by Alex Gugel , all rights reserved

Montezuma Castle

National Monument - Arizona

Montezuma Castle National Monument protects a set of well-preserved dwellings located in Camp Verde, Arizona which were built and used by the Sinagua people, a pre-Columbian culture closely related to the Hohokam and other indigenous peoples of the southwestern United States, between approximately 1100 and 1425 AD. The main structure comprises five stories and twenty rooms, and was built over the course of three centuries.

location

maps

Official visitor map of Montezuma Castle National Monument (NM) in Arizona. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Montezuma Castle - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Montezuma Castle National Monument (NM) in Arizona. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the Cherry Show Me Ride Off-Highway Vehicle Route (OHV) near Jerome in Arizona. Published by Arizona State Parks & Trails.Show Me Ride OHV - Cherry

Map of the Cherry Show Me Ride Off-Highway Vehicle Route (OHV) near Jerome in Arizona. Published by Arizona State Parks & Trails.

Map of Sedona Show me Ride Route 3 OHV trail (Off-Highway Vehicle). Published by Arizona State Parks & Trails.Sedona - OHV Route 3

Map of Sedona Show me Ride Route 3 OHV trail (Off-Highway Vehicle). Published by Arizona State Parks & Trails.

Four Wheel Drive and Off-Highway Vehicle Routes around Sedona in Coconino National Forest (NF) in Arizona. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Sedona - OHV Trails

Four Wheel Drive and Off-Highway Vehicle Routes around Sedona in Coconino National Forest (NF) in Arizona. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) for Winter travel in Coconino National Forest (NF). Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Coconino MVUM - Winter 2017

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) for Winter travel in Coconino National Forest (NF). Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the eastern part of Prescott National Forest (NF) in Arizona. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Prescott MVUM - East - 2022

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the eastern part of Prescott National Forest (NF) in Arizona. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the South Half of Coconino National Forest (NF) in Arizona. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Coconino MVUM - South 2022

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the South Half of Coconino National Forest (NF) in Arizona. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Yavapai County Map of Arizona Surface Management Responsibility. Published by Arizona State Land Department and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM).AZ Surface Management Responsibility - Yavapai County

Yavapai County Map of Arizona Surface Management Responsibility. Published by Arizona State Land Department and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Statewide Map of Arizona Surface Management Responsibility. Published by Arizona State Land Department and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM).AZ Surface Management Responsibility - Arizona State

Statewide Map of Arizona Surface Management Responsibility. Published by Arizona State Land Department and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

https://www.nps.gov/moca/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montezuma_Castle_National_Monument Montezuma Castle National Monument protects a set of well-preserved dwellings located in Camp Verde, Arizona which were built and used by the Sinagua people, a pre-Columbian culture closely related to the Hohokam and other indigenous peoples of the southwestern United States, between approximately 1100 and 1425 AD. The main structure comprises five stories and twenty rooms, and was built over the course of three centuries. Established December 8, 1906, Montezuma Castle is the third National Monument dedicated to preserving Native American culture. This 20 room high-rise apartment, nestled into a towering limestone cliff, tells a story of ingenuity, survival and ultimately, prosperity in an unforgiving desert landscape. Montezuma Castle: Follow I-17 to exit 289 (90 minutes north of Phoenix, 45 minutes south of Flagstaff). Drive east (through two traffic circles) for approximately 1/2 mile to the blinking red light. Turn left onto Montezuma Castle Road. Montezuma Well: Follow I-17 to exit 293 (north of the exit for Montezuma Castle). Continue through the towns of McGuireville and Rimrock, following the signs for 4 miles to the entrance to the Well. Montezuma Castle Visitor Center This visitor center provides the entrance fee station, as well as bathrooms, a small museum, and the Western National Parks Association bookstore. Stop in first to get all the information you need! Follow I-17 to exit 289 (90 minutes north of Phoenix, 45 minutes south of Flagstaff). Drive east (through two traffic circles) for approximately 1/2 mile to the blinking red light. Turn left onto Montezuma Castle Road. Storage Room at Montezuma Castle Two masonry walls with a dark doorway in a short cliff ledge. The Sinagua used space efficiently - here a storage room sits in a short cliff space below the main Castle. Window in Montezuma Castle Sun shines on the window sill in a masonry wall; trees in fall color are seen outside the window. Visitors to Montezuma Castle usually only get to see the dwelling from the outside. This view shows what the Sinagua might have seen. Montezuma Castle in the Cliff A 5-story masonry dwelling sits in a cliff alcove. Montezuma Castle was built in an alcove about 90 feet up a cliff. This protects the dwelling from flooding. Montezuma Well Two cliff dwellings and a tree with yellow leaves above a pond. Montezuma Well provided a stable source of water to the Sinagua. Climate and Water Monitoring at Montezuma Castle and Tuzigoot National Monuments At Montezuma Castle and Tuzigoot national monuments, the precontact built environment reflects the importance of reliable water sources. At these parks, the Sonoran Desert Network monitors climate, groundwater, springs, and streams. Understanding changes in these closely linked factors helps managers make informed decisions affecting both natural and cultural resources. Learn about our recent findings in these special parks. A stream runs past a pool in a riparian area. Vegetation Mapping at Montezuma Castle National Monument Vegetation maps tell park managers what’s growing where, and what kinds of habitat occur in a park. This helps them with many planning, resource, and interpretive activities. At the two units of Montezuma Castle National Monument, the Sonoran Desert Network mapped 12 different vegetation associations. The park’s vegetation can be classified into two broad types: riparian woodlands and gallery forests, and thornscrub communities in rocky uplands. Green leafy shrub; cliff dwelling in background It’s Alive! Biological Soil Crusts of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts It might come as a surprise to learn that in the sublime expanses of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts, some of the most interesting life around can be found in the dirt right in front of your feet! Biological soil crusts form a living groundcover that is the foundation of desert plant life. Soil crust at White Sands National Monument 2011 SCPN-NAU Student Projects In spring 2011, the SCPN-NAU School of Communication collaboration began with a multimedia studies course focused on documenting park resources and resource projects. The class was taught by NAU professors Laura Camden and Peter Friederici. 2011 Student Projects Monitoring Upland Vegetation and Soils in the Sonoran Desert and Chihuahuan Desert Networks Vegetation and soils are two of many natural resources monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Learning about vegetation dynamics helps us to better understand the integrity of ecological processes, productivity trends, and ecosystem interactions that can otherwise be difficult to monitor. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor vegetation and soils using the scientific protocol described here. Quadrat used for biological soil crust sampling Streams Monitoring in the Sonoran Desert and Southern Plains Because of their importance, streams were chosen as a focus for monitoring in the National Park Service (NPS) Sonoran Desert and Southern Plains inventory and monitoring networks. Portions of several major river systems (or their tributaries) are found within many parks of both networks. Monitoring water quality from a boat Wildland Fire: Defensible Space Created—Montezuma Castle and Tuzigoot The Zion and Saguaro Wildland Fire Modules conducted hazard assessments of park structures and infrastructure within Montezuma Castle, Montezuma Well, and Tuzigoot National Monuments. They also reduced fuels near buildings to create defensible space around park administrative buildings, housing, and infrastructure from future wildfires. firefighters work near a stone wall and propane tank in a desert environment. Module Conducts Wildland-Urban Interface Projects Throughout the Intermountain Region In 2013, the Saguaro Wildland Fire Module (WFM) managed multiple projects simultaneously in AZ, TX, and NM. WFMs are highly skilled and versatile fire crews that provide expertise in long-term planning, ignitions, holding, prescribed fire preparation and implementation support, hazardous fuels reduction, and fire effects monitoring. With their help, fire fulfills its natural or historic role to meet resource and management objectives and create fire-adapted communities. Climate and Water Monitoring at Montezuma Castle and Tuzigoot National Monuments, 2017 At Montezuma Castle and Tuzigoot national monuments, the precontact built environment reflects the importance of reliable water sources. At these parks, the Sonoran Desert Network monitors the health of Beaver Creek, Wet Beaver Creek, and the Verde River. The program is designed to detect broad-scale changes in ecological condition by observing certain parameters over time—and to give park managers early warning of any issues they may need to address. Streams monitoring on the Verde River at Tuzigoot National Monument Wildland Fire in Ponderosa Pine: Western United States This forest community generally exists in areas with annual rainfall of 25 inches or less. Extensive pure stands of this forest type are found in the southwestern U.S., central Washington and Oregon, southern Idaho and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Recently burned ponderosa pine forest. Southwest River Environments In the arid Southwest, water means life, and prehistorically, rivers were the lifelines of the people. The Colorado River flowing through a canyon Transition Highlands and the Mogollon Rim The Transition Highlands, or Central Mountains, consist of numerous rugged low mountains marking the boundary between the tablelands of the Colorado Plateau and the southern deserts. Looking out from the Gila Cliff Dwellings Climate Monitoring in the Southern Plains, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert Climate is one of many ecological indicators monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Climate data help scientists to understand ecosystem processes and help to explain many of the patterns and trends observed in other natural-resource monitoring. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor climate using the scientific protocol described here. Kayaking across a fl ooded parking lot, Chickasaw NRA, July 2007. Arizona: Montezuma Castle National Monument In the Verde Valley of Arizona, Montezuma Castle National Monument protects an impressive cliff dwelling, Montezuma Castle, and a large sinkhole. Montezuma Well, that were important to early peoples as they gradually transitioned from highly mobile societies to more sedentary ways of life. Montezuma Castle National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Montezuma Castle National Monument, Arizona Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. [Site Under Development] Montezuma Castle Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Series: SCPN-NAU School of Communication Collaboration The Southern Colorado Plateau Network (SCPN) of the National Park Service has been partnering with the Northern Arizona University (NAU) School of Communication since 2011 to develop student multimedia projects that highlight resources and activities in network parks. This collaboration gives NAU students hands-on experience in creating multimedia projects and provides network parks with products that can help to promote their unique resources and scientific or educational project work. SCPN-NAU student projects Two for the Price of One Companion, assistant, confidant, ambassador, host, nurse, cook, secretary, editor, field technician, wildlife wrangler, diplomat, and social director are some of the many roles that people who marry into the NPS perform in support of their spouses and the NPS mission. Although the wives and daughters of park rangers were some of the earliest women rangers in the NPS, many more women served as “park wives” in the 1920s–1940s. Three members of a family The Heliograph: 2020 Edition The Heliograph is the newsletter of the Sonoran Desert Network and Desert Research Learning Center. This issue features stories on how we adapted our operations to minimize field work lost to the covid-19 pandemic, vegetation mapping at Saguaro NP, and communication improvements and opportunities for network parks. We also probe the minds of our interns and celebrate a high honor for our program manager. Person wearing hat and face covering sits near a stream with a bucket and net. The Heliograph: Summer 2021 The Heliograph is the newsletter of the Sonoran Desert Network and Desert Research Learning Center. This issue shares predictive tools and planning processes that can help park managers make proactive decisions in the face of climate change. We also explore some explanations for this spring's highly unusual saguaro bloom, celebrate our staff members, and provide updates on our monitoring projects. Saguaro cactus with blooms all over its top Developing New Interpretations from Old Data at Montezuma Castle National Monument The Castle A site located within the Montezuma Castle NM was initially excavated in 1934 by NPS archeologists Martin Jackson and Sallie Pierce. They concluded a catastrophic fire destroyed the site long after abandonment, an interpretation that has persisted for over 80 years. A reanalysis of ceramic data coupled with archaeomagnetic dating suggests this initial interpretation is incorrect. Montezuma Castle and the Antiquities Act This imposing cliff dwelling, mistakenly associated with the Aztec emperor, was home to Sinagua Indians until about 600 years ago. Montezuma Castle National Monument, established on December 8, 1906, was noted for being “of the greatest ethnological value and scientific interest” (Proc. No. 696) and later as having “prehistoric ruins and ancient dwellings ... of great interest to the public” (Proc. No. 2226). Professional archeological exploration began with NPS management. Cliff dwelling ruins through the trees. Montezuma Well Yoga Can't visit in-person? To help relax and stay grounded, we came up with fun nature-inspired yoga poses you can practice no matter where you are. A Park Ranger demonstrates bee pose at Montezuma Well next to blooming flowers. Find Your Park on Route 66 Route 66 and the National Park Service have always had an important historical connection. Route 66 was known as the great road west and after World War II families on vacation took to the road in great numbers to visit the many National Park Service sites in the Southwest and beyond. That connection remains very alive and present today. Take a trip down Route 66 and Find Your Park today! A paved road with fields in the distance. On the road is a white Oklahoma Route 66 emblem. Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background Changing Attitudes Most women with disabilities hired by the National Park Service (NPS) in the 1970s and early 1980s had temporary jobs. Some built long-term careers with the bureau. Starting before the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, these women experienced the opportunities and changes the law brought. It was their hard work and dedication to the NPS mission, however, that continued to change attitudes and educate coworkers and visitors alike. Ranger Shirley Beccue in her wheelchair and NPS uniform and flat hat looks out over the Everglades. Ranger Roll Call, 1930-1939 Few women worked in uniformed positions in the 1930s but those who did weren't only ranger-checkers or ranger-naturalists. Jobs as guides, historians, archeologists, and in museums opened to more women. Seven women in Park Service uniforms stand in line inside a cave. Series: The Sonoran Desert Heliograph The Heliograph is the newsletter for the Sonoran Desert Network and Desert Research Learning Center. Learn about the latest developments in our natural resource inventory and monitoring projects in national parks of the Sonoran Desert and Apache Highlands. Line drawing of a tripod instrument with two mirrors used for signaling. Monitoring Seeps, Springs, and Tinajas in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts Seeps, springs, and tinajas are critical surface water sources in the arid and semi-arid Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts. They are a primary interface between groundwater and surface water and serve as biodiversity hotspots, supporting obligate (and generally rare) aquatic species and providing access to water for wide-ranging terrerstrial animals. Birds fly over a pond eDNA Inventories to Reveal Species Use of Sonoran Desert Network Springs At nine southwestern parks, Sonoran Desert Network staff are performing environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling. By analyzing the genomes present in a water sample, eDNA sampling allows us to learn which species use a given area without the use of capture, hair snares, or cameras. The results of this inventory will help NPS staff to prioritize springs for monitoring and conservation. A large tinaja set within bedrock walls The Heliograph: Summer 2022 The Heliograph is the newsletter of the Sonoran Desert Network and Desert Research Learning Center. In this issue, find out how eDNA inventories may change what we thought we knew about SODN springs. Learn about the new technology that will improve our streams monitoring, and the lasting contributions of our IVIPs to projects across multiple networks. Get caught up on our latest reports and the status of ongoing projects, and find out what’s happening at the DRLC. Two men at the edge of a marsh. One crouches. The other holds a long metal rod with a disc on top.

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