roots Early May was the time when the Nez Perce people dug cous roots. The Native people called it “shappelell,” and the men of the Corps thought the root resembled a small sweet potato. It’s also known as biscuitroot or desert parsley. The women and children of the tribe searched for cous roots on dry, rocky hillsides. As with most roots, they were careful not to harvest the largest one found – to make sure more cous grew the next year. plant with yellow flowers Confluence Project Artist, architect, and environmentalist Maya Lin may be best known for designing the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., which was completed in 1982. Did you know that among her many other works, she contributed to the 438-mile-long Confluence Project in Oregon and Washington? Confluence, through six art landscapes, connects people to the history, living cultures, and ecology of the Columbia River system through the voices of the area’s Indigenous peoples. Over the Falls of the Ohio When Meriwether Lewis and his minimal crew came to the Louisville, Kentucky and Clarksville, Indiana area in October 1803, they encountered the largest hazard since leaving Pittsburgh – the Falls of the Ohio. What Happened to the Keelboat? We’re occasionally asked, “What happened to the Corps’ 55-foot keelboat after it returned to St. Louis from Fort Mandan in April 1805?” It’s a really good question, but one that’s difficult to answer. Sacagawea Statue in Portland, OR This statue of Sacagawea is believed to be the first of many across the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Today, you’ll find it in Washington Park in Portland, Oregon. It’s made of bronze and was unveiled at the Lewis and Clark Exhibition in 1905 in Portland to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the Expedition. statue of sacagawea Sacagawea Statues During Women’s History Month, we’re honoring the Expedition’s most important woman – Sacagawea. There are more statues dedicated to Sacagawea than to any other American woman. While most memorials are along the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, one proudly stands in Washington, D.C., in the U.S. Capitol Visitor Center. Hidatsa Women & Earthlodges of the Upper Missouri River In traditional Hidatsa society, women constructed, owned, and maintained the earthlodge, or awadi. The elaborately designed structure was home to between ten and twenty people, often sisters and their families spanning several generations. Today, shallow depressions mark the locations of the earthlodge villages at Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site in North Dakota. An aerial view of a collection of circular depressions in an open landscape beside a river What Happened to the Supplies of the Lewis and Clark Expedition? Once the Corps of Discovery safely returned to St. Louis on September 23, 1806, the Captains were very busy. Not only did they have to share their adventures their friends and supporters in the city and attend a grand dinner and ball in their honor, they had to discharge the members of the Corps and organize their travel to the East. They also held and attended a public auction of the few remaining supplies of the Expedition. historic map of St. Louis Tower Rock Drive along Interstate 15 southwest of Great Falls, Montana and you’ll cross the Missouri River just as you skirt along the base of Tower Rock. It was in mid-July 1805 when Meriwether Lewis and three other advance-party men entered “the point where the river enters the Rocky Mountains.” After months of traveling through the high, rolling plains, they faced, as Lewis described, “this rock I called the tower.” large rock formation Secretary of War Henry Dearborn If you’re read much about the Lewis and Clark Expedition, you’re sure to have run across the name of Henry Dearborn, who was a part of Thomas Jefferson’s cabinet serving as Secretary of War from 1801 to 1809. Dearborn supported and assisted in early plans for the Expedition and he ultimately was responsible for the men of the Corps, since they were members of the U.S. Army. painting of Henry Dearborn in a military uniform Rock Fort Campsite Along the Columbia River at The Dalles, Oregon, you’ll find some naturally reinforced rugged hills high on the southern embankment. It’s easy to see why the Captains named this campsite Rock Fort. The Corps of Discovery stayed here twice. Their first visit was from October 25-27, 1805 during the westward journey. Breaking up ice around boats The bitterly cold January of 1805 trapped the Corps’ keelboat and pirogues in ice. Some sections of the Missouri were eight inches thick; others were over three feet thick. people standing on ice Trip Planning on the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Where do you see yourself along the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail this year? Do you have plans to visit one or more of the 16 states that are home to the Trail? Haven’t made up your mind? Here are some resources to help you plan: tree in the mist Frederick T. Pursh Benjamin Smith Barton is the botanist most often associated with the Corps of Discovery, primarily because he was the member of the American Philosophical Society who tutored Meriwether Lewis on botanical aspects of the journey in May and June of 1803. But another botanist played a very significant role in documenting the flora of the Expedition. historic document Miller Island The Corps passed Miller Island while paddling down the Columbia River on October 22, 1805. During their return trip on April 21, 1806, they camped on the Washington side of the Columbia, across from the large island. historic photo of an island Wilson Island State Park & DeSoto Wildlife Refuge What once was an island in the middle of the meandering Missouri River, on the western edge of today’s Iowa, you’ll find Wilson Island State Recreation Area. The river has moved slightly to the west, and the island no longer remains. But it’s easy to see how the river once flowed around the area. The Corps of Discovery camped in the vicinity in 1804. crane near open, muddy hole The Five Falls of the Missouri When many people think of the Great Falls of the Missouri River, they imagine one large waterfall. But Montanans proudly explain there are five separate falls of the great river, extending approximately 10 miles that drop the water level a total of 612 feet. large dam with clouds in the sky Pain Medicine for the Lewis and Clark Expedition Dealing with pain is much different today than in the early 19th century. But one highly addictive narcotic drug, opium, was well known and used around the world by the early 1800s, and has a strange connection to beaver pelts. First, let’s look at how the Corps of Discovery dealt with pain. Meriwether Lewis, at the direction of his medical advisor, Dr. Benjamin Rush, put together his medicine supplies in the summer of 1803. Painting of John Jacobs Astor Lewis’s Letter to Clark to Co-Lead Expedition On June 19, 1803, Meriwether Lewis wrote to his friend William Clark asking the former captain to consider joining the expedition of the west. Many historians consider this to be the “official beginning point” of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. handwritten letter on parchment Chronometer Watches and clocks are so common today we take them for granted. They’re on our wrists, our kitchen microwaves, our computers, our cars, and our phones. But in the early 19th century, clocks, or chronometers as they were known then, were rare and expensive instruments. Chronometer metal time piece. Opossums On December 12, 1803, Captain Clark and the men settled to make camp along the mouth of the Wood River, north of today’s Hartford, Illinois. He sent out hunters in different directions to examine the area and to collect game for the evening’s meal. They reported that the “Countrey was butifull and had great appearance of Gaim.” The game they brought back included turkeys and opossums. This is the only mention of opossums throughout any of the journals. baby opossums on the back of a mother Multnomah Falls One of the most popular sites along the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area is Multnomah Falls. The 620-foot falls are tucked back off the Columbia River, but were still significant enough for the Corps to notice. large waterfall Carrier Pigeons In mid-July 1805, as the Corps of Discovery slowly worked their way around the great falls of the Missouri, Captain Lewis wrote in his journal, “I saw a number of turtledoves and some pigeons today. of the latter I shot one; they are the same common to the United States, or the wild pigeon as they are called.” carrier pigeon Hand Games One of the most common games of chance of the Native peoples across the west is a game often referred to a “hand games.” According to Stuart Culin’s book, “Games of the North American Indian,” hand games were found among 81 tribes belonging to 28 different linguistic groups. people playing hand games Seeing the Whale Just after Christmas 1805, word came to Fort Clatsop that a large whale had washed ashore and died on the beach near a Tillamook village. The weather didn’t cooperate and it was finally on January 6, 1806 when Captain Clark departed with about 12 men and Charbonneau, Sacagawea, and Jean Baptiste in two canoes out of Youngs Bay and up the comparatively placid Skipanon River. Then they traveled by foot to the saltmakers' camp, and over Tillamook Head. sculpture of a whale Navigation for Lewis and Clark: Theodolite As they set off on their epic journey of many purposes, Captains Lewis and Clark took along a wide array of mathematical instruments to help them chart and survey the nation’s land acquisition. This set of sophisticated tools included a theodolite – used to measure vertical and horizontal angles. Navigational instrument Navigation for Lewis and Clark To effective create maps of their route, Captains Lewis and Clark needed numerous instruments. chronometer U.S. Takes Possession of Louisiana In early March 1804, the citizens of St. Louis must have been a bit confused and bewildered. Up until March 9, the flag flying over the city was Spanish (even though France regained control in 1800). For just under 24 hours, the French colors were flown, only to be replaced by the U.S. flag on March 10. It’s a complicated, yet interesting story. illustration of three flags days Lewis Goes to Harpers Ferry in 1803 With a letter written by Secretary of War Henry Dearborn in hand, Meriwether Lewis arrived on march 16, 1803 in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. The letter was more like a purchase order, for it was addressed to Joseph Perkins, the superintendent of the armory and said, “Sir: You will be pleased to make such arms & Iron work, as requested by the Bearer Captain Meriwether Lewis and to have them completed with the least possible delay.” Lewis inspected iron boat Two Medicine Fight Site Of the hundreds of sites along the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, none bears as much pain and anguish as the quiet, remote campsite along the Two Medicine River in the southeastern corner of the Blackfeet Reservation in Montana. Here the tragedy of July 26-27, 1806, can still be felt. landscape from hill Umatilla people and Lewis and Clark None of the men of the Corps would ever have fully understood the impact their Expedition would have on the future. Yet, as Bobbi Conner explains in this 2006 video from the Trail Bicentennial’s “Tent of Many Voices,” members of her Umatilla people did foresee the changes ahead and the difficult times to come. women speaking with a microphone Manitou Bluffs in Missouri West of Columbia, Missouri, you’ll find one of the most picturesque sections of the lower Missouri River. Impressive limestone bluffs tower over the slowly flowing river, and the Katy Trail State Park runs directly along the eastern bank. But the better views are from the water – canoe or kayak paddlers are rewarded with remarkable scenery along the rocky cliffs. bluff near a river Lewis Receives Passport from Great Britain On February 28, 1803, Meriwether Lewis received his “passport” from Great Britain, allowing him to safely pass should he and his party encounter British subjects throughout their western expedition. The letter came at the request of President Jefferson. portrait of Edward Thornton Plains Horned Toad Look at this little cutie! Now known as a Texas horned frog or horned toad, he (or she) is actually a lizard – a reptile with scales, claws and young produced on land. One of them was first noticed in today’s Missouri by Lewis and Clark in May 1804 and was the first specimen sent back to President Jefferson, who forwarded it on to Charles Willson Peale to display in his new American Museum. horned toad Point State Park At this junction you’ll find Point State Park, a tribute to the history of this great area and a visual starting point of Meriwether Lewis’s journey beginning on August 31, 1803. Point State Park was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1975 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Pittsburgh Renaissance District. fountain with lights at night surrounded with rivers Washington Medals Used by Lewis and Clark Meriwether Lewis packed at least 89 peace medals as one type of gift to be given to Native peoples throughout the Expedition. This included three large Jefferson medals with a diameter of 105mm, 13 Jefferson medals in 76mm, 16 Jefferson medals in 55mm, and two or four medals of a different, unknown size. But the most peace medals carried by the Corps were the 55 Washington medals. front side of Washington Peace Medal Siskiyou Lewisia Flower This strikingly beautiful plant is the Siskiyou Lewisia (also known as the Lewisia cotyledon) – it’s one of several named after Meriwether Lewis due to his detailed flora documentation during the winter of 1806. orange and pink flower How Did Lewis and Clark Meet? How Meriwether Lewis and William Clark first met can be credited to an empty bottle of alcohol and a fully loaded political attitude. portraits of Lewis and Clark Grog Frequently in the various Lewis and Clark Expedition journals the word “grog” is used when referring to a beverage. But what was grog? wooden barrel Lewis and Clark Relief Sculpture Just outside the main entrance to the Oregon State Capitol you’ll find this relief carving dedicated to the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Leo Friedlander created the work in 1934 of the two Captains and Sacagawea out of white Vermont marble. The work is titled, “Westward the Star of Empire Takes Its Way.” North American River Otters Check out this cute guy, or rather “dog” – that’s what male North American River Otters are called. Equally at home in the water and on land, river otters (Lontra canadensis) make their homes in a burrow near the water’s edge. river otter Dolley Madison and the Lewis and Clark Expedition We all know the name Dolley Madison -- the socially charming wife of James Madison, fourth president of the United States. As we celebrate Women’s History Month, do you know how Dolley played an important role in the Lewis and Clark Expedition? portrait of Dolley Madison Fort Mandan in 1806 On Saturday, August 17, 1806, as the Corps of Discovery anxiously made way down the Missouri River, the men stopped briefly to check on Fort Mandan. What was once their protective home during the winter of 1804-05 was nearly gone just 16 months after they left it. wooden fort Alexander Hamilton Willard This photograph was taken of Alexander Hamilton Willard and his wife Eleanor in the mid-1860s, just prior to his death near Sacramento, California. It’s believed that Willard and Patrick Gass were the only two Expedition members to live long enough to be photographed. historic photo of Willard Blaise Cenas In another article, we discussed the mis-firing of Meriwether Lewis’s air gun and how, when the Captain and his party stopped at Brunot’s Island, a woman was nearly killed. Lewis himself didn’t fire the air gun during the mishap. gun on neutral background The Great Falls According to Lewis As Meriwether Lewis slowly traveled up the Missouri in June 1805, he was amazed to find not just one “great falls,” but a series of five falls of varying sizes. historic photo of a waterfall John Boley John Boley is a very minor character in the Lewis and Clark Expedition. So minor, in fact, that even people who study the story of the Corps of Discovery often don’t recognize his name. historic photo of mountain The Ohio River With the 1,200-mile extension of the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail in May 2019, a fourth major North American river became an official part of the Trail – the Ohio River, joining the Mississippi, Missouri, and Columbia Rivers. Beginning at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the Ohio is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers. It ends 981 miles later at Cairo, Illinois when it empties into the Mississippi. diagram of ohio river watershed Double Ball Traditional games like double ball are part of Indian Arts. NPS Photo. Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site Traditional games like double ball are part of Indian Arts. Lewis at Harpers Ferry Harpers Ferry, in the far northeast corner of West Virginia, was a major junction point due to its location of where the Shenandoah River enters the Potomac. Just 70 miles northwest of Washington City, it was here that George Washington proposed to build an armory and arsenal for the young United States. Construction began in 1799. river bend with town and sunset Lewis Shot by Cruzatte On August 11, 1806, Pierre Cruzatte and Captain Lewis went hunting for some elk in the area of the “burnt hills” (today known as Crow Hills in northwestern North Dakota). Just as Lewis as about to fire upon an elk, a bullet struck him through the left thigh about an inch below his hip bone. Lewis was dressed in brown leather, and Cruzatte’s, having poor eye sight, had mistaken the Captain for an elk. man sitting on a boat Lewis in Wheeling, West Virginia Meriwether Lewis knew he would have problems getting his new keelboat down the Ohio – after weeks of waiting for the boat to be completed, it was now nearly autumn and the river always ran low by this late time of the year. Sure enough, the keelboat got stuck on riffles many times moving downstream from Pittsburgh, but the boat and crew finally arrived 100 miles later at Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia). overhear view of city and river Lewis in Cincinnati, Ohio After traveling nearly 500 miles down the Ohio River from Pittsburgh, Meriwether Lewis and his limited crew docked at Cincinnati, Ohio to rest. Arriving on September 28, 1803, he wrote to William Clark, providing a brief update on their progress, and that he’d found two young men who he’d taken on “trial” – they are believed to have been George Shannon and John Colter. aerial view of town near river Grave Creek Mound Archaeological Complex and Patrick Gass Bust Grave Creek Mound Archaeological Complex is located in present day Moundsville, West Virginia. Standing in the center of town is the largest conical-type burial mound in the United States. Standing 69 feet high and 295 feet in diameter, it was created by members of the Adena culture in about 250-150 B.C. large conical mound Lewis in Marietta, Ohio Approximately 100 river miles downstream from Wheeling, Virginia (West Virginia), Meriwether Lewis and his men arrived at Marietta, Ohio, the first permanent U.S. settlement of the new Northwest Territory. Founded in 1788, the town became a base for U.S. expansion north of the Ohio River. Fort Harmar, established in 1785, gave the town its start, but was abandoned by 1790. lewis and clark interpretive sign Lewis in Steubenville, Ohio When Captain Lewis and his men arrived at Steubenville, Ohio, the namesake, Fort Steuben, was gone. historic actor near wooden fort Lewis and Clark in Clarksville, Indiana It took Meriwether Lewis 44 days to travel down the Ohio from Pittsburgh to Clarksville, Indiana Territory. But when the keelboat and pirogue reached the Falls of the Ohio, which separates Clarksville from Louisville, Kentucky, he was undoubtedly anxious. It had been many years since he had last seen William Clark, but when they shook hands near the Falls a new bond of friendship and teamwork would be formed. statue of two men shaking hands Peace Medals Still in Existence One peace metal is known to be within the collection of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla near Pendleton, Oregon. In 1899, the newly formed Oregon Historical Society acquired one of the small medals Lewis and Clark had handed out nearly a century before. Although in poor shape, the Jefferson Peace Medal was one of the few surviving material reminders that the Corps of Discovery had passed through the Pacific Northwest. Color the Trail: Animals of Lewis and Clark Color the Trail: Animals features animals of the trail and their names in Chinuk Wawa, Lakota, Arikara, Shoshoni, Osage, Hidatsa, Blackfoot, Nimipuutimt, and Mandan. More than 65 tribes have a connection with the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Download, print, and color the pages. color the trail graphic with lewis and clark national historic trail logo Patrick Gass’s Razor Box This small, carved-wood box is believed to be a razor case of Patrick Gass. Descendants of the sergeant inherited it with the story that it had been created and given to him by Sacagawea in 1805. A small wooden rectangular box, with rounded ends and a simple carved ornamental design. Fossils of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Lewis and Clark collected a huge amount of material that was either shipped back to Washington City, or was carried back with the Corps. But the number of fossils found by the Corps was negligible. While very little is mentioned in the journals about fossils, the explorers did find a few and made a few observations. A dark gray fossil of the jawbone of lizard. Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River Along the Trail, the Corps of Discovery encountered several different species of the sturgeon, one of the Earth’s oldest fish believed to have originated about 70 million years ago. Native to the Missouri and lower Mississippi Rivers is the pallid sturgeon – a fish that’s often called ugly or “prehistoric.” A person is holding a pallid sturgeon just above the top of the river. Tú·kes (digging sticks) of the Nez Perce This unique tool is virtually identical to one that William Clark described in his journals: “a Strong Stick of three feet and a half long Sharpened at the lower end and its upper inserted into a part of an Elks or buck’s horn which Serves as a handle…” It’s a digging stick or a tú·kes from the Nez Perce people. A smooth, slightly curved brown stick lies horizontally on a table. It has a short handle Bear Oil Both black and grizzly bears were highly prized by the Lewis and Clark Expedition – primarily as a source of high-quality protein. But not only were bears an important food source, they were also a valuable source of oil and fat. Two glass jars filled with yellow, rendered bear oil. Charbonneau Hired as Interpreter, Nov. 4, 1804 In the midst of overseeing the construction of Fort Mandan, the Captains were visited on November 4, 1804 by the Hidatsa-speaking French trader Toussaint Charbonneau, who had just returned to the area from a hunting trip. A painting shows Lewis and Clark meeting with Native people in a wooded setting Moccasins and the Corps of Discovery The footwear of the Corps of Discovery initially included Euro-American styles of shoes and boots. But according to Robert J. Moore Jr. in his book “Lewis & Clark, Tailor Made, Trail Worn,” the leather shoes of the Expedition were likely some of the first items the men exchanged for Indian styles of footwear. Why No Middle Names? Thomas Jefferson. Meriwether Lewis. William Clark. One thing they all had in common – no middle name. Have you ever wondered why most of the Expedition members, like most Americans, weren’t given a middle name? It simply wasn’t the thing to do in America during that time. Corps Reaches Fort Mandan on Oct. 27, 1804 The group from the Lewis and Clark Expedition who landed at Sheheke-Shote’s village of Mitutanka (Matootonha) on October 27, 1804 was very likely the largest party of non-Indians the Mandans had ever seen. Yet, since the Mandans were accustomed to annual visits by enormous bands of trading tribes, this was a very small group and they probably assumed that the white strangers had come to trade. Map showing the approximate locations of the Mandan and Hidatsa villages. Pine Marten and Fisher Clark’s “beaver martain” is believed to be the Martes americana, the American pine marten, and the “pekon” is thought to be Martes pennanti, or the fisher. The two mammals are closely related members of the weasel family. A cute pine marten with golden brown fur looks at the camera. It is surrounded by a dead tree Missouri Foxtail Cactus A cactus that Meriwether Lewis carefully documented was the Missouri Foxtail Cactus, which he first observed in July 1805 near today’s Three Forks, Montana. Lewis originally called it a “globular prickly pear” but then provided sufficient details to identify it as a new and different species. A Missouri Foxtail Cactus in bloom. Mystery Member of the Corps: John Robertson Of the many mysteries of the Expedition -- one that we know very little about -- is a member of the Corps named John Robertson. It’s believed Robertson, who was occasionally referred to as Roberson in the journals, was a corporal who signed on at Fort Kaskaskia in the Illinois territory, a part of Captain Amos Stoddard’s artillery company. A wayside historical marker , “The Lewis and Clark Expedition Across Missouri. Lewis Arrives in Cahokia, Meets with Carlos Dehault Delassus On December 7, 1803, Meriwether Lewis arrived by himself on horseback at Cahokia in Illinois Territory. He left Kaskaskia two days before and began working his way up the eastern side of the Mississippi River. Lewis had actually been on his own for about a week – on November 28 he had departed Captain Clark and the Corps to likely talk with authorities in the Kaskaskia area and to take astronomical observations. Why No Cans? Meriwether Lewis stocked the keelboat with nearly seven tons of dry goods, including flour, salt, coffee, pork, meal, corn, sugar, beans and lard, along with about 93 pounds of portable soup. All would have been packed in wooden barrels; all had the potential of spoiling. So why was nothing bottled, jarred, or canned? Louisiana Territory Officially Transferred On Tuesday, December 20, 1803, in The Cabildo, a government building used by both the Spanish and French in New Orleans, the Louisiana Territory was officially transferred from France to the United States. The U.S. would take possession 10 days later. A printed historical document issued by William Claiborne issued in 1803, in three columns Neutral Strip in Louisiana Territory After the Louisiana Purchase was completed between France and the United States in December 1803, the United States and Spain were unable to agree on the boundary between Louisiana Territory and Texas. In order to avert an armed clash, Gen. James Wilkinson and Lt. Col. Simón de Herrera, the American and Spanish military commanders respectively entered into an agreement declaring the disputed territory Neutral Ground on November 5, 1806. An 1814 map of Louisiana showing the Neutral Ground. Visual Representations of Sacagawea As we count down to the 100th anniversary of the passage of the 19th Amendment, which was signed into law on Aug. 26, 1920, we’re taking a closer look at modern images of the Shoshone woman who accompanied the Corps. Concretions in the White Cliffs Region The White Cliffs of the Missouri River in north-central Montana are known for their undisturbed, raw beauty. The cliffs, the coulees, and the dramatic formations are breathtaking. One of the unique natural wonders found in the area are concretions. These somewhat spherical masses of sandstone are often found embedded in less durable sandstone. A nearly round sandstone concretion, about the size of a golf ball Jefferson’s Confidential Letter to Congress, January 18, 1803 Thomas Jefferson had longed been fascinated with the West and had dreamed of a United States that would span the extent of the entire continent. But as the calendar turned over to 1803, the land west of the Mississippi River was home to hundreds of Native tribes and was primarily controlled by France. The president sent a “secret,” or more correctly labeled “confidential” message to Congress on Tuesday, January 18, 1803. half of page one of Thomas Jefferson’s letter to Congress. Faded brown ink on yellowed paper. Salmon River Each summer thousands of adventure-seekers do something that Lewis and Clark simply couldn’t – travel down the Salmon River. When the Corps of Discovery reached the Continental Divide at Lemhi Pass, they were confronted with the reality of crossing the Bitterroot Range of the Rocky Mountains. Several yellow rafts and kayaks navigate through the whitewater rapids of the Salmon River. Mahlon Dickerson Search through the journals of Lewis and Clark and you won’t find the name Mahlon Dickerson. But to Meriwether Lewis the name meant a great deal – Dickerson was a close friend, especially before the Expedition. In 1810, Dickerson would write that Lewis was “the most sincere friend I ever had.” A painted portrait of Mahlon Dickerson, dressed in a black suit, with a white, ruffled shirt. Series: Tourism Stories The National Park Service (NPS) has a long history of working in collaboration with the travel and tourism sector to manage responsible tourism that supports conservation and facilitates enjoyment of public lands. These stories are one of a series profiling success stories and case studies of NPS-tourism sector collaboration stacked logs, revealing ring circles Aurora Borealis at Fort Mandan, Nov. 5-6, 1804 In the middle of the night of November 5-6, 1804, at Fort Mandan, the Captains were awakened by the sergeant of the guard to view the remarkable aurora borealis, a sight they would witness many times during the journey. A night scene in Alaska.a small log cabin is illuminated with an artificial light Marie Dorion The story of Sacagawea is one of the best-known aspects of the Expedition. But five years after the return of the Corps to St. Louis, another American Indian woman would positively impact an expedition to the west. Born in 1786, Marie was an member of the Ioway people who, as a teenager, married Pierre Dorion Jr. (the son of the trader/trapper who assisted Lewis and Clark with the Yankton Sioux). A large vertical stone, with a commemorative metal plate attached to the front Sacagawea's Voice and the 19th Amendment As we count down to the 100th anniversary of the passage of the 19th Amendment, which was signed into law on Aug. 26, 1920, we’re taking a closer look at the Shoshone woman who accompanied the Corps, Sacagawea, whose opinion or vote was documented in the journals, a century before women and Native Americans could vote. Clark’s Nutcracker While many migratory birds travel thousands of miles between their summer and winter homes, Clark’s Nutcracker may only travel from higher elevations to lower locales. Originally mistaken for a woodpecker, the bird was named after William Clark when first observed by the Corps of Discovery near the Lemhi River in August 1805. nutcracker bird on snowy branch Goose vs. Brant “Do you know the difference between a goose and a brant?” In North America, we’re most familiar with the ubiquitous Canada goose (Branta canadensis) – the large species with long necks, black face and necks, white cheeks, and brown bodies. The ink sketch of the profile of a brant goose. The short beak is white, a portion of the head Mountains Named for Sacagawea It’s widely known that Sacagawea is the most frequently honored woman in the U.S. with at least 16 statues created in tribute to her. But few people know there are also four mountain peaks and one glacier named for her. A beautiful lake in the foreground with a barren mountain in the distance Cottonwood Trees Of all the species of trees found along the route of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, none contributed more to the success of the Corps than the cottonwood. The men of the Expedition quickly learned from the Native peoples the many different ways in which cottonwoods helped in everyday life. White Pelicans In early August 1804, near today’s Little Sioux, Iowa, the men of the Corps encountered a strange site – for nearly three miles the Missouri River’s surface was covered in white feathers. When they came around a bend, the mystery was solved – on a large sand bar the men found an estimated five to six thousand white pelicans. A large American White Pelican stands on a rock in the middle of a flowing river. York in 1809 William Clark had spent the majority of his life with York, his personal servant. So it must have been upsetting as well as puzzling to him in 1809 to hear that York preferred to be permanently separated from his master. But who could blame York? After all, moving with Clark to St. Louis meant he would be hundreds of miles away from his wife (and possibly some children). York had recently been given permission to visit his wife for four or five weeks in Kentucky. A close-up of the York statue. Seen is York’s head looking to the right. Sauk Tribe and the Lewis and Clark Expedition One of the first Native peoples encountered by the Lewis and Clark Expeditin were the Sauk. On Sunday, March 25, 1804, William Clark recorded in his journal that 24 “Sauckees” passed by Camp River Dubois as they returned from St. Louis. They were in search of provisions. Bodmer’s painting shows five standing and one seated Sauk/Fox men with painted faces Final Years of York’s Life Before the Expedition, he had been William Clark’s personal manservant, but during the journey west York was much more – he worked side-by-side with the soldiers, interpreters, and French oarsmen who made up the Corps of Discovery. He hunted, he cared for the sick and afflicted, he entertained Native peoples, and he scouted. Through rain, snow, freezing cold, and blistering heat, York contributed day-in and day-out from Louisville to the beaches of the Pacific, and back. Oil painting shows York standing with a rifle on his shoulder, next to another member of the Corps. Inside Locust Grove This is Locust Grove, home of William and Lucy Croghan, a Georgian mansion outside Louisville, Kentucky. An Irishman, William arrived in Kentucky territory in 1784 with George Rogers Clark in order to survey the area. He married George’s sister, Lucy, in 1789 and construction on their home began about three years later. Built by enslaved workers, the mansion today is a National Historic Landmark and open for tourists. A winter view of the large, three-story brick home, known as Locust Grove. Mars & Lewis and Clark Connection In late 2015, Opportunity was preparing to explore the eastern end of the Endeavour Crater. As the rover crawled around an area named Marathon Valley, the NASA team decided to use a special naming theme for surface locations in this area of Mars – a tribute to the Corps of Discovery Expedition. A black and white image from MER Opportunity. Part of the rover is seen in the foreground. Broad-tailed Hummingbird On June 15, 1806, in today’s Clearwater County, Idaho, Meriwether Lewis wrote in his journal, “found the nest of a humming-bird, which had just begun to lay its eggs.” At that time, only two hummingbird species had been identified in North America; today there are eight. So it’s not known with certainty the species observed by Lewis. The male bird has an emerald-green head, bright red throat, white body and dark-colored, wide tail. Julia Clark Voorhis and Clark's Elkskin Journal If you’ve ever had the opportunity to stand in front of William Clark’s journals held within the care of the Missouri Historical Society in St. Louis, you can thank his granddaughter for saving and sharing them with the public nearly 120 years after the end of the Expedition. An old black and white photo shows Julia Clark Voorhis standing, leaning against a large column. Wanapum and the Lewis and Clark Expedition After traveling down the Clearwater and Snake Rivers on the western side of the great divide, the men of the Corps stopped at the mouth of the Snake and rested for two days. About 500 yards upstream was a camp of the Wanapum people (Lewis and Clark called them “Sokulks”), who were in the area for the autumn salmon run. That evening, Chief Cutssahnem brought 200 of his men to the Corps’ camp and they welcomed the visitors by singing and playing hand drums. An aerial photo high above the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Alexander Hamilton Willard’s Life and Death At the age of 86, Alexander Hamilton Willard died on this date in 1865 in Sacramento, California. He was the next to last survivor of the Expedition, who was outlived only by Patrick Gass. A tall, thin, white column grave stone of Alexander Hamilton Willard is on the left. Volunteer Story- Ken Schlueter Ken is now a significant part of the fabric ties Lewis and Clark NHT and Visit Omaha together! Not only has he helped the two organizations collaborate on training and special events, but – even more importantly – Ken is ensuring visitors to both Omaha and the Lewis and Clark NHT get great customer service and tips about the area’s hidden gems. man standing at a podium Sacagawea, The Ultimate Working Mother The image of Sacagawea as a mother is such an enduring part of her story that she is pictured with her son, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, on the face of the U.S. Golden Dollar coin first minted in 2000. In February 1805, after a labor that Meriwether Lewis described as “tedious and the pain violent,” Sacagawea gave birth to her first child, who was affectionately nicknamed Pompey by Captain William Clark. A coin with an image of a woman with a child slung in cloth on her back. Prairie Dog Mothers of Lewis and Clark Fame Did you know that Lewis and Clark sent a live prairie dog back to the East Coast to be used as a scientific specimen? This little critter actually made it the whole way and even lived with Thomas Jefferson in October 1805 before being put on display in Philadelphia! Jefferson wrote of the prairie dog, “It is a pleasing little Animal, and not in the least dangerous to handle like our Ground Hog.” Two light and dark brown prairie dogs stand on their hind legs atop a dirt mound. Nimiipuu Women Carry the Future on Their Backs  Mothers and grandmothers hold vital roles in the Nimiipuu, (pronounced Nee-me-poo) nation. The tribe is often referred to as the Nez Perce due to an early misconception by French fur traders that tribal members’ noses were pierced. The Nimiipuu mothers brought their children into the world and raised them to live off their abundant homelands of north-central Idaho.   A field of bright green grass with snow-capped mountains in the background. Light purple flowers John Ordway's Parents Anne Ordway must have raised her son John to take care of his chores and schoolwork in a timely manner, as on the Lewis and Clark Expedition, John Ordway is the only journal writer that recorded an entry for every single day of the expedition. This beats the record of even William Clark, another steady and more famous member of the Corps of Discovery. In addition to his conscientious journal keeping, John Ordway took several opportunities to write to his “Honored Parence.” A letter handwritten in cursive writing, black ink on white paper. Pend d’Oreille and Salish Mothers Sew Beautiful, Meaningful Regalia to Connect Their Daughters to Their Culture The Ql’ispé (Pend d’Oreille or Kalispel) and Séliš (Salish or Flathead) people share similar cultures and life practices. Sewing Salish-style clothing is an important role of mothers, who create intricately beaded regalia for their daughters to participate in traditional Salish dances. They design these important pieces from bison hides, deer or elk buckskin, cloth, and sea otter pelts.  fancy shawl dance Lucy Meriwether Lewis Marks: A Folk Healer Just many like of us use the skills learned from our mothers even as adults, Meriwether Lewis utilized the medical knowledge gained from his mother, Lucy Meriwether Lewis Marks, on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. On the trip, Lewis served as not only a co-leader of the expedition, but also as the primary doctor and caregiver to the men under his command. The expressionless woman wears a white bonnet with black trim and small, round glasses. Oregon Ruffed Grouse The ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) was one of several game birds that the journal writers of the Lewis and Clark Expedition often referred to as “pheasants.” Sitting on top of a log, a ruffed grouse is standing tall Belongings of Sgt. Floyd It’s most likely that the men of the Corps all brought their own weapons (pistols, rifles, knives) with them on the Expedition to use in addition to the ones provided by the U.S. Army. Portrait of Charles Floyd by Benjamin Trott; monochrome watercolor on ivory, ca. 1804. William Clark’s Commission William Clark was responsible for the majority of the preparatory training and organization of the Corps of Discovery while the men wintered at Camp River Dubois in 1803-1804. Yet, officially his rank in the U.S. Army was still unknown. Secretary of War Henry Dearborn as painted by Gilbert Stuart held at the Art Institute of Chicago. Native Names of Plants and Animals along the Lewis and Clark Trail Today the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail passes through the homelands of more than sixty tribes. These tribes celebrate their own languages, art, culture, and innovation. Hear the names of a few plants and animals in indigenous languages. Just remember, each plant and animal has dozens of different names depending on who is speaking and what language the speaker is using. Do you know a name in another language? butterfly in orange Blue Catfish It’s summer, so quit wishin’…go fishin! That’s exactly what some of the men of the Corps did in mid-November 1803 while the two Captains stopped long enough to take observations of the area where the Ohio joins the Mississippi River. When Lewis and Clark returned to the camp, they were shocked at the size of one of the catfish caught during their absence. A huge blue catfish with its wide mouth open, almost appears to be smiling for the camera. California Condor It’s hard to miss a California condor, which, with a wingspan of about 9.5 feet and weighing about 25 pounds, is the largest flying bird in North America. In February 1806, William Clark wrote, “Shannon an Labiesh brought in to us to day a Buzzard or Vulture of the Columbia which they had wounded and taken alive. I believe this to be the largest Bird of North America. it was not in good order and yet it wayed 25 lbs…” A large California Condor soars on extended wings with the walls of the Grand Canyon Nicholas Jarrot When the Corps docked at Cahokia, they met a prominent French citizen, Nicholas Jarrot, who owned 400 acres of land surrounding Riviere du Bois (Wood River). Because the Spanish, who still controlled St. Louis (even though France had regained possession of the Louisiana Territory in 1801), would not let Captain Lewis and the Corps winter on the west side of the Mississippi River, Jarrot granted permission to the Corps to build a camp in the area surrounding Riviere du Bois. The Jarrot Mansion, a two-story red brick home Online Junior Ranger: Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail The online Junior Ranger program of the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail online junior ranger American Indian Sign Language In Sept. 1930, the largest gathering of intertribal indigenous leaders ever filmed was held to document American Indian Sign Language. But, this wasn’t the first time AISL was mentioned in the American historical record. An indigenous man in traditional dress raises a hand to speak using sign language. A Snake Bite at Independence Creek During the Lewis and Clark Expedition, there were many ways the members were able to treat themselves when they became ill. Filled with what was available for modern medicine at the time, Lewis brought a chest of different medicines for expected or unexpected illnesses or wound care. Many of these remedies were what we might call today herbal or home remedies. How prepared do you think Lewis and Clark were for these unexpected encounters? An earthen-colored prairie rattlesnake curled up in some pale green sage. Turtles and the Lewis and Clark Expedition While four large sea turtles (Green, Leatherback, Loggerhead, and Olive Ridley) can be found living off the coasts of Oregon and Washington, the men of the Corps seem to have not seen any of them during their visits to the Pacific shore. Nothing is mentioned by any of the journal writers. The turtles that were mentioned in the journals included the spiney softshell turtle and the western painted turtle. A large spiney softshell turtle on a partially dried mud bed. Mary Margaret Clark Mary Margaret Clark, born in 1814, was the third child and only daughter of William Clark and Julia Hancock. She died in Middletown, Kentucky, October 15, 1821, less than a year after her mother passed away. Mary Margaret Clark looking at the viewer, with blue eyes and short auburn hair. William Clark’s Early Education William Clark’s childhood education is a bit tough to uncover. Little is known of his schooling but it quite likely started at home alongside his nine brothers and sisters, or possibly at the home of a neighbor. If the Clark family would have stayed in Virginia, William certainly could have studied with a tutor, but in 1784 they moved to the Kentucky frontier when William was 14. Tutors and other amenities were simply not available. The illustration of a mother teaching six young children in front of a large home fireplace. John Ordway After The Corps Of all the men of the Corps, most people have the highest regard for Sergeant John Ordway – he’s often viewed as being reliable, dependable, confident, and admirable. So the story of his life after the Expedition is truly heartbreaking. A life-size bronze statue of John Ordway stands on top of a square granite base Naming the Columbia River How did the Columbia River gets its current name? We’d like to tell you a captivating story filled with mystery and intrigue – but we can’t. The story is straightforward and it began on May 12, 1792, when American captain Robert Gray’s ship crossed the western river’s treacherous bar. Western Serviceberry The month of June not only brings us warm and vibrant weather; it also provides us with the rich scarlet berries of the Western Serviceberry, or Amelanchier alnifolia, tree. Also known as Juneberries or Saskatoon serviceberries, the delicious tart fruits of these trees are perfect for picking in June. They can be eaten by the handful, mashed into jams and jellies, or baked into cakes and other sweet treats. Many Prairie Indians use the berries in a native dish called pemmican A bunch of bright, crimson-colored serviceberries Madrone Tree The madrone tree was first observed by Meriwether Lewis in early November 1805, near today’s Cascade Locks, Oregon. He wrote about it in his journal entry of December 1: “the tree which bears a red burry in clusters of a round form and size of a red haw. the leaf like that of the small magnolia, and brark smoth and of a brickdust red coulour it appears to be of the evergreen kind.” Man laying under a tree Yellow Corn, Shehek-Shote’s Wife This is Yellow Corn, wife of Sheheke-shote, the principal chief of Mitutanka, the Mandan village closest to Fort Mandan. She and their sons joined the chief on a trip to Washington to meet President Jefferson. They were escorted by the resident trader, interpreter, and mediator René Jusseaume, who also took his wife and family. Yellow Corn; she is facing to the left. Her hair is straight and extends over her shoulders. Mouth of the Willamette Captains Lewis and Clark had heard comments from the Native peoples about “a large river which falls into the Columbia on its south side…” But they didn’t see it on their westward journey in the fall of 1805. It was now April 1806, during the homeward trip, and they still hadn’t seen such a river, supposedly too large to miss. A wide-angle, aerial photo high above the river as it passes through the Willamette Valley The Lewis and Clark Expedition Separates at Travelers’ Rest Captains Lewis and Clark likely spent many cold, rainy winter days at Fort Clatsop refining a plan to split up when they returned to Traveler’s Rest, a campsite where they rested in early September of 1805. On the return voyage, The Corps would arrive at the site just before sunset on June 30, 1806. A grassy area at Travelers’ Rest State Park, surrounded by cottonwood trees. Douglas’s Squirrel Lewis and Clark Expedition William Clark wrote about the Douglas’s Squirrel in his February 24, 1806 journal entry, along with several other newly observed animals. He wrote: “The Small brown Squirel is a butifull little animal about the size of the red Squirel of the E. States or Something larger than the ground Squirel of the U States.” greyish or almost greenish-brown on their backs, and pale orange on the chest and belly Imagining the Lewis and Clark Expedition competing in the Olympics The different members of the Corps of Discovery came from varied, unique backgrounds, and because of those backgrounds brought a variety of useful skills to the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Many of the skills and abilities possessed by Corps members translate well to the different events of the modern-day Olympics. As such, we’ve compiled a list of Olympic events, and which members of the Corps of Discovery had the best shot at bringing home gold! Olympic Training Center. Large building with American Flad Meriwether Lewis Shot in the Buttocks Meriwether Lewis had plenty of near-death experiences during the Expedition: there was that one day when he nearly slid off a cliff; the afternoon he almost poisoned himself with mineral samples; the time a grizzly chased him into the Missouri; and then there was the fateful day he was shot by one of his own men. Plan Like a Park Ranger: Top 10 Tips for Visiting Lewis and Clark Trail Headquarters Visitor Center Learn the top tips for your visit to the Lewis and Clark Trail Headquarters Visitor Center in Omaha, Nebraska. Ranger stands outside tall office building and smiles. This Fall Watch for Hawks Along the Lewis and Clark Trail In North America, many hawk species migrate in early Spring and Early fall and fly primarily during daylight hours, which gives birders – or in this case, hawk-watchers – the potential for prime views of these primal creatures along the Lewis and Clark Trail. Red Tailed Hawk hovers in flight against a blue sky Lewis’s Personal Items at Grinder’s Stand Meriwether Lewis wrote a very concise last will of Meriwether Lewis on September 11, 1809 while in New Madrid (today's southeastern Missouri). This will was one of the many items found in the Governor’s two trunks at Grinder’s Stand. Upon his death, the trunks were left in the care of William C. Anderson who was from the Nashville area. Thomas Freeman was to convey the trunks and contents to Richmond, Virginia on November 23, 1809. A dark rectangular trunk, with ornate designs in leather. Passport Stamps Along the Lewis and Clark Trail Are you an NPS Passport stamp collector? Bet you didn’t know that there are over 45 sites along the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail where you can collect a unique stamp in your National Park Passport Book! Where are these sites? The list is long, so the easiest way to find them is through the new NPS App. (Get the app here: https://www.nps.gov/subjects/digital/nps-apps.htm). A Passport to America’s National Park book Mount Hood There are 13 volcanic mountains in the Cascade Range that stretched from northern Washington through Oregon and into northern California. Mount Hood, which last erupted in 1781, sits approximately in the center of the chain. William Clark first noticed the large peak on October 19, 1805, and he wrote, “a conacal mountain S.W. toped with Snow.” A watercolor illustration of The Dalles of the Columbia River and Mount Hood Shehek-Shote Portrait The principal chief of Mitutanka, the Mandan village nearest Fort Mandan, was Shehek-Shote. Also known as Sheheke or Shahaka, he likely was a very large man with a pale complexion – so was referred to as “Lé Gros Blanc” or “Big White” by the French traders who often visited the area. Sheheke responded to Lewis and Clark’s gifts and attentions by welcoming the Corps of Discovery to the land of the Mandan. A monotone portrait, possibly of Shehek-Shote. Fusil Guns on the Lewis and Clark Expedition The Corps used several types of firearms throughout the entire Expedition. It’s normally the rifles that get most of the attention, since they were more accurate, more reliable, and used on a daily basis. However, William Clark, Toussaint Charbonneau, and possibly George Drouillard also brought additional personal weapons. Clark called one such firearm his “eligant fusee.” A simple fusil musket displayed on a white background.  George Drouillard George Drouillard first met Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in November 1803 when the Captains made a recruiting trip to Fort Massac, in today’s southern Illinois. They seem to have been immediately impressed with the French-Canadian-Shawnee. Drouillard’s skills, confidence, and experience would clearly benefit the Corps of Discovery, so Lewis offered him a civilian position. A rough-hewn cabin with a covered porch is in the foreground. Aaron Arrowsmith Aaron Arrowsmith was considered the finest mapmaker of his day -- a surveyor who quickly established himself as a mapmaker and publisher with an international reputation. One of Arrowsmith’s 1802 map editions would be carried by Lewis and Clark, since it was the most comprehensive map of the West available at that time. A stipple engraving of Arrowsmith – black ink on yellowed paper. Lewis Wants to Explore the Route to Santa Fe Meriwether Lewis wrote a letter to President Jefferson on October 3, 1803 – which was primarily a report on what he found during his side-trip at Big Bone Lick, Kentucky. He wrote, “…I have concluded to make a tour this winter on horseback of some hundred miles through the most interesting portion of the country adjoining my winter establishment; perhaps it may be up the Canceze River and towards Santafee, at all events it will bee on the south side of the Missouri.” A hand-drawn map showing the Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, Kansas, and Ohio Rivers. Peter Weiser Even though Peter Weiser was a member of the permanent party of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, not a lot is known about Weiser since he is rarely mentioned in the journals. A three-story white stone building with a red roof.  Osage orange While fall may be the time of year that we go frantically searching for pumpkin spice and apple cider, it’s also marked by another botanical distinction along some parts of the Lewis and Clark Trail; the Osage orange! A bumpy, round bright green fruit hangs from a branch. Fight or Flee? What do you do when confronted with a dangerous situation? Fight? Or flee? Examples of the fight or flight response are found throughout the Lewis and Clark journals. One such example involves Private Hugh McNeal and his experience with a grizzly bear; he was on a solo mission near modern day western Montana in the summer of 1806. line drawing of man in tree

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