"145th Park Anniversary Events" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Monocacy

National Battlefield - Maryland

Monocacy National Battlefield is the site of the Battle of Monocacy in the American Civil War fought on July 9, 1864. The battlefield straddles the Monocacy River southeast of the city of Frederick, Maryland. The battle, labeled "The Battle That Saved Washington," was one of the last the Confederates would carry out in Union territory. The two opposing leaders were General Jubal Early, fighting for the South, and General Lew Wallace, fighting for the North.

maps

Official Visitor Map of Monocacy National Battlefield (NB) in Maryland. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Monocacy - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Monocacy National Battlefield (NB) in Maryland. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Chesapeake & Ohio Canal - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/mono/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monocacy_National_Battlefield Monocacy National Battlefield is the site of the Battle of Monocacy in the American Civil War fought on July 9, 1864. The battlefield straddles the Monocacy River southeast of the city of Frederick, Maryland. The battle, labeled "The Battle That Saved Washington," was one of the last the Confederates would carry out in Union territory. The two opposing leaders were General Jubal Early, fighting for the South, and General Lew Wallace, fighting for the North. During the summer of 1864, the Confederacy carried out a bold plan to turn the tide of the Civil War in their favor. They planned to capture Washington, DC and influence the election of 1864. On July 9, however, Federal soldiers outnumbered three to one, fought gallantly along the banks of the Monocacy River in an effort to buy time for Union reinforcement to arrive in Washington, DC. From the North (U.S. 15) or West (Hagerstown): Use I-70 east and take Exit 54. Bear right then take a left onto Rt. 355. The visitor center will be on the left. From the East (Baltimore): Use I-70 west and take Exit 54. Bear left then take a left onto Rt. 355. The visitor center will be on the left. From the South (Washington): Use I-270 north to I-70 east and take Exit 54. Bear right then take a left onto Rt. 355. The visitor center will be on the the left. Visitor Center Normal Hours of Operation: The park Visitor Center is open Thursday through Monday from 9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. The Visitor Center is closed on Tuesdays and Wednesdays. A bookstore, public restrooms, and an interactive museum are located within the Visitor Center. Contact the Visitor Center at 301-662-3515 for additional information. From the North (U.S. 15) or West (Hagerstown): Use I-70 east and take Exit 54. Bear right then take a left onto Rt. 355. The visitor center will be on the left. From the East (Baltimore): Use I-70 west and take Exit 54. Bear left then take a left onto Rt. 355. The visitor center will be on the left. From the South (Washington): Use I-270 north to I-70 east and take Exit 54. Bear right then take a left onto Rt. 355. The visitor center will be on the the left. The Worthington House Federal style house with trees behind it during the fall season. The Worthington House is one of the most iconic locations on the battlefield. 14 New Jersey Regiment Monument The sun setting behind a monument. The monument recognizes the sacrifices of the "Monocacy Regiment." The Secondary House Sun rise and fog behind the historic Secondary House on the Best Farm. Built in the 1790s this house was one of the first structures in the park. Artillery Firing Smoke and fire erupt from an artillery piece as it is fired by Union soldiers. Union soldiers fire an artillery piece in commemoration of the battle. Memorial Day Flag Display Small flags fly in the breeze in front of the visitor center. 2,300 Union and Confederate National Flags are set out to commemorate the Battle of Monocacy casualties. Cannon at the Best Farm A cannon sits in a green field in front of a small white building, the sun is setting. Confederate artillery used the fields of the Best Farm to stage their attack on Union forces across the river. History Comes Alive at Monocacy Living history demonstrators dressed as Union soldiers fire small arms. Living history volunteers bring the past to the present through demonstrating small arms firing at Monocacy. Crystal Clear: Establishing Native Vegetation in Riparian Buffers on the Thomas Farm Park managers have shifted their restoration strategy to focus on replanting native vegetation. Replanting native shrubs and other low-growing plants along the stream banks will filter nutrients and sediments while shading and cooling surface waters. Since most of these streams did not have forested riparian zones at the time of the battle, replanting forest buffers—an effective method of water protection—would conflict with the historic scene. an engraving of farm houses and trees on the plains. Pawpaw: Small Tree, Big Impact Pawpaw are small trees that don't grow past 100 feet. Yet they have a big influence-- they're the most commonly observed sapling in our National Capital Region forests. Pawpaw trees are virtually immune to deer browse and also produce the largest edible fruit native to North America! A hand holds a lumpy green pawpaw fruit Lichens and Air Quality Lichens are durable enough to grow on tree bark and bare rock, yet are sensitive to pollution and air quality. One species in particular was used to track levels of air-borne lead over a 100 year period! Pale green lichen growing on rock. Death and Dying The somber aftermath of Civil War battles introduced Americans--North and South--to death on an unprecedented scale and of an unnatural kind, often ending in an unmarked grave far from home. Neither individuals, nor institutions, nor governments were prepared to deal with death on such a massive scale, for never before or since have we killed so many of our own. The Civil War revolutionized the American military's approach to caring for the dead, leading to our modern cult Photo of freshly buried marked and unmarked graves near Petersburg, Va. Crossing Over The Confederate and the Union armies are coming to blows in Maryland Sketch of General McClellan riding through Frederick Emancipation and the Quest for Freedom Although the abolition of slavery emerged as a dominant objective of the Union war effort, most Northerners embraced abolition as a practical measure rather than a moral cause. The war resolved legally and constitutionally the single most important moral question that afflicted the nascent republic, an issue that prevented the country from coalescing around a shared vision of freedom, equality, morality, and nationhood. Slave family seated in front of their house Forest Regeneration 2018 In 2018, tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in the parks of the National Capital Region. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A forest plot in Rock Creek Park showing some vegetation recovery. American Eels in the Potomac Watershed American eels are found everywhere along the Atlantic Coast, but many aspects of these fish remain poorly understood. They are perhaps one of the most mysterious fish in the Potomac watershed. Hands hold a 2 to 3 foot long eel over a red container. Civil War Battlefields: A Haven for Grassland Birds Civil War battlefields have become a haven for declining grassland birds. As grassland habitat dwindles in the eastern U.S., grasslands, shrublands, and the pastures that make up battlefield parks are playing an ever more important role as habitat for a special group of birds. A grasshopper sparrow singing from atop a cable. National Capital Region Energy Savings Performance Contract The National Park Service is investing $29 million in 81 individual energy efficiency and water conservation projects at national parks throughout the greater Washington region. Cherry Blossoms at the National Mall The Border States The existence of divided populations in Border States had a profound impact on Union and Confederate strategy-both political and military. Each side undertook military and political measures--including brutal guerilla warfare-- in their attempts to control areas of divided loyalty and hostile moral and political views held by local civilians. Painting showing removal of Missouri civilians from their homes by Union troops The Middle Ford Ferry Tavern Project In 2003, NPS archeologists began a multi-year archeological study of the Thomas Farm, located within the boundaries of Monocacy National Battlefield. Among the most important results of the Thomas Farm study is the discovery of the Middle Ford ferry and tavern. Archeological and historic research at the site provides insight into the earliest settlement and occupation of Frederick County, Maryland, and the surrounding region. Ceramics provide clues about trade, lifestyle, and consumption habits. Forest Regeneration 2017 Tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in the parks of the National Capital Region. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A forest plot showing tree seedling and low-growing plant recovery. Go green for the National Park Service’s birthday! We're adding energy- and water-saving improvements to save money! How can you do the same in your home? National Mall and Memorial Parks Yearly Savings 50.9 M gallons of water, $1 M, 2.7M kwh. Sustainability in Action: Reducing Monocacy National Battlefield’s Carbon Footprint NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Monocacy National Battlefield, Maryland Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. creek flowing through parkland Stream Restoration Dreams: Stage Zero Learn “stage zero” stream restoration basics and how they could be applied in Mid-Atlantic streams. Water spreads across the ground around standing and fallen trees Ash Tree Update 2017 The state of ash trees in 2017 in the National Capital Region after more than 10 years of harm from the invasive emerald ash borer. A white ash leaf Forest Regeneration 2019 In 2019 tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in National Capital Area parks. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A brown bird with a white breast and dark spots on its chest stands on the leaf-littered ground. Eastern Hemlocks in the National Capital Region Many evergreen, Eastern hemlock trees, typically found growing alongside forest streams, have succumbed to two insect pests. In the National Capital Region, we looked for surviving trees, and what other tree species are poised to replace hemlocks. An evergreen branch with white fuzzy nubs along the stems. Surveillance and Control on a Plantation Landscape Recent excavations at the site of L’Hermitage, a former plantation on the grounds of Monocacy National Battlefield in Frederick, Maryland, revealed several 18th and 19th century slave quarters. These dwellings were spaced and oriented in a way that exposes the careful planning and focus on order and symmetry on the part of the slaveholders, aimed at promoting supervision, control, and function over the lives and work of their enslaved charges. Archeologists in field with radar equipment. DOI Region 1, National Capital Area Utilizes Prescribed Fire as a Management Tool Resource and facility managers in the National Capital Area (NCA) are relying more frequently on prescribed burning as a tool to protect, restore, enhance and maintain historic Civil War sites. Fire in grasses burn near a Civil War cannon. The Civilian Experience in the Civil War After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians both near and far from the battlefields became unwilling participants and victims of the war as its toll of blood and treasure grew year after year. In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material, and began to expect that their government should do the same. Painting of civilians under fire during the Siege of Vicksburg Oak Decline Learn more about oak decline where a host of stressors interact to weaken trees over time, leading to what becomes "death by a thousand cuts." Looking up into the canopy of a mature oak showing symptoms of oak decline. Spring Amphibian Timeline Learn how the progression of amphibian appearances unfurls every spring. A gray tree frog clings to a small tree branch. Amphibian Diversity & Habitat Connectivity Habitat fragmentation is a major threat to amphibian communities, especially in National Capital Area parks at risk due to the region's growing urbanization. A small frog crouches on a lichen-covered rock. Special Orders 191 Today The legacy of Special Orders 191 Modern photograph of Special Orders 191 in the current state The Special Orders are Written Writing and distributing Special Orders 191 Photograph of General Robert E. Lee The Changing War Begun as a purely military effort with the limited political objectives of reunification (North) or independence (South), the Civil War transformed into a social, economic and political revolution with unforeseen consequences. As the war progressed, the Union war effort steadily transformed from a limited to a hard war; it targeted not just Southern armies, but the heart of the Confederacy's economy, morale, and social order-the institution of slavery. Woodcut of spectators watching a train station set fire by Sherman's troops Amphibian Disease Risk in the National Capital Area Looking for disease, including ranaviruses and chytrid fungi, is an important part of amphibian monitoring done by the National Capital Region Inventory & Monitoring Network. Learn more about the risks posed by these diseases and the biosecurity protocols field crews use to reduce the risk of accidental spread. Red-spotted newt on brown forest floor leaves. Black spots and eyes contrast with vivid orange skin. Forest Soils Highlights from a 2007-2017 study of soils in National Capital Region Network I&M-monitored parks. Includes discussion of parent materials, heavy metal soil pollutants like lead, and how past land use effects O horizons. Collage of 6 color photos of soil profiles showing colors from orange-y reds to browns and grays. American Chestnuts in the Capital Region In 1904, a deadly fungus began killing American chestnut trees, once one of the most dominant trees of the eastern U.S. Despite overwhelming odds, some American chestnut trees survive today in parks of the National Capital Region Green American chestnut tree leaves on a slender branch. Monocacy National Battlefield Cultural Landscape Monocacy National Battlefield is about thirty miles northwest of Washington, D.C. The nineteenth century was a profitable time for the area, which was cultivated by frontiersmen and settlers and further shaped by the rise of milling, new transportation systems, and agricultural innovation. This agricultural landscape provided the backdrop for the Civil War Battle of Monocacy, and the site acquired a commemorative overlay in the form of monuments and the park's creation. A fence-lined driveway leads through an open wintery landscape to a cluster of farm buildings. Worthington Farm Cultural Landscape The Worthington Farm, also known as Clifton, is a component landscape of Monocacy National Battlefield. Located just west of the Thomas Farm and alongside the Monocacy River, the property's patchwork of fields and woodlands represents the agricultural landscape that was present here in the nineteenth century. The Worthington House is the only building dating to the time of the Civil War Battle of Monocacy. A road curves beside a grassy field towards a farmhouse. Thomas Farm Cultural Landscape Thomas Farm, also known as "Araby," is a component landscape within Monocacy National Battlefield. The property contains nearly all the land associated with the Thomas Farm as it existed at the time of the Civil War Battle of Monocacy on July 9, 1864. The agricultural landscape is significant for its association with an early transportation network, leading to its strategic importance in battle. It is also recognized for its commemorative value. A print shows the former appearance of the Thomas Farm landscape, also known as Araby Stiltgrass and Tree Seedling Recovery Recent analysis at Maryland's Catoctin Mountain Park shows Japanese stiltgrass does not limit the growth of tree seedlings in a forest recovering from deer overpopulation. Invasive Japanese stiltgrass blankets the sides of a shady forest road. Spotted Lanternfly 101 What you need to know about spotted lanternfly: a new, invasive, insect pest approaching the National Parks of the Mid-Atlantic. A spotted lanternfly with wings spread showing namesake spots Natural Science, History, & Culture in the National Capital Area Learn more about your National Capital Area park through this guide to natural and cultural resource information. Cultural resource staff clean the Theodore Roosevelt memorial statue at Theodore Roosevelt Island. Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Crystal Clear: A Call to Action In 2016, the nation celebrates the centennial of the National Park Service (NPS) as the steward of special places that represent our natural and cultural heritage. Many national parks were founded on the beauty and value of water. Since the preservation of the Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park in 1872, the National Park System has grown to include significant examples within majestic rivers, the Great Lakes, oceans and coasts, and other spectacular water resources. bright blue lake green islands in between Series: The Lost Orders As Lee invaded the north he hoped to rally the support of the people of Maryland, resupply his exhausted army, and draw the Union army far beyond its supply depots and fortifications, where they might be dealt a more decisive blow. On September 9 he ordered his Chief of Staff to write and distribute Special Orders 191, which laid out his plans for splitting the army and the movements for the next three days. A lost copy of the order was left behind in a field near Frederick, MD wrapped in an env Photograph of Robert E. Lee Series: A Savage Continual Thunder In September 1862 Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee changed the course of the Civil War. By crossing the Potomac River he moved from defending the south and its people to invading northern territory. He hoped that a major victory on Union soil would encourage European recognition of the Confederacy, crush northern morale, and force President Lincoln to sue for peace. As the Union Army of the Potomac scrambled to meet the Southern threat, President Lincoln hoped that Lee's invasion would lead to a U Lithograph of Battle of Antietam Spotted Lanternfly in Perspective While spotted lanternfly and emerald ash borer are both invasive insect pests, introduced from Asia, that feed on trees (primarily), they have few other similarities. Learn how they differ in host preferences, feeding mode, and life cycle. A spotted lanternfly with black wingspots on a tree branch Prescribed fire in the national capital area Learn how the National Park Service uses prescribed fire in the National Capital Area. Osage Orange at the Worthington Farm, Monocacy National Battlefield John Worthington presumably planted the Osage orange hedgerow south of the house as a living fence around the kitchen garden and orchard. It provided shade and served as a windbreak to workers living seasonally at the Worthington Farm. Black laborers worked the fields around Worthington Farm from the mid-1800s through the 1960s, first as enslaved individuals and tenant laborers, then as migrant workers. The trees were coppiced in 2020 in a landscape rehabilitation project. A dense row of Osage orange trees with leafy, interwoven branches. Brood X Periodical Cicadas FAQ Learn about the Brood X periodical cicadas that will emerge in 2021 throughout the Mid-Atlantic U.S. A perched periodical cicada with red eyes and orange wings Forest Regeneration 2020 What is the future of our forests? A look at forest regeneration capacity in National Capital Area national parks based on 2020 monitoring data. hand holding a leaflet on a white ash seedling Series: African American History at Gettysburg Abraham Brian, Basil Biggs, James Warfield, and Mag Palm are just a few of the many individuals that were affected by the Civil War and the Battle of Gettysburg, and each has their own story to tell. We have collected their stories in one place so that you can learn more about their various trials during this tumultuous time in American history. A black and white photograph of a black family posing with a white man and his horse in a dirt road. Worthington Farm (Clifton) Cultural Landscape The Worthington Farm, also known as Clifton, is a component landscape of Monocacy National Battlefield. Located just west of the Thomas Farm and alongside the Monocacy River, the property's patchwork of fields and woodlands represents the agricultural landscape that was present here in 1800s. The Worthington House is the only building dating to the time of the Civil War Battle of Monocacy. A road curves beside a grassy field towards a farmhouse on the horizon beside a line of trees Slavery and Resistance in Maryland: L’Hermitage Slave Village L’Hermitage plantation was established in 1794 by the Vincendieres, French Catholic planters who came to Maryland to escape the Saint-Domingue slave revolution. They brought 12 enslaved laborers with them. By 1800 they owned 90 enslaved people. Valuing Trees and Forests in the National Capital Area Understanding that trees have value opens our eyes to their important roles across the planet as well as in parks of the National Capital Area. This StoryMap series examines the values that trees bring to the National Parks of the National Capital Area. It focuses on three parks: the National Mall and Memorial Parks, Rock Creek Park, and Monocacy National Battlefield, each of which is home to notable trees within its urban forest. The MLK Jr Memorial stands by the Tidal Basin, surrounded by cherry blossom trees. Plants and Climate Change Changing climate increases stressors that weaken plant resilience, disrupting forest structure and ecosystem services. Rising temperatures lead to more frequent droughts, wildfires, and invasive pest outbreaks, leading to the loss of plant species. That causes a ripple of problems throughout their ecosystems. Monocacy tulip poplar tree Cultural Resources and Climate Change Cultural resources are sites, structures, objects, and even landscapes that show the history of human activity and/or hold significance to a group of people traditionally associated with it. Climate change, however, is making it harder to preserve these cultural resources for future generations. Changing weather patterns, increased pests, and pollution all amplify the deterioration of our cultural and historical resources. Jefferson Memorial view from above with visitors on the steps

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