by Alex Gugel , all rights reserved

Oregon Caves

National Monument & Preserve - Oregon

Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve is a protected area in the northern Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon in the United States. Oregon Caves is a solutional cave, with passages totaling about 15,000 feet (4,600 m), formed in marble. The parent rock was originally limestone that metamorphosed to marble during the geologic processes that created the Klamath Mountains, including the Siskiyous. Although the limestone formed about 190 million years ago, the cave itself is no older than a few million years. Activities at the park include cave touring, hiking, photography, and wildlife viewing. One of the park trails leads through the forest to Big Tree, which at 13 feet (4.0 m) is the widest Douglas fir known in Oregon.

maps

Map of the Applegate Sub-Unit in Southwest Oregon Protection District. Published by the Oregon Department of Forestry.Southwest Oregon - Applegate Sub-Unit 2014

Map of the Applegate Sub-Unit in Southwest Oregon Protection District. Published by the Oregon Department of Forestry.

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Wild Rivers Ranger District (south) in Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest (NF) in Oregon. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Rogue River-Siskiyou MVUM - Wild Rivers RD South 2016

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Wild Rivers Ranger District (south) in Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest (NF) in Oregon. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Siskiyou Mountains Ranger District in Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest (NF) in Oregon. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Rogue River-Siskiyou MVUM - Siskiyou Mountains RD 2016

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Siskiyou Mountains Ranger District in Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest (NF) in Oregon. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

https://www.nps.gov/orca https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oregon_Caves_National_Monument_and_Preserve Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve is a protected area in the northern Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon in the United States. Oregon Caves is a solutional cave, with passages totaling about 15,000 feet (4,600 m), formed in marble. The parent rock was originally limestone that metamorphosed to marble during the geologic processes that created the Klamath Mountains, including the Siskiyous. Although the limestone formed about 190 million years ago, the cave itself is no older than a few million years. Activities at the park include cave touring, hiking, photography, and wildlife viewing. One of the park trails leads through the forest to Big Tree, which at 13 feet (4.0 m) is the widest Douglas fir known in Oregon. Deep within the Siskiyou Mountains are dark, twisting passages that await your discovery. Eons of acidic water seeping into marble rock created and decorated the wondrous “Marble Halls of Oregon.” Join a tour, get a taste of what caving is all about, and explore a mountain from the inside and out! Take 199 to Cave Junction, Oregon. Turn onto OR-46 (a Chevron gas station is on the corner). Follow OR-46 for 20 miles to the Monument and Preserve. Illinois Valley Visitor Center The center provides information about the area, including up to the moment cave tour information at the Oregon Caves National Monument. Same day tickets for cave tours are available at the center Memorial Day Weekend through Labor Day. Afternoon wait times can be long in the summer. Buying tickets before driving to the park can save a lot of time and hassle. (Reservations can be bought up to one day in advance of the day of visit on Recreation.gov.) In Cave Junction, from Highway 199 coming from either direction, turn onto Highway 46 (Caves Highway). A Chevron gas station is located on the corner where you turn. The Illinois Valley Visitor Center is located 300 feet up the road on the right. Oregon Caves Visitor Center Located at the Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve; cave tour tickets, bookstore, exhibits and park information is available here. Cave Creek Campground Sleep under the boughs of an old growth forest beside Cave Creek. This campground is located 15 miles up Highway 46 from Cave Junction and just four miles from the cave entrance. The campground has fire rings, water and vault toilets. The spaces are too small for large RVs or trailers and no pull through sites. The campground offers 17 sites available on a first-come, first-serve basis. Maximum vehicle length: 20 feet. Campsite Fee 10.00 Sites include tent space, grills, tables and a small paved parking spot. Pit toilets and water are located throughout the campground. 5 of the sites can accommodate RV's up to 20'. There are no individual hookups or electricity available. Please only park on pavement, and keep your campsite clean to avoid bears. The camping fee is per night and limited to 14 days. Family enjoying Cave Creek Campground Family sitting around a campfire at Cave Creek Campground Family sitting around a campfire at Cave Creek Campground Cave Creek Campgound Camp Site Campsite nestled amongst the trees at Cave Creek Campground Cave Creek Campgound Campsite Campground Day Use Area Cave Creek Campgound Day Use Area Cave Creek Campgound Day Use Area Milller's Chapel Miller's Chapel at Oregon Caves Miller's Chapel at Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve Mountain Meadows at Bigelow Lakes Mountain Meadows at Bigelow Lakes Mountain Meadows at Bigelow Lakes at Oregon Caves National Preserve Banana Grove formations Cave speliothems Speliothems in the Banana Grove room, Oregon Caves. Speleothems Flowstone and drapery in a dome pit Paradise Lost California Groundcone Curious about the California groundcone in Oregon and California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Purple groundcone standing next to similar looking Douglas-fir cone. Carpenter Ant Curious about carpenter ants? Explore their natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. close up photo of carpenter ant Pileated Woodpecker Curious about the pileated woodpecker in Oregon and California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Face and front of a woodpecker, with black body, red crest, and small blue berry in its beak. Wildland Fire in Douglas Fir: Western United States Douglas fir is widely distributed throughout the western United States, as well as southern British Columbia and northern Mexico. Douglas fir is able to survive without fire, its abundantly-produced seeds are lightweight and winged, allowing the wind to carry them to new locations where seedlings can be established. Close-up of Douglas fir bark and needles. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Oregon Caves National Monument & Preserve, Oregon Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. cave formations Pacific Poison Oak Curious about Pacific poison oak in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. A dense thicket of wavy edged, green leaves with some smaller, shiny, reddish leaves in the center. Checking Oregon Caves' Vital Signs In 2012, the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network—a small team of NPS scientists—began monitoring natural resources, called "vital signs," in Oregon Caves and nearby parks. Vital signs indicate park health and serve as red flags if conditions deteriorate. Results from monitoring these vital signs support park managers’ efforts to make science-based management decisions. Learn about the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Division and its work in Oregon Caves. Marble cave walls with brownish white layers. Giant Water Bug Curious about giant water bugs in Oregon and California? Explore their natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network.” Brown, flattened but with many whitish, columnar eggs attached to its back. Anna's Hummingbird Curious about the Anna's hummingbird in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Small, green hummingbird with narrow bill and iridescent rose-colored feathers on throat and crown. White Alder Curious about the white alder in Oregon and California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Oval, dark green and ridged leaves of a white alder, with small, round, cone-like female catkins. Actinobacteria Curious about Actinobacteria in southern Oregon and northern California caves? Explore their natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. golden-brown interior cave wall with person wearing helmet and cave clothing crouched at its base Pacific Border Province The Pacific Border straddles the boundaries between several of Earth's moving plates on the western margin of North America. This region is one of the most geologically young and tectonically active in North America. The generally rugged, mountainous landscape of this province provides evidence of ongoing mountain-building. Drakes Estero in Point Reyes National Seashore. NPS photo/Sarah Codde Orange Sulphur Curious about the orange sulphur butterfly in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly "Featured Creature," brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Yellowish-orange butterfly with dark band along the wing edges perches with wings open. Ruffed Grouse Curious about the ruffed grouse in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Grouse with reddish brown and white mottling and streaking, a head crest and a dark tail band. UV-C Light Could Control White-Nose Syndrome, but First Let’s Ask the Cave Biota White-nose syndrome causes bats to wake up more frequently during hibernation, wasting precious fat reserves, which often leads to starvation. With the fungus that causes it having spread to the West Coast, Klamath Inventory & Monitoring Network scientists and park staff are checking the health of local bat populations and collaborating with researchers to find a treatment before it potentially turns up at the network’s two cave parks: Oregon Caves NM and Lava Beds NM. Brazilian freetailed bat under UV light. Evaluating Wild and Scenic River Eligibility Using Stream Monitoring Data What does it take to become part of the Wild and Scenic Rivers system? Among other things, a stretch of river must contain exceptional recreation, scenery, fisheries, wildlife, or other “Outstandingly Remarkable Values.” Klamath Network monitoring data may help to determine this for streams in the recently expanded Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve. People examine a narrow, rocky creek surrounded by lush greenery. Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Physiographic Provinces Descriptions of the physiographic provinces of the United States, including maps, educational material, and listings of Parks for each. George B. Dorr, founder of Acadia National Park Whiteleaf Manzanita Curious about whiteleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos viscida) in southern Oregon and central to northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. cluster of oval, gray-green leaves on branches, with reddish, berries that look like little apples Electrified Cat's Tail Moss Curious about electrified cat's tail moss in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Electrified cat’s tail moss in its dominant, gametophyte form. Douglas's Squirrel Curious about the Douglas's squirrel in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Medium-sized squirrel with tawny belly, gray back, whitish eye ring, and tufts on ears, in a tree. Scientist Profile: Alice Chung-MacCoubrey, Biologist and I&M Program Manager Meet Alice Chung-MacCoubrey, ecologist and program manager for the Klamath Inventory & Monitoring Network! Discover how Alice followed her passion for wildlife and the outdoors to the National Park Service Inventory & Monitoring Program, and learn about her work studying bats. Biologist holds bat with gloved hands. Dragon Cladonia Curious about dragon cladonia lichen in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Pale green cluster of secondary vegetative growth with brown round discs on top of moss. Blanket Cave National Youth Park—Activity Enjoy a fun activity and learn about caves even when you can't get out to a park. In this activity you will build your own cave and learn how to make it like a "real" natural cave. Find out about cave formations and wildlife, and how to be safe and care for caves. New "Blanket Cave National Youth Parks" are springing up all across America! Join the fun! cartoon drawing of a childs and a park ranger exploring a cave Bigleaf Maple Curious about the bigleaf maple in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Lush ferns and mosses grow on the trunk of a large maple tree. Vaux's Swift Curious about the Vaux's swift in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. A small, pale brown, cigar-shaped bird with narrow, pointed wings, in flight. Coast Douglas-fir Curious about Douglas-fir in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly "Featured Creature," brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Six people in front of a very large Douglas-fir at Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve. Pacific Madrone Curious about Pacific madrone in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly "Featured Creature," brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Close up Pacific madrone bark Oregon Grape Curious about Oregon grape in southern Oregon? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly "Featured Creature," brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Bright green, shiny leaves of a tall Oregon grape with a cluster of round blue-black berries. Tree Lungwort Curious about tree lungwort in northern California and southern Oregon? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly "Featured Creature," brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Close of of tree lungwort's upper and lower surfaces American Black Bear Curious about the American black bear in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Black-colored black bear with a dandelion in its mouth.
Oregon Caves National Monument Oregon National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior need need park ranger with visitors Caption to come View from the Cliff Nature Trail Intimate Adventure Outside Time Tall trees reach skyward, framing the curves as you climb a road built specifically to reach these high-elevation caverns. At the end of the climb, breathe in the medley of fragrances exhaled by the ancient forest that blankets the Siskiyou Mountains. Take a short stroll. Listen. Follow the sound of a creek. Discover where it tumbles out of the rock. Feel the wet, cold breath of the cave on a hot summer day—both foreboding and beckoning you. Nearby, notice how the Chateau curls gracefully around the creek and cave entrance, embracing it. The rustic exterior of Port Orford cedar bark blends with the surrounding forest. Explore inside the Chateau. Discover the creek that babbles through the dining room. Relax in the lobby’s pleasing mix of forest and cave ambience. Look over its wall map showing all the nearby hiking opportunities. Discover Oregon Caves National Monument! To Protect and Connect a Free-flowing Watershed Runoff from high elevations provides most of the West’s fresh water. A proposed new monument boundary would encompass the watershed of Oregon Caves and Cave Creek (map), which helped carve the cave—and whose waters run through the Chateau dining room! This watershed is a tributary of the Illinois River, one of the last free-flowing, undammed Pacific Northwest rivers—and therefore important to spawning salmon and sea-run trout. Water supports most life as we know it, including salamanders, snails, and orchids. Chalet Visitor Center, near the cave entrance Big Tree Trail Waiting for Your Cave Tour? Chateau Built from 1932 to 1934 of local materials in the rustic tradition, the Chateau features marble rock work—including for its grand fireplace—and massive pillars and beams of Douglas fir. Cave Creek water runs through the Chateau dining room. Historic, colorful Monterey-style furniture from the 1930s graces some rooms and also common areas. “Improve the day” was the cry of intrepid 1800s travelers. It still makes sense: Don’t just wait for your cave tour when so many other intimate adventures await you at historic Oregon Caves National Monument. Rather than merely waiting while you wait, take one of several short hikes or tour the Chateau, a National Historic Landmark set in a National Historic District. Or tickle your taste buds with a real, old-fashioned milkshake in the 1930s-era soda fountain. If you have a longer wait, you might hike the Big Tree Trail described at right. And be sure to check on today’s ranger-led activities for kids. Kids can learn more about fossils or how to tie the knots cavers need to know—and earn a Junior Ranger Trail Button or Junior Ranger Badge. Explore the Chalet Visitor Center The original chalet, the first permanent structure here, was built in 1924. The third floor and archway were added in 1942. The chalet houses the Visitor Center and a book and gift shop, where you buy cave tour tickets. Cave guides now live in the upper two floors in summer. Hike a Trail Take the path at the back of the Chalet Visitor Center’s archway (photo above). This Big Tree Trail leads 1.3 miles one-way to Oregon’s widest-girth Douglas fir. A loop trail option is 3.3 miles long. Allow two to three hours. Elevation gain: 1,100 feet. Also ask about the No Name and Cliff nature trails. Know how long your hike is and let someone know what trail you take. Be prepared. Take and drink plenty of water. Wear good walking shoes. Wear a hat or use sun block. Ask a ranger about trail conditions. Cougars/mountain lions Cougars are rarely seen and risk of attack is low. Give them an escape route. Try to look big. Pick small children up. Back away slowly. If the cougar acts aggressive, wave your arms, yell, and throw things at it. If attacked, fight back. Calypso orchid l a c e h o l d e r Pacific i m asalamander ge Jaguar and grizzly bear fossils Crews mapping the cave in 1995 found the most complete jaguar fossil in the United States (jaw, right). In the Chalet Visitor Center you can see and touch models of it and a grizzly bear skull fossil. Grizzly bear bones found here may be the oldest ever found in North America. Roth’s forest snail Teeming with Life Areas with many species and lots of members of species are biodiverse, rich with life. The park’s varied earth materials and land forms, its geodiversity, makes it even more biodiverse. Species have migrated here from the coast, the north, and deserts, adding even more richness: 40 times more fungi and bacteria live here than in nearby areas. Pileated woodpeckers (above) live here in the mature, old-growth forest.
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior NPS / christopher willis Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve Visitors Center Exhibit Miller’s Chapel Cave Tour Schedule Cave Tour Fees No Cave Tours Tuesday and Wednesday March 19 – May 7 March 19 to Memorial Day weekend 10 am – 4 pm* After Memorial Day weekend to Labor Day 9 am – 6 pm After Labor Day to Columbus Day 10 am – 5 pm After Columbus Day to first Saturday in November 10 am – 4 pm Early November to late May: No Cave Tours offered 15 years and younger 16 years and older *Subject to change, please call or check website for more information. $7.00 per person $10.00 per person Passes There is no entrance fee at Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve. If you plan to visit other parks with an entrance fee, learn more about the America the Beautiful Pass. Tour Reservations: www.recreation.gov Reserve ahead of time; standby tours sell out fast, especially in the summer. For daily information on tour availability stop at the Illinois Valley Visitor Center, 201 Caves Hwy, Cave Junction, OR. Candlelight Tours and Off-Trail Adventure Tours Candlelight Tours are offered daily during the summer at 6 pm. Children must be 8-years old for this tour. Off-Trail Adventure Tour available summer season only. Make a reservation at: www.recreation.gov Cave Creek Campground Be Prepared for your Cave Tour The Discovery Tour experience lasts two-hours from chieck-in to finish. The route is moderately strenuous and is not recommended for people with heart, breathing, or walking problems. The route is 1-mile, requires frequent twisting and bending, and has more than 500 uneven steps. Temperature inside the cave is 44°F (7°C). Children Children must be at least 42˝ inches tall. Children may not be carried. 0 0 Oregon Caves National Preserve Other Activities Take a hike on one of our trails (open year-round). Become a junior ranger, wander through the Exhibit, or just relax in the historic Chateau lounge. Additional ranger-led activities offered the summer. Riv ue g Ro 10 Miles er 5 234 Accessibility Only the first room of the cave tour is accessible to persons with mobility impairments, including wheelchairs. Click here for more information. North 62 10 Kilometers Grants Pass Illin ois er 101 140 Medford 199 Riv 238 PACIFIC OCEAN Cave Junction Ashland 46 66 Brookings OREGON Oregon Caves National Monument CALIFORNIA 5 N AT I O N A L F O R E S T S 199 iver For lodging and dining information and reservations at this National Historic Landmark call (541) 592-3400 or visit www.oregoncaveschateau.com. Limited camping is available at Cave Creek Campground before you get to the caves. Help us Protect our Bats! To prevent the spread of White-nose Syndrome do not bring clothes or equipment used in another cave or mine. ma Kla Food and Lodging Redwood National and State Parks th R Crescent City Yreka Do Not Trust Your GPS. Call 541-592-2100 if you need directions. www.nps.gov/orca www.facebook.com/ OregonCavesNPS Oregon Caves National Monument 19000 Caves Highway Cave Junction, Oregon 97523 ph. (541) 592-2100 fx. (541) 592-3981
LEGEND 15 National Preserve Boundary National Monument Boundary Caves Highway/OR Highway 46 Forest Service Roads Creeks, Streams Lakes, Ponds Hiking Trails Mile Marker Big Tree Campground 16 HWY 46 17 18 FS079 To William s→ HWY 46 Cave Creek Trail FS070 Fire E scape 19 Road FS 960 Pa n Old Growth Trail th er Cr ee k eC Lak k k ree ee Cave Cr No Name Trail No Nam e Cree k Cliff Nature Trail Big Tree Trail Lake Mountain Trail Bigelow Lakes Mt. Elijah
Oregon Caves National Monument National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Hiking Trails V U 46 C ve Ca e re Cave Creek Trail Pan t her USFS 960 Cre ek Old Growth Trail k i ! Big Tree Trail No Name C reek No Name Trail @ ! Cliff Nature Trail o Up pe r BIG TREE Ca ve Cr ee k Mt Elijah Trail 0 500 OREGON CAVES NATIONAL MONUMENT 1,000 1,500 2,000 Feet Limestone Trail November 2010
Oregon Caves National Monument AMPHIBIANS Amphibians are disappearing; and why we should be concerned. Never have there been so many amphibian extinctions in such a short time span as today. Amphibians are an important indicator species that can help to determine the health of an ecosystem. Our lives are intertwined with these moist-skinned creatures, we breathe the same air, and drink the same water. When extinctions occur among species whose roots on this planet surpass ours by millions of years, we should be listening to what they have to say... Amphibians have an intimate link to water as part of their life cycle but as adults they may be found in many places along trails or sometimes inside Oregon Caves. The frog in the well knows nothing of the great ocean. - Japanese proverb. tailed frog The Tailed Frog is Ascaphus truei. It belongs to a primitive family of frogs that has a ‘tail’ to internally fertilize the eggs. Other characteristics of this genus are that it has muscles to wag the tail, free floating ribs(which other frogs don’t have) and its tongue is attached at the back of the mouth, unlike other frogs. Tailed frogs live in and near rock-strewn streams that have cold fast-flowing water. Pacific tree frog spotted frog The Pacific Tree Frog is Hyla regilla. It is one of the smallest but loudest amphibians of the Pacific Northwest. It can change colors to green and brown tones in a few minutes. The color change is related to the temperature and amount of moisture in the air, not the backround color as in most amphibians. This color change gives it protection of camouflage. The Oregon Spotted Frog is Rana pretiosa. Its status is endangered. The specialized habitat requirements of the Oregon Spotted Frog have made it extremely vulnerable to extinction. The frog lives in floodplain wetlands associated with permanent water bodies and prefers the warm, shallow edge of marshes to lay its eggs. The three salamanders illustrated below are all in the same family, Plethodontidae. These are called lungless salamanders because they have no lungs and breathe by absorbing oxygen through their skin. All western species are completely terrestrial. They live under rocks, bark, logs, and in rotten wood and animal burrows. Terrestrial forms rarely enter water. They lay eggs in moist places where the eggs develop directly into juveniles, completely bypassing the free-living larval stage characteristic of most amphibians. ensatina Pacific giant rough skinned newt The Rough Skin Newt (Taricha granulosa) is commonly found in lakes near to Oregon Caves. Oregon has only one species of this family. The smaller individuals are terrestrial and posses a skin which feels rough because of many fine bumps or papilliae over it. Adults may be found in water, where the skin becomes smoother. In coloration they range from light to dark brown on the back, and from yellow to deep orange on the belly. The Pacific Giant Salamander is in the family Dicamptodontidae. Adults wander forests during the wet season and then retreat to streams during the breeding season. Adults can grow up to twelve inches. This salamander can also bark when frightened. Salamander fossils of Oregon Caves. Del Norte salamander clouded salamander Less than two years ago, an unusual type of fossil was discovered in Oregon Caves. Dr Jim Meade of Northern Arizona University did some studies on small fossils (micro fossils) near one of the entrances to the cave. Among the many fossils found were an unusually large number of salamander fossils. These delicate bones were probably preserved by the stable temperatures of the cave as well as the alkaline soils of the cave which are known to favor the preservation of bones. As a result of the research, Oregon Caves in now recognized as one of the few salamander fossil localities in the world.
Oregon Caves National Monument OWLS Saw-whet Owl The Saw-Whet Owl is a tiny, tuftless owl rarely seen unless found roosting in dense young evergreens or thickets. Its call is usually a series of short whistles. Great Horned Owl Great Horned Owls are twice the size of a crow and can lift small mammals as large as a skunk. They live in forests, woodlots, and streamsides, and open country. The male makes a series of hoots – Hoo! Hu-hu-hu, Hoo! Hoo! The female hoots are higher and shorter in sequence. Spotted Owl Owls swoop silently through the night sky to feed on rodents, birds, reptiles, fish, and large insects. We have four types of owls at the Oregon Caves National Monument – Saw-Whet Owls, Spotted Owls, Great Horned Owls, and Screech Owls. The Spotted Owls have large dark eyes and puffy round heads. They are endangered because they live in mature old growth forests – many of which have been cut down. Their call is a series of sharp, high pitched hoots usually in groups of three. Screech Owl Screech Owls are the common, small “eared” owl of towns, orchards, and woodlots. They are also found in wooded canyons. Their song is a quavering whistle. Screech owls are often the prey of spotted owls. Owl Pellet Owls eat their food without chewing. When their stomach is finished digesting the owl regurgitates the fur and bones in a small ball called an “owl pellet”. Owl pellets can often be found under locations where owls roost. You can tell a lot about where they hunt by the type of bones you find in their pellets. The chart below provides some help in identifying the bones you may find. skull jaw shoulder blades front legs hip hind legs rib vertebrae
Oregon Caves National Monument REPTILES Needle-like Teeth tick …and a spike-shaped scales help the sharp-tailed snake grapple with its favorite meal: banana slugs. They may also prey on snails, making them excellent neighbors for gardeners. fence lizard Resistance to Disease banana slug Resistance to Toxins In areas with high number of western fence lizards, incidents of Lyme disease fall below the average found elsewhere. Although fence lizards can play host to other parasites such as deer ticks, the lizard has a natural defense against Lyme disease. The valley garter snake is one of the few predators of the rough-skinned newt. The newt secretes a neurotoxin from its skin that can be fatal to other predators, but the valley garter has a natural resistance to the poison. Reptiles can be specialized predators or cunning elusive prey. Which ones can you find along the paths and trails of Oregon Caves. Ringneck Snakes garter snake …when corned by predators or humans first raise their tails, then coil forward to make themselves appear more menacing. If the threat doesn’t leave, the snake feigns death and excretes foul-smelling saliva from the corners of its mouth. Deceptive Tails The western skink, a lizard, isn’t called the blue blur for nothing. It is a fast and elusive runner that takes refuge in rocky crannies. The skink, if caught, can drop its blue tail and leave it thrashing to distract a predator while making its getaway. The rubber boa, a snake, uses its tail of fused bone to make false strikes, distracting a distraught mother mouse while at the same time devouring her young. king snake gopher snake Mimicry Some animals imitate other species to aid in their personal defense. The mountain king snake has coloration very similar to the poisonous coral snake—his first line of defense is deception. The Pacific gopher snake puffs up, hisses, and rattles her tail, mimicking the warning of rattlesnakes. Incidentally, gopher snakes have been known to attack and eat rattlesnakes. wester skink Human Impacts rubber boa While some reptile populations in Oregon are still healthy, many of these species are considered endangered or of special concern. Since many reptiles are specifically adapted to only one type of environment or food source, damage to these resources decreases the chances of species survival. Let’s tread lightly where reptiles roam and remember to take only pictures, leave only footprints, and preserve the habitat that supports reptiles.
BIRDS of OREGON CAVES NATIONAL MONUMENT ______ Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) ______ Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) ______ Blue Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) ______ Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) ______ Mountain Quail (Oreortyx pictus) ______ Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus) ______ Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter Striatus) ______ Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) ______ Cooper’s Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) ______ Red-breasted Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus ruber) ______ Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) ______ Western Wood-Pewee (Contopus Sordidulus) ______ Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) ______ Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus borealis) ______ Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) ______ Hammond’s Flycatcher (Empidonax hammondii) ______ Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) ______ Dusky Flycatcher (Empidonax oberholseri) ______ American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) ______ Western Flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis) ______ Western Screech-Owl (Otus kennicottii) ______ Vaux’s Swift (Chaetura vauxi) ______ Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) ______ Violet-green Swallow (Tachycineta thalassina) ______ Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) ______ American Crow (Corvux brachyrhynchos) Locality: _________________________________ ______ Northern Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium gnoma) ______ Common Raven (Corvux corax) Weather: ________________________________ ______ Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) ______ Steller’s Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri) ______ Band-tailed Pidgeon (Columba fasciata) ______ Clark’s Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) ______ Rock Dove (Columba livia) ______ Gray Jay (Perisoreus canadensis) ______ Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorous rufus) ______ Mountain Chickadee (Parus gambeli) Observers: ______________________________ Date: ___________________________________ The following is a list of birds that have been sighted at or near Oregon Caves National Monument. Seasonal variations and relative abundances of the individuals are not included because of insufficient information available for the area at this time. Please report any significant sightings to the Oregon Caves Ranger Station as this is very helpful to our research. ______ Chestnut-backed Chickadee (Parus rufescens) ______ Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa) ______ Brewer’s Blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus) ______ Bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus) ______ American Robin (Turdus migratorius) ______ Western Tanager (Piranga ludoviciana) ______ White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) ______ Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius) ______ White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia Leucophrys) ______ Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis) ______ Townsend’s Solitaire (Myadestes townsendi) ______ Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla) ______ Brown Creeper (Certhia americana) ______ Swainson’s Thrush (Catharus ustulatus) ______ Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina) ______ House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) ______ Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus) ______ Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca) ______ Winter Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes) ______ Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides) ______ Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) ______ American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) ______ Solitary Vireo (Vireo solitarius) ______ Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) ______ Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) ______ Hutton’s Vireo (Vireo huttoni) ______ Rofous-sided Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) ______ Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus) ______ Green-tailed Towhee (Pipilo chlorurus)) ______ Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata) ______ Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis) ______ Townsend’s Warbler (Dendroica townsendi) ______ Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus) ______ Hermit Warbler (Dendroica occidentalis) ______ Lazuli Bunting (Passerina amoena) ______ Black-throated Gray Warbler (Dendroica nigrescens) ______ Purple Finch (Carpodacus purpureus) ______ Nashville Warbler (Vermivora ruficapilla) ______ Cassin’s Finch (Carpodacus cassinii) ______ MacGillivray’s Warbler (Oporornis tolmiei) ______ Evening Grosbeak (Coccothraustes vespertina) ______ Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata) ______ American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) ______ Wilson’s Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) ______ Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus) Oregon Caves National Monument is a Natural Area of the National Park Service. Regulations prohibit the feeding or molesting of any of the wildlife in the Monument. Trees, flowers, shrubs, rocks, formations and all natural features are to be left unaltered for other visitors to enjoy.
OREGON CAVES NATIONAL MONUMENT Big Leaf Maple (Acer macrophylum) Vine Maple (Acer circinatum) Douglas Maple (Acer glabrum var. torreyi) Plant Check List SUMAC FAMILY (Anacardiaceae) Poison Oak (Rhus diversiloba) BIRTHWORT FAMILY (Aristolochiaceae) British Columbia Wild-Ginger (Asarum caudatum) FERN FAMILY (Aspidiaceae) Lady Fern (Athyrium felix-femina) Sword Fern (Polystichum munitum) BARBERRY FAMILY (Berberudaceae) Deerfoot Vanilla-leaf (Achlys triphylla) Lower Oregon Grape (Berberis aquifolium) Oregon Grape (Berberis nervosa) Inside-out Flower (Vancouveria planipetala) BIRCH FAMILY (Betulaceae) Alder (Alnus spp.) California Hazelnut (Corylus cornuta var. californica) BORAGE FAMILY (Boraginaceae) Bristly Stickseed (Hackelia Setosa) CAMPANULA FAMILY (Campanulaceae) Harebell (Campanula scouleri) HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY (Caprifoliaceae) American Twinflower (Linnaea borealis var. longiflora) Honeysuckle (Lonicera sp.) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos sp.) Included are the more common species found along park trails. Please remember to leave the plant life undisturbed. MAPLE FAMILY (Aceraceae) DOGWOOD FAMILY (Cornaceae) Pacific Dogwood (Cornus nuttallii) DAISY FAMILY (Compositae) Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Pathfinder (Adenocaulon bicolor) Common Pearl Everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea) Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare) Chicory (Cichorium intybus) Bolander’s Groundsel (Senecio bolanderi ssp. harfordii) Ragwort (Senecio integerrimus) Arrow-leaf Groundsel (Senecio triangularis) STONECROP FAMILY (Crassulaceae) Watson’s Stonecrop (Sedum oregonense) MUSTARD FAMILY (Crusilerae) Rock Cress (Arabis platysperma) CYPRESS FAMILY (Cupressaceae) Port Orford Cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) Incense Cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) SEDGE FAMILY (Cyperaceae) Sedge Grass (Carex spp.) HORSE TAIL FAMILY (Equisetaceae) Horse Tail (Equiseteum hyemale) HEATH FAMILY (Ericaceae) Pacific Madrone (Arbutus menziesii) Green Leaf Manzanita (Arctostaphylos patula) Pacific Rhododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum Princes Pipe (Chimaphila umbellata var. occidentalis) Whiteveined Pyrola (Pyrola picta) Snow Plant (Sarcodes sanguinea) BEECH FAMILY (Fagaceae) Golden Chinquapin (Castanopsis) Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflora) Canyon Live Oak (Quercus chrysolepis) California Black Oak (Quercus Kelloggii) FUMITORY FAMILY (Fumariaceae) Wild Bleedingheart (Dicentra formosa) GRASS FAMILY (Gramineae) Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata) ST. JOHNS WORT FAMILY (Hypericaceae) Common St. Johns Wort (Hypericum perforatum) LILY FAMILY (Liliaceae) Fawn Lily (Erythronium citrinum) Queen’s Cup (Clintonia uniflora) Leopard Lily (Lilium paradalinum ssp. vollmeri) Washington Lily (Lilium washingtonianum) False Solomon’s Seal (Smilacina stellata) Pacific Trillium (Trillium ovatum) California False Hellebore (Veratrum californicum) Siskiyou False Hellebore (Veratrum insolitum) Bear Grass (Xerophyllum tenax) MISTLETOE FAMILY (Loranthaceae) Dwarf Mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasi) ORCHID FAMILY (Orchidacaea) Calypso Orchid (Calypso bulbosa) Phantom Orchid (Cephalanthera austinae) White Bog Orchid (Platanthera levcostachys) BROOM-RAPE FAMILY (Orobanchaceae) California Ground Cone (Boschniakia strobilacea) PINE FAMILY (Pinaceae) White Fir (Abies concolor) Shasta Red Fir (Abies magnifica var. shastensis) Noble Fir (Abies procera) Knobcone Pine (Pinus attenuata) Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) PHLOX FAMILY (Polemonlaceae) Periwinkle Phlox (Phlox adsurgens) PURSLANE FAMILY (Portulacaceae) Spring Beauty (Claytonia lanceolata) Miner’s Lettuce (Montia perfoliata) Candy Flower (Montia sibirica) PRIMROSE FAMILY (Primulaceae) Starflower (Trientalis latifolia) FERN FAMILY (Pteridaceae) Maiden Hair Fern (Adiantum pedatum) Bracken Fern (Pteridium aquilinum) BUTTERCUP FAMILY (Ranunculaceae) Baneberry (Actaea rubra) Columbine (Aquilegia formosa) Wind Flower (Anemone deltoidea) Buttercup (Ranunculus uncinatus) Spotted Coral-root (Corallorhiza maculata) Purple Coral-root (Corallorhiza mertensiana) Striped Coral-root (Corallorhiza striata) Rattlesnake Plantain (Goodyera oblongifolia) BUCKTHORN FAMILY (Rhamnaceae) Buckbrush (Ceanothus cuneatus) Snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus) ROSE FAMILY (Rosaceae) Service Berry (Amelanchier alnifolia) Wild Strawberry (Fragaria californica) Ocean Spray (Holodiscus discolor) Wild Rose (Rosa gymnocarpa) Wild Blackberry (Rubus lacineatus) Creeping Raspberry (Rubus lasiococcus) Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus) MADDER FAMILY (Rubiaceae) Bedstraw (Galium spp.) SAXIFRAGE FAMILY (Saxifragraceae) Small-flowered Alumroot (Heuchera micrantha) Mock Orange (Philadelphus lewisii) Lobbs Gooseberry (Ribes lobbii) Sierra Gooseberry (Ribes cruentum) Red Flowering Currant (Ribes sanguineum) Alaska Fringe-Cup (Tellima grandiflora) Modest Whipplea (Whipplea modesta) FIGWORT FAMILY (Scrophulariaceae) Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) Common Monkey Flower (Mimulus guttatus) Penstemon (Penstemon spp.) Mullein (Verbascum thaps

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