"Mount Rainier" by NPS/Emily Brouwer Photo , public domain

Mount Rainier

National Park - Washington

Mount Rainier National Park, a 369-sq.-mile Washington state reserve southeast of Seattle, surrounds glacier-capped, 14,410-ft. Mount Rainier. Atop 6,400-ft.-high Sunrise, the highest point in the park reachable by car, visitors can admire Rainier and other nearby volcanoes, including Mount Adams. The park’s 5,400-ft.-high Paradise overlook offers mountain views, summertime wildflower meadows and hiking trailheads.

location

maps

Official Visitor Map of Mount Rainier National Park (NP) in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Mount Rainier National Park (NP) in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Visitor map of Gifford Pinchot National Forest (NF). Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Gifford Pinchot - Visitor Map

Visitor map of Gifford Pinchot National Forest (NF). Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Evans Creek Area in the Snoqualmie Ranger District in Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (NF) in Washington. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie MVUM - Evans Creek Area 2020

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Evans Creek Area in the Snoqualmie Ranger District in Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (NF) in Washington. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Snoqualmie Ranger District in Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (NF) in Washington. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie MVUM - Snoqualmie 2020

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Snoqualmie Ranger District in Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (NF) in Washington. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map of Washington State Highways / Tourist Map. Published by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT).Washington State - Highway Map

Map of Washington State Highways / Tourist Map. Published by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT).

brochures

Brochure of Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier - Brochure

Brochure of Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Summer/Fall Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Guide - Summer/Fall 2022

Summer/Fall Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Spring Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Guide - Spring 2022

Spring Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Winter Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Guide - Winter 2021/2022

Winter Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Guide - Fall 2019

Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/mora/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Rainier_National_Park Mount Rainier National Park, a 369-sq.-mile Washington state reserve southeast of Seattle, surrounds glacier-capped, 14,410-ft. Mount Rainier. Atop 6,400-ft.-high Sunrise, the highest point in the park reachable by car, visitors can admire Rainier and other nearby volcanoes, including Mount Adams. The park’s 5,400-ft.-high Paradise overlook offers mountain views, summertime wildflower meadows and hiking trailheads. Ascending to 14,410 feet above sea level, Mount Rainier stands as an icon in the Washington landscape. An active volcano, Mount Rainier is the most glaciated peak in the contiguous U.S.A., spawning five major rivers. Subalpine wildflower meadows ring the icy volcano while ancient forest cloaks Mount Rainier’s lower slopes. Wildlife abounds in the park’s ecosystems. A lifetime of discovery awaits. Mount Rainier National Park is located in west-central Washington state. Several major cities in Washington- Seattle, Tacoma, and Yakima- and Portland, Oregon, are within 200 miles of the park. For GPS to Nisqually Entrance use: 39000 State Route 706 E, Ashford, WA 98304. Carbon River Ranger Station Located in the northwest corner of the park, the ranger station is staffed by rangers or volunteers. Building hours may vary so call ahead for hours 360-829-9639. When open, rangers and volunteers provide park information, wilderness camping, and climbing permits. Wilderness camping permits available by self-registration when closed. Located on the Carbon River Road, 5.5 miles east of its junction with the Mowich Lake Road (State Route 165), the ranger station is just over 2 miles before the road ends at the park boundary. Henry M Jackson Memorial Visitor Center Located at Paradise, on the south side of Mount Rainier, the Jackson Visitor Center is open throughout the summer and with limited days and hours in the winter. Inside the visitor center are accessible restrooms, an information desk staffed by a ranger or volunteer, food services, gift shop, park movie, and exhibits about the plants, animals, and the volcano. NOTE: The exhibits on the second floor are closed for the 2022 season. There is no physical address for the Henry Jackson Visitor Center. It is located at Paradise, on the south side of the mountain, on the road connecting Longmire and Stevens Canyon. For GPS users, it is at 46.785887,-121.736573 . During the winter (November-April), most park roads are closed except the one from Longmire to Paradise. That road is closed nightly for safety. Check www.twitter.com/MountRainierNPS for daily winter road updates and tire chain restrictions. Longmire Museum Located on the south side of Mount Rainier at 2,700 feet above sea level, the museum makes up part of the historic Longmire district. Once a ranger office, the building now houses historic exhibits about the park's natural and geological history, and animals. A ranger or volunteer staffs the museum to assist with park information and book and map sales. The Longmire Museum has no physical address. It is in Longmire, on the south side of the mountain, about 9 miles east of the town of Ashford on State Route 706. Longmire Wilderness Information Center Open during the summer, the Longmire Wilderness Information Center (WIC) is located in the lobby of the historic Longmire Administration Building, a picturesque example of National Park Service rustic architecture in Longmire. The WIC features a 3D model map of Mount Rainier National Park and has an information desk staffed by wilderness rangers. Rangers at the WIC assist with wilderness permits, trip planning, and providing maps and trail condition updates. The Longmire WIC has no physical address. It is in Longmire, on the south side of the mountain, about 9 miles east of the town of Ashford on State Route 706. Ohanapecosh Visitor Center This visitor center is located in the southeast corner of the park on State Route 123, 12 miles north of the town of Packwood. It is next to the Ohanapecosh Campground and near the trailhead for the Natural Hot Springs and Silver Falls. There are restrooms, exhibits, and a ranger or volunteer on duty to answer questions when it is open for the summer season. Ohanapecosh Visitor Center is on State Route 123, 12 miles north of the town of Packwood. It has no physical address. GPS users can enter 46.914466,-121.643404 for its location. Paradise Wilderness Information Center Open during the summer, the Paradise Wilderness Information Center (WIC) is located in the main room of the historic Guide House. The WIC has an information desk staffed by wilderness rangers. Rangers at the WIC assist with wilderness permits, trip planning, and providing maps and trail condition updates. The Paradise WIC has no physical address. It is located at Paradise, on the south side of the mountain, on the road connecting Longmire and Stevens Canyon. For GPS users, it is at 46.786506, -121.735432. Sunrise Visitor Center Located on the northeast flank of Mount Rainier, this visitor center is at the end of the Sunrise Road, 15 miles after the turn off from State Route 410. Only open and accessible in summer, the Sunrise Visitor Center has exhibits, books and maps for sale, and rangers and volunteers on duty to answer questions. Restrooms, gift shop, and food services are located nearby during the summer season. Sunrise Visitor Center has no physical address. It is at the end of the Sunrise Road, 15 miles east from the turn off at State Route 410. For GPS users, it is at 46.914466,-121.643404 . These roads are not plowed in the winter and only accessible by motor vehicle in the summer. White River Wilderness Information Center Open during the summer, the White River Wilderness Information Center (WIC) located at the Winter River Entrance. The WIC has an information desk staffed by wilderness rangers. Rangers at the WIC assist with wilderness permits, trip planning, and providing maps and trail condition updates. There is no official address for this facility. The White River Ranger Station & Wilderness Information Center is located in the northeast area of Mount Rainier National Park on White River Road, 1.3 miles from its junction with SR410. The nearest town is Greenwater, Washington. Cougar Rock Campground Cougar Rock Campground is located on the south side of the park, on the road between Longmire and Paradise. It is in a steep valley with the Nisqually River across the main road. Thick forest extends through the whole campground providing privacy for campsites. Access to the Wonderland trail is across the road with waterfalls a moderate hike away. Less than 15 minutes of driving can take you to the trails and facilities at Longmire or Paradise. Campground Site Fee 20.00 Fee to camp in one campsite in the campground with up to 2 tents and 6 people (unless immediate family) for one night. Discount Campground Site Fee 10.00 With an America the Beautiful Access or Senior Pass, the card holder can get a discounted rate for a campsite. A single campsite can have up to 2 tents and 6 people (unless immediate family). Group Site Fee 60.00 If you plan to use the group sites at Cougar Rock or Ohanapecosh campgrounds between Memorial Day weekend and Columbus Day, you must make reservations. Groups of 12 or more are permitted only in specific group sites. Group sites are designed for tent camping only so RVs are not permitted. At campgrounds throughout the park, parking is limited. Those using group campsites may need to consult the campground ranger to arrange additional parking. Maximum groups sizes vary by site. Cougar Rock Ranger Station A small brown building with a window for taking questions. Visitors can check in to the campground and get guidance from park staff at the ranger station. Cougar Rock RV Campsite A large white RV in front of thick woods An example of an RV campsite at Cougar Rock Cougar Rock Amphitheater Rows of wooden benches leading up to a screen with wooden panelling The amphitheater at Cougar Rock where junior ranger and evening programs are held. Cougar Rock Food Storage A brown rectangular metal container marked "food storage" Bear-proof food storage containers are provided in the campground. Cougar Rock Recycling Containiers Three green recycling containers inside a wooden enclosure Campground visitors are provided with recycling options. Cougar Rock Campsite Four fold up chairs in front of a large tent. An example tent campsite at Cougar Rock. Cougar Rock Group Campsites A large open space with scattered sleeping bags and camp materials Group campsites are available at Cougar Rock. Cougar Rock Bathrooms A small brown building with a stone structure for obtaining water in front. Bathrooms are provided at each of the campground loops. Cougar Rock Evening Programs A yellow flyer noting the times of programs. Junior Ranger and Evening Programs are provided every night at the Cougar Rock Amphitheater. Cougar Rock Trails A brown sign noting the distance to trails in the area. Cougar Rock is located near several trails in the park. Cougar Rock Campground A forest road with the top of Mount Rainier poking out over the trees. The campground does provide limited views of the mountain in a few spots. Cougar Rock Campground Host A white RV trailer nestled in the woods. Volunteer campground hosts help orient campers. Cougar Rock Message Board A broad message board with a pay phone. A machine for paying the camping fee and a pay phone are on a message board at the front of the campground. Cougar Rock RV Restrictions A white sign detailing the allowable lengths of RVs There are some restrictions on RV lengths. Ohanapecosh Campground Ohanapecosh Campground is tucked in the forest along the banks of the Ohanapecosh River at an elevation of 1,914 feet. It is located in the southeast corner of the park along State Route 123. Under the tall trees, the campsites are relatively private. Trails that begin at the campground lead to Silver Falls and the Grove of the Patriarchs. Stop by the Ohanapecosh Visitor Center for information and exhibits. Campground Site Fee 20.00 A campsite can hold up to 2 tents and 6 people (unless immediate family) for one night. Discounted Campground Site Fee 10.00 With an America the Beautiful Access or Senior Pass, the card holder can get a discounted rate for a campsite. A single campsite can have up to 2 tents and 6 people (unless immediate family) per night. Group Site Fee 60.00 If you plan to use the group sites at Cougar Rock or Ohanapecosh campgrounds between Memorial Day weekend and Columbus Day, you must make reservations. Groups of 12 or more are permitted only in specific group sites. Group sites are designed for tent camping only so RVs are not permitted. At campgrounds throughout the park, parking is limited. Those using group campsites may need to consult the campground ranger to arrange additional parking. Maximum groups sizes vary by site. Ohanapecosh Campground Registration A brown bulletin board with information about the campground and a machine for paying the fee. Campers can get information and pay the camping fee at the bulletin board near the visitor center. Ohanapecosh Visitor Center A large brown building with a slanted roof surrounded by forest. The Ohanapecosh Visitor Center contains serveral exhibits about the surrounding area and is situated right next to the campground. Ohanapecosh waste bins. Two metal bins for recycling and trash. The campground provides bins to dispose of trash and recycling. Ohanapecosh Campground Views A rushing river nestled in between tall forests. The campground provides a great view of the Ohanapecosh River. Ohanapecosh Amphitheater Rows of wooden benches leading up to a large projection screen. Campers can enjoy evening programs at the Ohanapecosh Amphitheater. Ohanapecosh Bathrooms A brown bathroom building with forest behind. Bathroom facilities are provided at each loop of the campground. Ohanapecosh Campsite A tan and white van next to an orange tent in a forested campsite. An example campsite at the Ohanapecosh campground. Ohanapecosh Water Supply A small stone structure with faucets for getting water. Faucets for collecting water a located near the restroom facilities. Ohanapecosh Campground Rays of light pushing through tall trees into a campsite. Ohanapecosh campground provides a tranquil forested camping experience. Ohanapecosh Food Storage A small brown metal box labeled food storage. Metal food storage containers are provided at the campground. Ohanapecosh Trails A silver sign detailing the local trails. Several trails lead out of the Ohanapecosh Campground. White River Campground Located on the eastern side of the park below Sunrise, White River campground takes its name from the river flowing beside it. Tucked into a steep canyon, curves can be tight. When open for the summer, it is always first-come, first-serve. The Wonderland trail runs through the campground on its way up to Sunrise or Summerland. Campground Site Fee 20.00 Campsite can accommodate up to 2 tents and 6 people (unless immediate family) per night. Discounted Campground Site Fee 10.00 A cardholder of the American the Beautiful Access or Senior Pass can get a discount for the campsite they are staying in. Campsite can accommodate up to 2 tents and 6 people (unless immediate family) per night. White River Campground Ranger Station A brown wall with a sign for the ranger station with a large park service arrow head. The White River Ranger Station provides support and assistance to campers. White River waste bins A group of six metal waste bins for trash and recycling. Trash and recycling bins are provided for campers. White River Campsites A large green tent with trees in the background. An example campsite at the White River Campground. White River views A rocky river basin with forested valley walls that leads up to Mount Rainier. Some campsites at White River provide great views of Mount Rainier. White River hiking A brown sign pointing to a forested trail. Several trails depart from the White River Campground. White River Bathrooms A brown bathroom building behind a small stone structure for getting water. Bathroom facilities are provided at each of the campground's loops. White River RV site A large white RV in a campsite. An example RV site at White River. White River Fire Circle Rows of wooden benchs around a campfire circle. White River has a fire circle where evening programs are held. Historic White River Patrol Cabin A wooden cabin surrounded by forest. A historic ranger cabin at White River provides a window into past management of the area. White River food storage A brown metal container infront of an RV campsite Metal food storage boxes are provided at the campground. Silver Forest Sunset A purple and pink streaked sky over a mountain peak and forested valley. The Silver Forest Trail at Sunrise features spectacular views of Mount Rainier and the White River valley. Climbing Mount Rainier Climber on glacier steps downward with icy crags in background. Summiting Mount Rainier involves climbing a volcano, scaling glaciers, dealing with high elevations and much more. Almost 10,000 people a year attempt to summit. Giants of the Old-Growth Forest Towering cedars and douglas-firs reach skyward while a beam of sun breaks through the canopy. With some of the few remaining old-growth forests in the Cascade Mountains, Mount Rainier National Park protects native plants great and small in places like the Grove of the Patriarchs. Marmot in Morning Dew A hoary marmot with white frosted fur rests on a rock beside white flowers in a meadow. From small amphibians and hoary marmots to the black bears and elk, many animals call the wild places of Mount Rainier home. Kids Hiking Through Wildflower Meadow Two children hike on trail through wildflower meadow with Mount Rainier above them. Enjoying the outdoors through recreation is a big part of many visitors' experiences. Mount Rainier at sunset Sunset paints the glaciers of Mount Rainier in pink and gold. Every scenic overlook shows a different side of Mount Rainier. Viewed from Gobblers Knob Lookout at sunset, the glaciers covering the mountain turn pink and gold. National Park Inn in Winter The historic National Park Inn covered in a foot of snow. For thousands of years, people have traveled up to, over, and around Mount Rainier. Today the park strives to preserve this history while providing a chance for new generations to find their own adventures. Wildflower Meadow Along the Wonderland Trail Purple lupine and white bistort bloom in a meadow alongside a sign for the Wonderland Trail. Both the Wonderland Trail and subalpine meadows encircle Mount Rainier. Summertime blooms splatter the hillsides with color. Mount Rainier from Aurora Lake A glaciated mountain framed by forested hillsides reflects in a still mountain lake. Aurora Lake in Klapatche Park on the west side of Mount Rainier. High Elevation Archeological Survey in Pacific Northwest Mountain Ranges Long before boundaries of national parks were established, Native Americans traveled widely in the mountain ranges of the Pacific Northwest. Archeologists had little information about where people hunted, harvested, and camped and decided to survey for sites in the high altitude regions of Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks. Surprising survey results reveal extended use of high altitude areas in prehistoric times. [photo] Two men in discussion atop mountain. John Muir and his efforts to preserve Mount Rainier John Muir and his efforts to preserve Mount Rainier As president of the newly formed Sierra Club, John Muir gave numerous lectures and wrote various articles advocating for the preservation of Mount Rainier from the years 1893 to 1899. Muir also made efforts to unite other organizations across the nation who were pursuing the same cause. Image of John Muir WWII Training in Mt. Rainier National Park Over the course of World War II, Mount Rainier National Park served as a winter training and testing ground the U.S. Army’s 10th Mountain Division and other military units. The ‘old 10th’s’ cold weather equipment testing and training prepared its soldiers for their march through the Apennine Mountains to capture German strongholds. B&W photo of soldiers in white Aggradation, Avulsion, and the Historic Nisqually Road at Mount Rainier Climate change is making the glaciers at Mount Rainier recede, leading to effects downstream in the waterways alongside the park's historic roads. Find out about techniques used by park staff to adapt to climate change, and preserve the cultural landscape in the process. Glacier at Mount Rainier Partnerships add a Charge to your Travel Plans The National Park Service, the National Park Foundation, BMW of North America, the U.S. Department of Energy, concessioners, and gateway communities have collaborated to provide new technologies for travel options to and around national parks. As part of this public-private partnership, BMW of North America, working through the National Park Foundation, donated and arranged for the installation of 100 electric vehicle (EV) charging ports in and around national parks. Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Mount Rainier National Park A introduction to a long-term study on the sequestration of carbon within the soil in order to quantify important factors in soil organic carbon distribution. Shallow repeating seismic events under an alpine glacier on Mount Rainier: stick-slip glacier sliding events or volcanic earthquakes? Study to determine whether repeating earthquakes on Mount Rainier were generated by stick-slip sliding at the bed of glaciers, occurring when the glacier is loaded with snow, rather than due to volcanic activity. Small-Scale Variations in Melt of a Debris-Covered Glacier: Emmons Glacier, Mount Rainier National Park This study looked at how the rock debris covering the Emmons Glacier changed the glacier's response to stress factors like climate change. Glacier Monitoring in the National Parks of Washington State: A virtual field experience. Increasing public awareness of Glacial resources in the North Coast / Cascades National Parks Virtual reality is being investigated as a means of providing the average visitor and the public with the experience of glaciers and glacier research. Climate Monitoring in Mount Rainier National Park An ongoing project to monitor the weather in the park to understand variations in other park resources such as plants and glaciers. Data is collected primarily through seven weather stations. Debris Flow Processes on Mount Rainier A study of the origin of debris flows and the roles that glacier retreat and climate change play in the frequency of debris flows. Inventory of Geothermal Resources in Washington State As part of a state-wide study of geothermal resources, samples were taken from thermal and mineral springs (minus the summit fumeroles). Analysis of the samples will contribute to a better understanding of the regional geothermal system. Long-term Ecological Monitoring of Mountain Lakes, 2013 An on-going long-term study of the impacts of atmospheric pollution, climate change, non-native species, backcountry visitation, and other factors on park lakes. Geoscientists-in-the-Parks: Hydrologic Technicians Read about the work Taylor Blumenstein and Tae Wan Kim did as a Hydrologic Technician GIPs at Mount Rainier National Park in 2016. Interns working on field equipment Preserving Paradise Inn Media Kit For over a century, the Paradise Inn and Annex has served as a home base for visitors wishing to explore Paradise Meadows and Mount Rainier. Mount Rainier National Park is committed to preserving this historic structure and ensuring its continued use into the future. In partnership with Rainier Guest Services and Korsmo Construction, a major rehabilitation of the Annex was completed this spring and the Paradise Inn and Annex reopens May 17. A four-story grey building with an angled roof on a snowy slope on the side of a glaciated mountain. Mount Rainier Volcano Monitoring Mount Rainier is considered an active volcano and will have future eruptions. Mount Rainier National Park aids with logistical support as the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) conducts monitoring of seismic activity (with the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network), ground deformation, hydrothermal activity, and more to track Mount Rainier’s volcanic activity. A rocky volcanic peak drapped with glaciers. Monitoring the Health of Whitebark Pine Populations Whitebark pine is a five-needle pine that grows in high-elevation ecosystems in Western North America. It can be found in three national parks within the North Coast and Cascades Network. Today, its long-term survival is threatened by an introduced fungus, blister rust, and the native mountain pine beetle. To better understand how to protect the trees, the Network established study plots in eight stands in Mount Rainier and five stands in North Cascades in 2004. Person measuring a stand of whitebark pine and subalpine fir trees Cascades Butterfly Project Butterfly abundances and plant flowering patterns are sensitive indicators of changing climates. The Cascades Butterfly Project is a long-term monitoring program where citizen scientists (volunteers) and National Park Service Biologists monitor subalpine butterflies and plant phenology. Person examining a captured butterfly in the field Sensitivity of Marmots and Pikas to Weather Anomalies Associated with Climate Change Hoary marmots and American pikas are locally declining in response to climate driven changes in moisture, snowpack duration, warming temperatures, and cold exposure. Two marmots, one larger and one smaller, look out from behind a rock Butterflies of the North Coast & Cascades A comprehensive list of butterfly species found in Mount Rainier National Park, North Cascades National Park Complex, Olympic National Park, and San Juan Island National Historical Park. Brightly colored Milbert's tortoiseshell on the ground Longmire: Designing a National Park Style “The buildings at Longmire are among the most successful experiments in the development of that rustic design ethic while possessing great architectural integrity.” National Register of Historic Places Nomination Longmire Administration Building with stone first story and dark brown wooden 2nd story. Washington Fisher Restoration Fishers, a member of the weasel family, are being reintroduced to Washington State. A fisher, a medium-sized mammal with brown fur. Northern Spotted Owl Monitoring at Mount Rainier National Park Northern Spotted Owls are annually monitored at Mount Rainier National Park as concern over the park’s population continues. Learn more about these efforts. A female Northern Spotted Owl looks down at the camera while perching on a branch. Monitoring Amphibians at Mount Rainier National Park, 2019 Summary Volunteer citizen scientists assist in surveying amphibian species in Mount Rainier National Park, particularly assessing populations of the Western Toad. PARKS...IN...SPAAAACE!!! NASA astronauts have quite literally an out-of-this-world view of national parks and take some pretty stellar pictures to share. Travel along with the space station on its journey west to east getting the extreme bird’s eye view of national parks across the country. And one more down-to-earth. View of Denali National Park & Preserve from space North Coast and Cascades Network Exotic Plant Management Team The North Coast and Cascades Network Exotic Plant Management Team (NCCN EPMT) manages a diverse array of exotic plants across the dramatic landscapes of the Pacific Northwest. The team works with partner parks and agencies to augment vegetation management across the network. People loading weed control equipment into the back of a vehicle Park Air Profiles - Mount Rainier National Park Air quality profile for Mount Rainier National Park. Gives park-specific information about air quality and air pollution impacts for Mount Rainier NP as well as the studies and monitoring conducted for Mount Rainier NP. Mount Rainier reflected in a lake, Mount Rainier NP Monitoring Federal Lands and Highway Program (FLHP) Revegetation Sites Park roadsides are revegetated and monitored after programed and emergency repair projects. Analyses of two plots revealed that revegetation methods yielded better results in 2011 than in 2010. Phenology and Climate Change A study on the effect of climate change on the biological life events of subalpine wildflowers, which differ greatly between plant species. Nitrogen Deposition in the North Coast and Cascades Nitrogen deposition is a widely an unknown yet poignant issue in the west. Studies at Mount Rainier National Park, Olympic National Park, and North Cascades National Park are investigating effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. 2016 Harry Yount National Park Ranger Award Much like Harry Yount, who patrolled Yellowstone National Park in the 1880s and is regarded as the world’s first park ranger, Geoff Walker can do it all. Walker is a skilled law enforcement officer, EMT, first responder, criminal investigator, wild land firefighter, wilderness expert, helicopter crewman, mountain climber, training coordinator, supervisor, mentor, and rescuer. Walker’s arrival on scene is a welcome sight for any situation. Geoff Walker Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on High Alpine Lakes in North Coast and Cascades Parks Remote high alpine lakes are sensitive indicators of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Anthropogenic N deposition has potential to change species composition and ecosystem function in alpine lakes. Alpine lake surrounded by mountains. Historic Visibility Studies in National Parks Haze can negatively impact how well people can see and appreciate our national parks across the country. This article summarizes the visibility studies from the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s aimed at identifying the sources of haze causing pollution at specific parks and improving visibility monitoring methods. Big bend national park river Understanding Mercury Concentrations in Mountain Lake Fish Mountain lakes may seem pristine, but they are subjected to multiple types of man-made stressors. Since the industrial revolution, toxins from industrial activities have begun to travel through the atmosphere and be deposited onto the mountain landscape, where lakes act as collection basins. This study sought to determine the range of mercury concentrations in mountain lake fish, and to understand which variables contribute to high mercury in fish. Researcher in an inflatable boat on a sparkling mountain lake Time-lapse Photography of Glaciers at Mount Rainier National Park Mount Rainier National Park contains 29 named glacial features which cover an area of 30.4 square miles. While many studies currently exist that are documenting changes to these glaciers, one of the best ways to witness the dynamic nature of a glacier is with time-lapse photography. In 2018, the National Park Service’s North Coast and Cascades Research Learning Center funded the procurement of two field-deployable solar-powered high-resolution time-lapse cameras. Upper Nisqually Glacier on a sunny summer day Effects of Balsam Woolly Adelgid on True Firs in a Changing Climate In about 1900, a tiny insect called balsam woolly adelgid, a European native, appeared in North America on balsam firs. It can now be found in the West as well, in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and California. In Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks, infestations have been found on subalpine fir and Pacific silver fir, but subalpine fir is more heavily damaged. Swollen tip of a fir branch indicating balsam woolly adelgid infestation. Snowmelt as a Driver of Ecosystem Composition and Processes in North Coast and Cascades Parks Snow is a significant reservoir of nutrients in the Cascade Mountains. Snowpack acts as a reservoir of nitrogen (N), and snowmelt results in pulses of N delivered to ecosystems. A researcher sampling gaseous soil emissions in an alpine meadow. Bees of the North Coast & Cascades Bees are some of the most abundant and important pollinators in the world – especially in mountainous environments. Despite the importance of bees in our natural environments, many national parks do not know what species live within their boundaries. In 2016, to celebrate the Centennial of the National Park Service, North Coast and Cascades national parks focused on inventories of pollinators, including bees. Macro photo of the metallic blue head of a mason bee Glacier Monitoring in North Coast & Cascades Parks The North Coast and Cascades Network currently contains 485 glaciers that are iconic features of the region, and vital components of the parks hydrology and ecosystems. The remains of Banded Glacier in 2016 Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on High Alpine Meadows in North Coast and Cascades Parks Alpine plant communities are limited by nitrogen (N) because they have evolved in ecosystems with naturally low levels of reactive N. Increased N deposition is projected to alter plant communities, soil processes, soil carbon and N storage. An alpine meadow in bloom with mountains in the background. Harmonizing Paradise Bringing harmony to Paradise has been a work in progress over the decades. Balancing the protection of natural resources with visitor use has been challenging in the past and continues today. Visitors and car in meadow at Paradise with Mount Rainier in background. 2016 Freeman Tilden Award Recipients In 2016, six rangers were awarded a national or regional Freeman Tilden Award for excellence in interpretation. Learn more about their amazing programs! Lynette Weber Predicting the effects of future climate change on the subalpine and alpine meadows of Pacific Northwest Mountains The study looks at how meadows will deal with climate change through modeling and research into seed dispersal rates and distances. Modeling climate change effects on the hydrology of North Cascades wetland ecosystems Through field research and modeling, this study examines the effects of climate change on mountain wetlands and the fauna, like amphibians, that are dependent on those habitats. Landscape response to climate change and its role in infrastructure protection and management at Mount Rainier National Park Study looks at the ongoing changes of glaciers and major rivers of Mount Rainier in order to understand the consequences for historic infrastructure. Melting the rocky terminus of Emmons Glacier Study using airborne thermal infrared imaging systems to test a method of remotely estimating rock debris thickness and conductivity over large areas of debris-covered glaciers. Glacier Studies at Mount Rainier National Park Glacier studies by undergraduate students focused on meltwater analyses for hydrothermal influence, sediment load and fecal coliform. Veteran Story: Hal Hoversten Hal T. Hoversten enlisted with the Air Force and served in Washington State, South Korea, Alaska, California and briefly in Okinawa, Japan. In 2003, Hoversten began his career with DOI on a "not to exceed 2 week appointment." Find out what he did next. Man in Air Force Uniform in front of an American flag Wildland Fire in Douglas Fir: Western United States Douglas fir is widely distributed throughout the western United States, as well as southern British Columbia and northern Mexico. Douglas fir is able to survive without fire, its abundantly-produced seeds are lightweight and winged, allowing the wind to carry them to new locations where seedlings can be established. Close-up of Douglas fir bark and needles. Dixid Midges of Mount Rainier National Park Status and trends of dixid midges sampled from aquatic habitats as part of a systematic treatise of dixid midges of the Nearctic. Assessing Potential Linkages Between Geohydrological Context and Macroinvertebrate Communities and Zooplankton at Habitat and Valley Scales for Ecological Monitoring Examination of alpine aquatic ecosystems to better understand the role of post-glacier landforms in the area's hydrology. Cascades Butterfly Project Research Program inventories and monitors butterflies in six protected areas of the Cascade Mountains in Washington and British Columbia to see how they are affected by climate change. Conservation Status of the Cascade Red Fox Found only in the Cascade Mountains of Washington, the Cascade Red Fox is well adapted to its cold, mountain habitat which may be impacted by climate change and other factors. This project studies the population trends of the Cascade red fox and prospects of long-term survival. Lilies at the Limit: Pollination Services and the Distribution of Erythronium montanum Study of how climate change will impact plant-pollinator interactions in subalpine meadows on Mount Rainier. Alpine vascular plant biodiversity at Spray Park, Mount Rainier National Park Baseline monitoring of vascular plant biodiversity in the transition zones between subalpine and alpine areas in Spray Park. Paradise Inn: A History of Beauty and Challenge The Paradise Inn celebrates 100 years of service having survived the challenges of snowy Mount Rainier. Evening view of the front of the Paradise Inn The National Park Inn The story of the National Park Inn at Longmire is actually the story of three different hotels and the establishment of Mount Rainier National Park. The north side of the National Park Inn at Longmire. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Mount Rainier National Park, Washington Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] mountain view from park roadway Carbon River and Mowich Lake - The Quiet Corner The northwest corner of the park, the Carbon River and Mowich Lake area, is now often considered to be the quiet corner of the park. That hasn't always been the case. This article explores the history of Mount Rainier National Park's now quiet corner. Bicycle leaning against wooden fence with bicyclist in background. Ohanapecosh: Treasure of the Deep Forest The Ohanapecosh area, located in the southeast corner of Mount Rainier National Park, is a treasure of the deep forest. Often overlooked, it has a long history of human use. Two people stands in doorway of Ohanapecosh Hot Springs Resort in the early 20th century. Status and Trends in Monitoring for Watershed Health & Salmon Recovery (WHSR) Part of a statewide monitoring project, this study annually monitors Laughingwater Creek. Study includes in-stream surveys, water quality measurements, and vertebrate and macroinvertebrate sampling. Measurement of Glacial Meltwater Outflow through Water Analysis for Geohazard Recognition This study found several detectable signals for glacier outburst floods, such as iron content, turbidity, temperature and pH. Long-term trends in mature and old-growth forests at Mount Rainier National Park A network of 18 permanent plots in Mount Rainier National Park is being monitored to provide data on long-term trends in mature and old-growth forests. Climatic and Human Influences on the Fire and Vegetation History of Subalpine Meadows - Mount Rainier National Park The study examines evidence of early plant species and fire events found in lake cores. The sediments of park lakes preserve the charcoal and pollen from both fires and plants going back almost 10,000 years. Community responses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in subalpine meadow ecosystems at Mount Rainier National Park Through computer models and field experimentation, this study looks at the impacts of increasing amounts of atmospheric nitrogen being deposited on alpine plants. While alpine environments can act as reservoirs for small amounts of nitrogen, too much nitrogen could negatively affect plants, soils and watersheds. Testing the Limits: Effects of Climate and Competition on Conifer Distributions at Mount Rainier A study of the interaction of climate change and competition in the establishment and growth of three common tree species at Mount Rainier; western hemlock, mountain hemlock and Pacific silver fir. Ecology of Introduced Prickly Sculpin in Lake George and Other Mountain Lakes of the Upper Nisqually River Basin This study documents the continuing presence of introduced prickly sculpin in mountain lakes of the Upper Nisqually. In addition, the study also collects basic ecological information on sculpin populations such as diet and age and examines the behavior of mountain populations compared to native lowland ones. Thaumaleidae of Mount Rainier National Park Summary of part of an on-going study to re-collect specimens previously collected almost 100 years ago. Also samples appropriate micro-habitats to estimate the total diversity of seepage midges at Mount Rainier. Monitoring wildflower phenology using traditional science, citizen science, and crowdsourcing approaches Scientists and outreach coordinators from the University of Washington and the National Park Service compare several approaches to monitoring wildflower phenology at Mount Rainier National Park. Yellow glacier lilies bloom adjacent to receding snow at Mount Rainier National Park Backyard Bird Bingo When rangers are at home, they love to observe the birds that are found in their community. Practice your bird watching skills with this Backyard Bird Bingo. A 3x3 grid of different types of birds. Mount Rainier Yoga Since it’s not always possible to be at Mount Rainier, we came up with some nature-inspired yoga poses so that the mountain can help you relax wherever you are. A ranger stands on a mat in the forest in a yoga pose with feet together and arms up. American Pika at Mount Rainier National Park: Keeping an eye on one of Mount Rainier's most climate sensitive species Mount Rainier National Park monitors American pika, one of the park's most climate sensitive species. Since 2007, with additional effort from dedicated volunteers and seasonal park staff, 900 individual pika sites have been identified. A small brown mammal with round ears perches on a rock. Geoscientists-in-the-Parks: Bio-Engineering and Geomorphology Technicians Read about the work Jennifer Chan, Bio-Engineering Technician, and Robby Jost, Geomorphology Technician did at Mount Rainier National Park as GIPs in 2016. Intern standing in front of log pile Inferring Movements of Bull Trout Using Geochemical Signatures in Mount Rainier National Park Bull trout, a federally threatened species, are native to several drainages within Mount Rainier National Park, including the Puyallup River Basin and many of its tributaries. The life history and migratory patterns of bull trout in the Puyallup Basin are variable and largely unknown. We aim to use the natural variation in elemental and isotopic tracers of river waters and fish fin rays across the Puyallup Basin to infer movement patterns among different habitats. Bull trout in a measuring tray 1997–1998 El Niño / 1998–1999 La Niña Wind-driven waves and abnormally high sea levels contributed to hundreds of millions of dollars in flood and storm damage in the San Francisco Bay region, including Point Reyes National Seashore, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, and Pinnacles National Monument. In addition to California, the 1997–1998 El Niño and the following 1998–1999 La Niña severely impacted the Pacific Northwest, including many National Park System units. colorful ocean surface mapping image Animal Olympics Can you jump as high as a fox or balance as well as a mountain goat? Test your skills against some of Mount Rainier’s amazing wildlife species. A red fox licking its nose crouches in snow. White River and Sunrise: the captivating northeast corner of Mount Rainier National Park The northeast corner of the park, made up of the White River and Sunrise areas, have drawn in and captivated people for millennia. A short history presents some of the key developments of this area. Sunrise blockhouses with fall color and Mount Rainier in background. Using Hyperspectral Imagery to Study Meadows A study to use statistical models to link characteristics of CubeSat images to peak flowering states of meadows as quantified by MeadoWatch volunteers to allow scientists to correlate fine-resolution (3m) imagery with in-situ imagery. We will then assess whether estimates can predict wildflower phenology. Purple wildflowers fill a meadow along a mountain ridgeline. The Inspiring Mountain Mount Rainier's scenery has inspired people to create many forms of art, from poetry to painting. Be inspired to create some art of your own! Colorful wildflowers fill a meadow underneath a rocky ridgeline. History of the Panoramic Lookout Project Most documentation of the panoramic lookout photos project, which began about 1930 to document areas seen from the lookout system, comes from the US Forest Service. The NPS project began in 1934. Lester Moe worked for the Forest Service taking photos in 1933 and 1934, and later worked for NPS. Several innovations came about from this project: the Osborne photo-recording transit and “special emulsion infra-red sensitive film” not affected by smoke and haze. sample of the panoramic lookout project Bird Banding at Mount Rainier National Park Mount Rainier National Park monitors songbird populations at a MAPS (Monitoring Avian Survival and Productivity) banding station since 2017. The MAPS project is run by park ecologists (with the required permits) and serves as an entry point for many student interns interested in field biology from across the country. A hand holds a bird and spreads one wing to inspect the feathers. Ready Ranger Round Up In a big park like Mount Rainier, it takes a lot of people to take care of this place. There are different types of rangers and each have a special job. Learn about different rangers and draw a ranger of your own. Simple black line drawing of a human figure. Exploring Sounds Learn to "listen" to Mount Rainier’s soundscapes! Then try this activity to monitor the soundscape in your community. Recording equipment set up on tripods on the edge of pond. Plant Scientist Many visitors come to the park to experience the wildflower bloom! Scientists in the park record the date when flowers start to bloom every year to look for patterns. You can be a plant scientist too, by keeping track of the changes plants experience as time goes by in your neighborhood. Colorful wildflowers frame a view of Mount Rainier's rocky slopes. National Park Getaway: Mount Rainier National Park Though most visitors come to Mount Rainier in summer, winter can be a magical and enjoyable time of year to visit! a snowy landscape, dominated by a tall snowy mountain Suffrage in 60 Seconds: How Women Won the West Women in the western states and territories won the first victories in the fight for woman suffrage. But there were difficult battles marked by reversals, defeats, and questionable alliances. Largo group of women wearing white carrying shields with names of western states Slime Molds Slime molds are neither animals nor fungi, but can exhibit characteristics of both. Over 60 species of these mysterious organisms can be found in Mount Rainier National Park. Bright yellow furry and slimy growths cover two crossed branches on a forest floor. Celebrating soils across the National Park System First in a series of three "In Focus" articles that share insights into the near-universal and far-reaching effects of soils on the ecology, management, and enjoyment of our national parks. Fossil soils at Cabrillo National Monument reveal marine deposits How are Landbird Populations Doing in the North Coast and Cascades Network? Landbirds are one of the vital signs monitored in five national parks of the North Coast and Cascades Network. Two recent studies show that for species with discernible trends, most populations are stable or even increasing. A greenish-yellow bird singing from a perch Bat Projects in Parks: North Coast Cascades Network Eleven bat species occur in North Coast Cascades Network Parks. Each species is unique, except that they're all facing threats of some kind in their environments. Learn more about how scientists study bats and what you can do to help. National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map Is the Fate of Whitebark Pine in the Beak of Clark's Nutcracker? Clark’s nutcrackers favor the seeds of whitebark pines, which they cache in great numbers. Whitebark pines are largely dependent on nutcrackers for seed dispersal; many cached seeds are not retrieved and go on to germinate. The tree is in decline due to native bark beetles, a non-native fungus, and climate change. Will the bird turn to other food sources? A recent study analyzes data on both species from the Cascades and Sierra to understand the risk to this mutualism. Gray and black bird with beak open perched in a conifer Series: Panoramic Project Shows How National Parks Change Over Time In the 1930s, panoramic photographs were taken from lookout points. Comparing these images to present-day photographs allows us to understand change over time. Viewing photographs of different eras in the national parks can give many insights on ecosystem processes, as well as simply change over time. The panoramic lookout photographs provide a window on the past and an opportunity to compare to the present with changes to landforms and land cover. Lester Moe documenting park landscapes in the 1930s Series: GIP Participants and Project Highlights [8 Articles] Participants selected for the GIP program have a unique opportunity to contribute to the conservation of America's national parks. Participants may assist with research, mapping, GIS analysis, resource monitoring, hazard mitigation, and education. GIP positions can last from 3 months to one-year. Robyn Henderek Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display at a visitor center Series: Suffrage in Sixty Seconds When was the last time you voted? For the 100th anniversary of the ratification of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution enfranchising women, park rangers at the Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument created these one-minute videos that highlight suffrage subjects and the heroes who made woman suffrage a reality—including those women who continued the fight for full enfranchisement beyond 1920. Alice Paul raises glass above ratification banner Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Coastal Geomorphology—Storms of Record Storms can bring about significant coastal change as well as substantial economic damage and loss in the human environment. Read about a few storms of interest that have since made history due to their unique intensity, characteristics, or impacts. aerial view of a major storm along the northwest coast of the united states and canada Series: Park Air Profiles Clean air matters for national parks around the country. Photo of clouds above the Grand Canyon, AZ Quaternary Period—2.58 MYA to Today Massive ice sheets advanced and retreated across North America during much of the Quaternary, carving landscapes in many parks. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve contains geologic evidence of lower sea level during glacial periods, facilitating the prehistoric peopling of the Americas. The youngest rocks in the NPS include the lava of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and the travertine at Yellowstone National Park, which can be just a few hours old. fossil bone bed and murals of mammoths Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display in a visitor center Wildland Fire in Lodgepole Pine The bark of lodgepoles is thin, which does not protect the trunks from scorching by fire. They die easily when a fire passes through. However, the serotinous cones give lodgepole pine a special advantage for spreading seeds for the next generation. Close-up of the needles of a lodgepole pine. Data Manager Profile: Kristen Bonebrake Meet Kristen Bonebrake, Data Manager for the North Coast and Cascades Network Inventory & Monitoring Network, and discover the important role that data managers play in protecting the natural resources of our parks! Explore Kristen's journey—from counting roadkill as an intern at Saguaro National Park, to collaborating with bright minds around the country to solve the complex challenges facing our nation's most special places. Kristen kneels on a rock in front of a dramatic snow-capped mountain scene. Listening for Owls: A Multi-agency Collaboration to Preserve Spotted Owl Habitat Across the West For over 25 years, biologists from the National Park Service and several other agencies have collected spotted owl monitoring data to inform forest management that is guided by the multi-agency Northwest Forest Plan. Yet traditional field surveys for spotted owls have become less effective as their numbers have dwindled. Thus in 2021, the Northwest Forest Plan’s spotted owl monitoring design is transitioning to remote acoustic monitoring (also known as passive monitoring). Audio recording unit, with microphones on either side, mounted on a tree trunk. The Northwestern Bat Hub: Banding Together for Bat Monitoring Across the West The first detection of white-nose syndrome in the American West in 2016 highlighted an urgent need to better understand the distribution and ecology of around twenty species of bats in Western states. To do this, ecologists in several Inventory & Monitoring Networks and National Parks joined with the USGS and ten other university and agency partners to expand the North American Bat Monitoring Program to sites across the West and develop the Northwestern Bat Hub. Close-up of a western mastiff bat in a gloved hand. Rangers, Not Rangerettes Increasing national park visitation and a lack of qualified men due to World War I, coupled with educated women being in the right place at the right time, created opportunities for a few more women to become park rangers in 1918. Studio Photo of Clare Hodges The Unisex Uniform R. Bryce Workman’s book National Park Service Uniforms: Breeches, Blouses, and Skirt 1918-1991, published by the NPS in 1998, has been the go-to resource for the history of women’s uniforms. Although it contains much useful information and photographic documentation, some of his assumptions must be challenged if we are to fully understand how the uniform reflects women’s history in the NPS. The 1920 official ranger uniform coat was similar to the authorized 1917 pattern. Changing Clothes By the end of the 1930s, skirts were the common exemption to the standard uniform for women. As they ditched the breeches, they also lost their iconic Stetson hats. Women wanted more comfortable, better fitting, and more flattering uniforms. Many of the details of how changes came about are fuzzy, and it seems that the first separate women’s uniform adopted in 1941 was never implemented. Guide Olive Johnson at Carlsbad Caverns is wearing the WAC-style jacket at Carlsbad Caverns, Substitute Rangers As the 1940s dawned, the United States was still dealing with the economic woes of the Great Depression and trying not to get drawn in WWII. Even as it continued to manage New Deal Program work in national and state parks, the NPS remained understaffed as a government bureau. The emergency relief workers and about 15 percent of NPS staff enlisted or were drafted during the first couple of years of WWII. Winifred Tada, 1940. (Courtesy of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin) Ten Tips for Visiting Mount Rainier National Park Plan Like a Park Ranger and follow these tips to make the most of your visit to Mount Rainier National Park! Mount Rainier National Park looks forward to welcoming you this summer. A glaciated mountain with its peak wrapped in clouds. Questioning Mountain Lupines, Grasshoppers, and the Community of Scientists Questions about leaves and social justice and bears were just a few that worked their way into Dr. Meera Lee Sethi’s head recently while conducting research on plants and insects in Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. wildflowers in a meadow with mountain in the background and reflected in the lake Cascade Mountain Land-Use: 9,000 Years of Human Presence on Mount Rainier Greg Burchardt describes his time as archeologist for Mount Rainer NP, where he conducted systematic surveys and small to moderate size testing projects to help understand previously little known precontact usage and occupation of high-altitude landscapes such as those found in the park. Mapping Amphibian Occurrence on the Road System at Mount Rainier National Park Mapping amphibian presence along several roads at Mount Rainier National Park to help mitigate road-related impacts to amphibians. A frog sits on a paved road. Volcanic Processes—Lahars Lahars are volcanic mudflows and are among the most destructive of volcanic phenomena. Lahars present significant geohazards since they can travel great distances down river valleys and impact population centers away from the immediate area of a volcano. wide river valley filled with sediment and snowy peaks in the distance Sub-Plinian Eruptions Sub-Plinian eruptions create high eruption columns that are unsteady. Pyroclastic flows and lahars also form during these eruptions from composite volcanoes. volcanic ash eruption Plinian Eruptions Plinian eruptions are more intense than Sub-Plinean eruptions. Eruption columns may extend into the stratosphere and spread out in an umbrella shape and produce widespread ash deposits. Pyroclastic flows and lahars also occur during these eruptions. black and white photo May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption North Coast and Cascades Network Delivers a New Generation of Vegetation Maps North Coast and Cascades Network has developed vegetation maps for Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks in partnership with the Institute for Natural Resources. Two field crewmembers collecting vegetation data in a lush forest Fumaroles Fumaroles are places where steam and volcanic gases are emitted. They are present on most active volcanoes. The occurrence of fumaroles and other geothermal features such as hot springs, geysers, and mud pots are important signs that a volcano is active. steam vents on the crater rim Magmatic Eruptions Magmatic eruptions include fresh lava or tephra from a magma source. Magmatic eruptions range from quiet effusions of lava to extremely explosive eruptions that can blow apart mountains and send ash clouds around the globe. volcanic eruption with glowing lava seen at night Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background Composite Volcanoes (Stratovolcanoes) Composite volcanoes are made up of both lava flows and pyroclastic deposits and usually experience multiple eruptions over long periods of time. Mount Rainier is a composite volcano. photo of a snow covered volcanic peak Cinder Cones Cinder cones are typically simple volcanoes that consist of accumulations of ash and cinders around a vent. Sunset Crater Volcano and Capulin Volcano are cinder cones. photo of a dry grassy field with a cinder cone in the distance Series: Volcanic Features Volcanoes vary greatly in size and shape. Volcanoes also may have a variety of other features, which in turn, have a great range in diversity of form, size, shape, and permanence. Many volcanoes have craters at their summits and/or at the location of other vents. Some craters contain water lakes. Lakes of molten or solidified lava may exist on some volcanoes. Fumaroles and other geothermal features are a product of heat from magma reservoirs and volcanic gases. photo of a lava lake in a summit crater Anna Louise Strong Anna Louise Strong, a prolific writer and journalist, brought socialist politics to the mountains when she co-founded Cooperative Campers of the Pacific Northwest in 1916. As the outdoor club’s first president, Strong strove to make Mount Rainier National Park accessible to Seattle’s working class by providing affordable transportation, lodgings, food, and supplies to campers. Young woman in large hat and high-necked shirt with large button smiles at camera Series: Volcano Types Volcanoes vary in size from small cinder cones that stand only a few hundred feet tall to the most massive mountains on earth. photo of a volcanic mountain with snow and ice Series: Volcanic Eruption Styles Categories in this traditional classification are based on the eruption styles of particular volcanoes. These magmatic eruption styles are listed in the order of increasing explosivity. volcanic eruption with glowing lava Mount Rainier: A Cold Water Refuge - Monitoring Glacial Stream Habitat Mount Rainier National Park is collaborating with partners to understand water temperatures within glacially-fed streams. As climate change causes warming water temperatures, Mount Rainier streams serve as a refuge for fish and other cold water dependent aquatic species. A river emerges from the terminus of a large glacier. The Winds of Change The history of women rangers in the National Park Service (NPS) was believed to start with Yosemite and Mount Rainier national parks in 1918, followed by Yellowstone in 1920. New information confirms that Wind Cave National Park, which had a third of the visitors of these other parks in 1917, hired the first woman ranger in 1916 and the second in 1918. Esther Brazell in a cap and gown. Fish & Amphibian Inventory: Genetic and Environmental DNA (eDNA) Sampling Through the sampling of environmental DNA (eDNA) in water, park staff can gather a full picture of where fish and amphibians are present in Mount Rainier National Park. A woman and a man in waders kneel in a shallow pond while looking at a fish in a white tray. Ranger Roll Call, 1940-1949 Only a small number of women held temporary ranger positions in national parks during World War II. Carlsbad Caverns National Park, national monuments in the Southwest, and historical sites in the East continued to employ more women. Although a few women veterans benefitted from post-war veteran hiring programs, most veterans were men and permanent positions became even more difficult for women to get. Catherine Byrnes and Barbara Dickinson stand outside modeling the NPS uniform. Dragonfly Mercury Project: Mount Rainier National Park 2020 Data Summary The Dragonfly Mercury Project (DMP) is a national surveillance, monitoring, and research program that brings together citizen engagement and education with scientific efforts to understand mercury (Hg) risks to protected areas. 2020 was the seventh year that Mount Rainier NP participated in the DMP! A gloved hand holds up a dragonfly larvae in a small plastic bag. Pyroclastic Flows and Ignimbrites, and Pyroclastic Surges Pyroclastic flows and surges are among the most awesome and most destructive of all volcanic phenomena. Pyroclastic flow deposits are found in at least 21 units of the National Park System. photo of a cloud of ash and dust moving down a mountain side. Volcanic Ash, Tephra Fall, and Fallout Deposits Volcanic ash, pumice, and tephra ejected in volcanic eruptions ultimately falls back to Earth where it covers the ground. These deposits may be the thin dustings or may be many tens of feet (meters) thick near an eruptive vent. Volcanic ash and tephra can present geohazards that are present great distances from the erupting volcano. photo of a bluff with exposed fine-grained volcanic ash and pumice. The Bear that Bit Paul's Finger Emma Rockenbeck is using her white gloves to hold the photograph of 'The Bear that Bit Paul's Finger". Featuring the photograph of the bear that bit Paul's finger, hiding behind a tree.

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