"Foggy sunrise over cannons, Manassas National Battlefield Park, 2014." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Manassas

National Battlefield Park - Virginia

Manassas National Battlefield Park, located north of Manassas, in Prince William County, Virginia, preserves the site of two major American Civil War battles: the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861, and the Second Battle of Bull Run which was fought between August 28 and August 30, 1862 (also known as the First Battle of Manassas and the Second Battle of Manassas, respectively). The peaceful Virginia countryside bore witness to clashes between the armies of the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy), and it was there that Confederate General Thomas J. Jackson acquired his nickname "Stonewall."

maps

Official visitor map of Manassas National Battlefield Park (NBP) in Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Manassas - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Manassas National Battlefield Park (NBP) in Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Chesapeake & Ohio Canal - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/mana/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manassas_National_Battlefield_Park Manassas National Battlefield Park, located north of Manassas, in Prince William County, Virginia, preserves the site of two major American Civil War battles: the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861, and the Second Battle of Bull Run which was fought between August 28 and August 30, 1862 (also known as the First Battle of Manassas and the Second Battle of Manassas, respectively). The peaceful Virginia countryside bore witness to clashes between the armies of the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy), and it was there that Confederate General Thomas J. Jackson acquired his nickname "Stonewall." On July 21, 1861, two armies clashed for the first time on the fields overlooking Bull Run. Heavy fighting swept away any notion of a quick war. In August 1862, Union and Confederate armies converged for a second time on the plains of Manassas. The Confederates won a solid victory bringing them to the height of their power. Located right off Interstate 66, just 26 miles west of Washington D.C. Brawner Farm Interpretive Center The Brawner Farm Interpretive Center, located near the western entrance of the park, focuses on the events of the Second Battle of Manassas and is a great starting point for park hiking trails in the western half of the park. Restrooms are available in the parking lot. Interpretive exhibits and rangers are in the Brawner House itself. Brawner farm is open seasonally from mid-spring through late fall. From I-66 either direction: Take Exit 43B to US 29 North. Make a left onto Pageland Lane (at a stoplight). Drive one half mile and look for the park sign on the right. From Henry Hill Visitor Center: Exit visitor center and make a right on VA 234 Sudley Road. Make a left at the first stop light on to US 29. After about two and a half miles make a right at the stop light on to Pageland Lane. Drive one half mile and look for the park sign on the right. Henry Hill Visitor Center The Henry Hill Visitor Center houses an information desk, museum exhibits, a fiber optic battle map of First Manassas, an auditorium exhibiting the park orientation film, bookstore, and public restrooms. Interpretive programs are offered daily, with an expanded schedule of walking tours offered during the summer months. The Henry Hill Visitor Center is located on Virginia Route 234, approximately 3/4 mile north of I-66 at Exit 47/ 47B. Bull Run Monument Red sandstone obelisk surrounded by post and rail fence. The Bull Run Monument on Henry Hill is among the nation's earliest Civil War monuments. Stone House View of Stone House, with worm rail fence and well in front yard. The historic Stone House, a battlefield landmark, sheltered Union wounded in both battles of Manassas. 14th Brooklyn Monument Civil War cannon and granite and bronze monument under a cloudy sky. The 14th Brooklyn Monument overlooks the scene of heavy fighting near Groveton during Second Manassas. Henry House Rustic farmhouse, flanked by shade tree, stone monument, and white outbuilding, on top of a hill. The Henry House, built over the ruins of the wartime dwelling, welcomed returning veterans to the battlefield after the war. Stonewall Jackson Monument Bronze statue of Gen. T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson on horseback in an open field. The statue of Confederate Gen. T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson stands on Henry Hill, near the spot where he earned his famous nickname. Traditional Trades Apprenticeship Program’s Rodney Flora A veteran of the U.S. Navy, Rodney Flora applied to the Historic Preservation Training Center’s Traditional Trades Apprenticeship Program (TTAP) after graduating from Shepherd University. Find out how this veteran found his passion in manual labor, not unlike his military experience. Rodney Flora stands to the right of five other crew and staff members. Pawpaw: Small Tree, Big Impact Pawpaw are small trees that don't grow past 100 feet. Yet they have a big influence-- they're the most commonly observed sapling in our National Capital Region forests. Pawpaw trees are virtually immune to deer browse and also produce the largest edible fruit native to North America! A hand holds a lumpy green pawpaw fruit Lichens and Air Quality Lichens are durable enough to grow on tree bark and bare rock, yet are sensitive to pollution and air quality. One species in particular was used to track levels of air-borne lead over a 100 year period! Pale green lichen growing on rock. Women Amidst War The extreme demands of wartime industry and the loss of traditional family breadwinners to military service caused hardship, but also presented opportunities to women for employment, volunteerism, and activism that previously had been unavailable to them. While many of these gains would be temporary, the Civil War nonetheless represents an important step forward in American society's view of the role of women. Women were increasingly seen (and saw themselves) as the foundat Photo of women at a house on the Cedar Mountain battlefield Archeology in the Park - Manassas National Battlefield Park Until its destruction by fire in 1993, a rare example of a pre-Civil War African American homestead existed on the Grounds of the Manassas National Battlefield Park. Subsequent archeological excavations at the site unearthed a surprising discovery. An image of Robinson House with two people sitting on the front porch from March 1862 From The Front Lines to the Hospital For the wounded near the front, their first recourse for care lay at the numerous aid stations scattered across the battlefield. Farmhouses, barns, and outbuildings provided places for the wounded to be gathered until they could be sent to the main hospital in the rear. Print of a field hospital NPS Structural Fire Program Highlights 2014 Intern Accomplishments An Innovative Technology of War Among the technical innovations to come out of the Civil War were advancements in the methods the armies had to communicate among themselves. Signal flags, torches and rockets were used to pass along messages and reconnaissance, while codes and ciphers ensured that the messages wouldn't be intercepted and read by the enemy. Union signal station on Antietam battlefield Death and Dying The somber aftermath of Civil War battles introduced Americans--North and South--to death on an unprecedented scale and of an unnatural kind, often ending in an unmarked grave far from home. Neither individuals, nor institutions, nor governments were prepared to deal with death on such a massive scale, for never before or since have we killed so many of our own. The Civil War revolutionized the American military's approach to caring for the dead, leading to our modern cult Photo of freshly buried marked and unmarked graves near Petersburg, Va. Medicine and Medical Practices The story of Civil War medicine is a complex one. Through the dedication, innovation and devotion of surgeons and medical support staff, the foundation for today's modern military medicine was laid. Modern photograph of Civil War medicine bottles Prescribed fire in the national capital area Learn how the National Park Service uses prescribed fire in the National Capital Area. Forest Regeneration 2018 In 2018, tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in the parks of the National Capital Region. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A forest plot in Rock Creek Park showing some vegetation recovery. American Eels in the Potomac Watershed American eels are found everywhere along the Atlantic Coast, but many aspects of these fish remain poorly understood. They are perhaps one of the most mysterious fish in the Potomac watershed. Hands hold a 2 to 3 foot long eel over a red container. Civil War Battlefields: A Haven for Grassland Birds Civil War battlefields have become a haven for declining grassland birds. As grassland habitat dwindles in the eastern U.S., grasslands, shrublands, and the pastures that make up battlefield parks are playing an ever more important role as habitat for a special group of birds. A grasshopper sparrow singing from atop a cable. National Capital Region Energy Savings Performance Contract The National Park Service is investing $29 million in 81 individual energy efficiency and water conservation projects at national parks throughout the greater Washington region. Cherry Blossoms at the National Mall The Military Experience The course of the war was the cumulative result of political, economic, and social policies that affected (and were affected by) military operations and battles waged across a front spanning 2,000 miles. The battles and campaigns of 1861-65 ultimately demonstrated that the simple application of massive military force, even with innovations in technologies and tactics, was insufficient to resolve a conflict between two sections mobilized against one another politically, socia Engraving of soldier warming himself by a fire Photo of U.S. Sanitary Commission office. Forest Regeneration 2017 Tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in the parks of the National Capital Region. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A forest plot showing tree seedling and low-growing plant recovery. Go green for the National Park Service’s birthday! We're adding energy- and water-saving improvements to save money! How can you do the same in your home? National Mall and Memorial Parks Yearly Savings 50.9 M gallons of water, $1 M, 2.7M kwh. Sustainability in Action: Reducing Manassas National Battlefield Park’s Carbon Footprint NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] park entrance sign Stream Restoration Dreams: Stage Zero Learn “stage zero” stream restoration basics and how they could be applied in Mid-Atlantic streams. Water spreads across the ground around standing and fallen trees The Nash Site Discovered during a 1990 archeological survey, historical evidence indicates that the Nash Site was occupied by an African-American family, Philip Nash and his wife and children. National Park Service archeologists excavate the Nash site. Lost, Tossed, and Found Using photographs, illustrations, and maps, this article focuses on the African-American experience, in slavery and freedom, in the immediate vicinity of Manassas National Battlefield Park. Aerial view of Excavations at Portici. Shows plantation land and surrounding trees Ash Tree Update 2017 The state of ash trees in 2017 in the National Capital Region after more than 10 years of harm from the invasive emerald ash borer. A white ash leaf Forest Regeneration 2019 In 2019 tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in National Capital Area parks. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A brown bird with a white breast and dark spots on its chest stands on the leaf-littered ground. Eastern Hemlocks in the National Capital Region Many evergreen, Eastern hemlock trees, typically found growing alongside forest streams, have succumbed to two insect pests. In the National Capital Region, we looked for surviving trees, and what other tree species are poised to replace hemlocks. An evergreen branch with white fuzzy nubs along the stems. DOI Region 1, National Capital Area Utilizes Prescribed Fire as a Management Tool Resource and facility managers in the National Capital Area (NCA) are relying more frequently on prescribed burning as a tool to protect, restore, enhance and maintain historic Civil War sites. Fire in grasses burn near a Civil War cannon. Cultural Continuity Artifacts found at both the Robinson House and the Nash Site indicate that the Robinson family retained a portion of their African identity. Mancala gaming pieces from Manassas National Battlefield Park The Civilian Experience in the Civil War After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians both near and far from the battlefields became unwilling participants and victims of the war as its toll of blood and treasure grew year after year. In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material, and began to expect that their government should do the same. Painting of civilians under fire during the Siege of Vicksburg Oak Decline Learn more about oak decline where a host of stressors interact to weaken trees over time, leading to what becomes "death by a thousand cuts." Looking up into the canopy of a mature oak showing symptoms of oak decline. Spring Amphibian Timeline Learn how the progression of amphibian appearances unfurls every spring. A gray tree frog clings to a small tree branch. Amphibian Diversity & Habitat Connectivity Habitat fragmentation is a major threat to amphibian communities, especially in National Capital Area parks at risk due to the region's growing urbanization. A small frog crouches on a lichen-covered rock. Finding Identity Through Material Culture: The Robinson's Tableware and Glassware Conducting an analysis on the collection of glass and ceramics from the Robinson family provides the opportunity to study what types of goods the family used during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. American shell-edged plate broken in 4 pieces. The Robinson House - Historical Background The Robinson House site was the home of a free African-American family, the Robinsons, from the late 1840s through 1936. It stood until 1993 when arsonists burned part of the structure. Robinson House ca. 1900, Manassas National Battlefield Park. Finding Identity Through Material Culture: The Nash Site Differences in the material culture of the Robinson and Nash sites illustrate the diversity within the African-American community in this area. Colonoware bowl, a low-fired earthenware, found on the Nash Site Archeological Excavations at the Robinson House Archeological excavations at the Robinson House site were performed in 1995 and 1996 and focused around and within the existing house foundations and in the outlying yard areas. Screening for artifacts at Robinson House A Confederate Winter Camp The investigation of a Confederate winter camp site at Manassas National Battlefield Park by professional archeologists found the remains of 20 Civil War-era structures. Manassas Stonehouse Archeology at Brawner Farm Once the scene of fierce and bloody battle, the Brawner Farm today is a landmark in a quiet corner of the Manassas Battlefield. Photo of the Brawner Farm, incorporating pieces of the masonry and brick from the original farmhouse A New Economy of War Dozens of wounded Federal troops found shelter inside the massive walls of the Stone House during both Battles of Manassas. Its location at the junction of two major turnpikes put it in the center of battle each time. Photo of the Stone House at Manassas National Battlefield Park "My Very Dear Wife" - The Last Letter of Major Sullivan Ballou Like many soldiers on the eve of the first major battle of the Civil War, Sullivan Ballou feared he might not survive the conflict. The letter he wrote to his wife, expressing his anxiety, remains on the the most famous, and poignent, written during the war. Kurz & Allison print of the First Battle of Manassas Defeat at Manassas Leads to the Fortification of Washington After a humiliating defeat at Manassas, the Union army realized that the war would be a long struggle and that the fortification of the nation's capital needed to be extended and expedited. The massive construction thus began, establishing a defensive ring around the city that would make Washington, D.C. one of the most fortified cities in the world. Fast and Flexible Cavalry acted as the eyes and ears of the army for both the Union and Confederacy, conducting reconnaissance and gathering intelligence. In addition to combat, cavalry also screened marches of infantry, guarded wagon trains, and raided enemy supplies. Image of an advertisement for joining the Calvary Constant Attack The Battle of Second Manassas rages on with Stonewall Jackson leading the charge Photograph of General Stonewall Jackson The Attack Continues Second Manassas would prove to be more of a challenge then the Union forces believed Lithograph of General Kearny's gallant charge, at the Battle of Chantilly August 28, 1862 The Confederate army, under Jackson's command, was closing in on Manassas for a second time during the war. Photograph of Manassas Junstion 1862 Amphibian Disease Risk in the National Capital Area Looking for disease, including ranaviruses and chytrid fungi, is an important part of amphibian monitoring done by the National Capital Region Inventory & Monitoring Network. Learn more about the risks posed by these diseases and the biosecurity protocols field crews use to reduce the risk of accidental spread. Red-spotted newt on brown forest floor leaves. Black spots and eyes contrast with vivid orange skin. Forest Soils Highlights from a 2007-2017 study of soils in National Capital Region Network I&M-monitored parks. Includes discussion of parent materials, heavy metal soil pollutants like lead, and how past land use effects O horizons. Collage of 6 color photos of soil profiles showing colors from orange-y reds to browns and grays. Brawner Farmstead Cultural Landscape The Brawner Farmstead landscape is in the northwest corner of Manassas National Battlefield Park in Virginia. Fighting broke out here on August 28, 1862 between "Stonewall" Jackson's wing of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and a division of the Third Corps of the Union Army of Virginia. In addition to its association with the Second Battle of Manassas, the landscape is historically significant for the agricultural development of the area. Distant farm buildings at the end of a straight unpaved road through open, agricultural land. Stiltgrass and Tree Seedling Recovery Recent analysis at Maryland's Catoctin Mountain Park shows Japanese stiltgrass does not limit the growth of tree seedlings in a forest recovering from deer overpopulation. Invasive Japanese stiltgrass blankets the sides of a shady forest road. Falling Stars: James A. Garfield and the Military Reputations of Generals Irvin McDowell, George McClellan, and Fitz John Porter During the Civil War, James A. Garfield was elected into the House of Representatives but they did not begin session until the end of 1863. While waiting to begin his new position Garfield was part of one of the most celebrated military trials in American history: the court martial of Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter. Find out more about the trial and what part James A. Garfield played! nineteen men in suits sitting around a table James A. Garfield and the “Yankee Dutchman”: Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel Major General Franz Sigel and James A. Garfield met each other in 1862. General Garfield's letters during the Civil War were put into a book called, The Wild Life of the Army: Civil War Letters of James A. Garfield. This article will examine the relationship and admiration Garfield had for a fellow Union officer. Franz Sigel Spotted Lanternfly 101 What you need to know about spotted lanternfly: a new, invasive, insect pest approaching the National Parks of the Mid-Atlantic. A spotted lanternfly with wings spread showing namesake spots Natural Science, History, & Culture in the National Capital Area Learn more about your National Capital Area park through this guide to natural and cultural resource information. Cultural resource staff clean the Theodore Roosevelt memorial statue at Theodore Roosevelt Island. Series: A Most Horrid Picture When the war began, medical practitioners did not know the exact cause of many diseases or the mechanisms of infection, and were only beginning to understand the benefits of cleanliness and good sanitation in disease prevention and healing. As a result, two out of every three deaths in the Civil War were caused by disease rather than injury. Caregivers like Clara Barton, the "Angel of the Battlefield," brought food and supplies to the soldiers and inspired new hope and life to the injured. Modern photograph of a medicine kit from the Civil War Series: The Burden of Beasts Though the battles were fought by men, Animals played important roles in the Civil War in a variety of capacities. Many units adopted mascots, including dogs, cats, pigs, goats, and even a bald eagle. Key roles such as officer's direction of battles, the transport of messages and orders, and the work of cavalrymen were conducted on horseback. Horses joined mules and oxen in pulling supply wagons, ambulances, and artillery pieces. Without animals it would have been a very different war. "A hor Photograph of Lt. George A. Custer with his dog Series: The Vortex of Hell When the Peninsula Campaign began in 1862 Northern hopes were again raised for a quick victory, but the poor progress of George McClellan resulted in a restless northern public. In sharp contrast, Lee's success in stopping McClellan's advance cast him as the savior of Richmond and cloaked his army with a sense of invincibility. Even as Lee pushed McClellan away from Richmond, Union General John Pope led his army deeper into Virginia, introducing a policy of bringing the war directly to the south Lithograph of Kearny's chage at the Battle of Chantilly Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: African American Households The Robinson House site was the home of a free African-American family, the Robinsons, from the late 1840s through 1936. James Robinson, also known as "Gentleman Jim," was a free African-American born in 1799. James and a slave named Susan Gaskins had six children, all born into slavery. Two National Park Service archaeologists excavating the Nash Site Spotted Lanternfly in Perspective While spotted lanternfly and emerald ash borer are both invasive insect pests, introduced from Asia, that feed on trees (primarily), they have few other similarities. Learn how they differ in host preferences, feeding mode, and life cycle. A spotted lanternfly with black wingspots on a tree branch Brood X Periodical Cicadas FAQ Learn about the Brood X periodical cicadas that will emerge in 2021 throughout the Mid-Atlantic U.S. A perched periodical cicada with red eyes and orange wings Forest Regeneration 2020 What is the future of our forests? A look at forest regeneration capacity in National Capital Area national parks based on 2020 monitoring data. hand holding a leaflet on a white ash seedling Series: African American History at Gettysburg Abraham Brian, Basil Biggs, James Warfield, and Mag Palm are just a few of the many individuals that were affected by the Civil War and the Battle of Gettysburg, and each has their own story to tell. We have collected their stories in one place so that you can learn more about their various trials during this tumultuous time in American history. A black and white photograph of a black family posing with a white man and his horse in a dirt road. Prospering Pollinators in Manassas Grasslands How have pollinators been affected by Manassas National Battlefield Park converting ~1,000 acres of grasslands to native, warm-season grasses? A new survey aims to find out. a hovering bumblebee moth reaches its probiscus toward a purple flower September 11, 2001, NPS Oral History Project This oral history project recorded the memories and perspectives of NPS staff who experienced the events of 9/11 and their aftermath. Transcripts and a 2004 report about the NPS response are available online. A petinad hand holds a flame aloft in the air.

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