Saugus Iron Works

National Historic Site - Massachusetts

Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site is about 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Boston in Saugus, Massachusetts. It is the site of the first integrated ironworks in North America, founded by John Winthrop the Younger and in operation between 1646 and approximately 1670. It includes the reconstructed blast furnace, forge, rolling mill, shear, slitter and a quarter-ton drop hammer. The facility is powered by seven large waterwheels, some of which are rigged to work in tandem with huge wooden gears connecting them. It has a wharf to load the iron onto ocean-going vessels, as well as a large, restored 17th-century house.

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Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/sair/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saugus_Iron_Works_National_Historic_Site Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site is about 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Boston in Saugus, Massachusetts. It is the site of the first integrated ironworks in North America, founded by John Winthrop the Younger and in operation between 1646 and approximately 1670. It includes the reconstructed blast furnace, forge, rolling mill, shear, slitter and a quarter-ton drop hammer. The facility is powered by seven large waterwheels, some of which are rigged to work in tandem with huge wooden gears connecting them. It has a wharf to load the iron onto ocean-going vessels, as well as a large, restored 17th-century house. In the 1600's, on the banks of the Saugus River, something extraordinary happened! Explore the place where European iron makers brought their special skills to a young Massachusetts colony. Saugus Iron Works is a twelve-acre National Historic Site that includes working waterwheels, forges, mills, a historic 17th century home, and a lush river basin. The park is accessible via Interstate 95 (Walnut St.) and Route 1 (Main St. / Walnut St.). Public transportation options are available through the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). Broadhearth Located within the Iron Works House annex, Broadhearth serves as the park visitor center. Books and souvenirs can be purchased inside at the Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site Park Store. Saugus Iron Works is 11 miles north of Boston, Massachusetts and is accessible by car and bus. Saugus Iron Works Landscape Several wooden structures amid green fields and trees under partly cloudy sky and beside river. A view of Saugus Iron Works from the Saugus River Iron Forge Approximately 15' by 15' spoked wooden wheel beside river and under blue sky. The forge is where bars of pig iron created at the blast furnace were changed into a new kind of iron that a blacksmith was able to use. Blast Furnace Rectangular wooden structure between orange deciduous trees and wooden bridge with walkway. The blast furnace is where bog ore was smelted to create cast iron "pig" bars. My Internship with the National Park Service: Maryana Carreón Learn about Maryana Carreón's internship with the National Park Service (NPS) and how she aims to connect NPS with the local Latinx community! Carreón comes to the National Parks from the Latino Heritage Internship Program (LHIP) and Environment for the Americas. woman stands at a river overlook smiling Careers in National Parks: Maryann Zujewski Maryann Zujewski is the Education Specialist at Salem Maritime and Saugus Iron Works National Historic Sites. Learn about her career path and her commitment to sharing Black voices in history. This is one of a series of articles written by Tahmoor Chadury, intern with the Latino Heritage Internship Program (LHIP). A park ranger speaking at a podium. NETN Species Spotlight - Your Flowers, Shrubs, and Plants Native species - birds, insects, plants, etc - need our help. When planning your yard layout, consider adding some valuable native plants to the mix. Red maple flowers NETN Species Spotlight - Wild Turkey Wild Turkeys are one of the most iconic species in America. They have a long, and as it turns out, mythic history. Wild Tom Turkey. Wayne Dumbleton. NETN Species Spotlight - Hermit Thrush The Hermit Thrush's ethereal song is a mainstay of summers in the Northeastern U.S. But climate change could mean its song will only be heard north of the border if warming continues unabated. A Hermit Thrush perches on the forest floor. Species Spotlight - Red Crossbill The Red Crossbillis one of the most unique and specialized birds of North America. Learn about their traits and habits, and how you may encounter a flock of them during this irruption year. . A Red Crossbill sits on a conifer tree. Citizen Science in the Digital Age With well over 100 citizen-science based apps now available for smartphones, there is no lack of opportunity for people of all ages and affectations to significantly add to the collective knowledge base about many aspects of the natural world. The phrase “there is an app for that” has perhaps never been more true for natural resource monitoring. Students use microscopes to identify pond species at the Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller NHP Bioblitz. NETN Species Spotlight - Ruby-throated Hummingbird The ruby-throated hummingbird is the only bird of that species that makes its home east of the Mississippi. Learn more about this remarkable bird. A hummingbird feeds on a flower NETN Species Spotlight: Monarch Butterfly The monarch butterfly is a majestic insect. Mimicry, migration, and metamorphosis all help to make it the true king of butterflies. But it's numbers have been dropping dramatically in recent years. Learn more about this amazing species and how you can help to save it. Monarch butterfly on a Meadow Blazing Star plant NETN Species Spotlight: Japanese Knotweed Japanese knotweed is a very robust invasive plant species. Learn why it spreads so readily outside of its native Japan, and how the NPS and other groups are trying to control it. Japanese knotweed plant NETN Species Spotlight: Acorn Barnacle Barnacles may at first glance appear to have the most boring of lives. But dig a little deeper into these crafty crustaceans, and you'll learn they are among the most fascinating of seashore creatures. Barnacle feeding close-up NETN Species Spotlight - Northern Short-tailed Shrew The northern short-tailed shrew seems like an impossible mash-up of different creatures. From venomous saliva to echolocation, this tiny predator employs many tactics to satiate an endless appetite. Short-tailed Shrew Melting the Amber: Northeast Region Launches Innovative Historic House Pilot A historic house can be like an ant trapped in amber. What was once alive and growing is sealed in a single sepia-tinted moment. What if we could melt the amber? Park employees stand on the porch of Thomas Edison's home, Glenmont The Positive Side of Zero For something that essentially represents "nothingness", the number zero carries a lot of weight when collecting data. a stone zero What’s the Buzz? How Bees Interrelate with Birds, Wildflowers, and Deer Ecosystems are complex and intricate and sometimes have a surprising web of relationships. Learn how deer, bees, birds, and wildflowers connect in the park ecosystems of the northeast. A bee pollinates a wildflower Wild, Wacky, and Weird Weather. What the? A look at the difference between weather and climate. A Vermont blizzard. NETN Species Spotlight - Fisher The fisher is a very capable predator of northeastern forests. Learn about the ways this large member of the weasel family makes its living. A large male fisher sitting Species Spotlight - Crazy Snakeworm Because of the scouring action of the ice age, earthworms are not native to the northeast. One species in particular, the crazy snake worm, has the potential to greatly alter the natural forest ecosystems in our region. An earthworm held in a person's hand NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site, Massachusetts Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] park walkway and buildings NETN Species Spotlight - Eastern Coyote The eastern coyote is a new predator on the scene. But where did it come from and why is it so much larger than its western cousins? Learn about how this animal came to be and the important ecological niches it is filling in the Northeast. A coyote stares at the camera. Lessons Learned from a Decade of Forest Health Monitoring in NETN After more than 10 years of monitoring forest health in NETN parks, plant ecologist Kate Miller shares here knowledge and insights and current forest conditions and tips on long term forest management. A forest glade 2014 Freeman Tilden Award Recipients Introducing the national and regional recipients of the 2014 Freeman Tilden Awards, given in recognition of new and innovative programs in interpretation. Two rangers holding a whale skull NETN Field Note: Deer, Worms, and Invasives When too many deer, earthworms, and invasive plant species work i concert, detrimental effects happen to the health of northeastern forests. Forest health monitoring NETN Species Spotlight - Turkey and Black Vultures Vultures have the thankless job of cleaning the environment up of dead animal carcasses. Learn how they are able to do it without getting sick from deadly bacteria. Close-up of a Black Vulture. Doug Greenberg. NETN Species Spotlight - Sharp-shinned Hawk About the size of a Blue-Jay, Sharp-shinned Hawks are aerial acrobats and are the smallest of three North American agile hawks known as the accipiters (ah-sip-it-ers). Learn more about this amazing and oft misunderstood hawk. Sharp-shinned Hawk perched on a branch NETN Species Spotlight - Snowshoe Hare Snowshoe hare are perfectly adapted to their cold, snow environments. Even so, a warming climate and a complex predator/prey relationship has a large influence on their overall population. The enormous hind feet of snowshoe hare. NETN Species Spotlight - Ruffed Grouse Ruffed Grouse have evolved many effective and surprising traits that allow them to survive northeastern winters. Ruffed Grouse displaying Lucas Bobay Careers in the National Parks: Socrates Trinidad Socrates Trinidad is a Visitor Services Assistant at Salem Maritime and Saugus Iron Works National Historic Sites. This is one of a series of articles written by Tahmoor Chadury, intern with the Latino Heritage Internship Program (LHIP). A park ranger with visitors and a dog NETN Species Spotlight - Short-tailed Weasel The short-tailed weasel is as energetic as it is resourceful. It has had a reputation of being both virtuous and vile over the centuries. Find out more about the amazing capabilities of this slender member of the weasel family An ermine in full white. My Career in the National Park Service: Anna Spencer Anna Spencer has found the dream job as a gardener with the National Park Service! She spends each day outside, taking care of and learning from plants and animals. Anna working in a garden NETN Species Spotlight - Paper Birch The Paper Birch is undeniably a tree of the north woods. Entwined in lore and legend, it has been a key part of ecosystems and cultures since well before the time of the Neanderthals even. Paper birch trees in winter. El Punto: the "Open Air Museum" and a Little Taste of Home In honor of Latino Conservation Week, Maryana Carreón reflects on the Punto Urban Art Museum, located within the historic Salem neighborhood, El Punto. Carreón comes to the National Parks from the Latino Heritage Internship Program (LHIP) and Environment for the Americas. painting of a person with long hair Careers in the National Parks: Gavin Gardner Gavin Gardner is the Resource Program Manager at Salem Maritime and Saugus Iron Works National Historic Sites. Learn about his career path and his message on World Ranger Day. This is one of a series of articles written by Tahmoor Chadury, intern with the Latino Heritage Internship Program (LHIP). a park ranger walking through a park with balloons My Career in the National Park Service: John Newman John Newman started as a volunteer and is now a ship rigger at Salem Maritime National Historic Site. A park ranger inside a wooden building NETN Species Spotlight - Serviceberry Though it goes by many names, the serviceberry tree is much loved by people and birds alike. Learn more about one of spring's first bloomers and why you should plant one in your yard. Serviceberries ripening. NETN Species Spotlight - American Woodcock The American Woodcock is a quirky bird. Learn about their habits. and why they are a welcome sight (and sound) each spring in the Northeast, An American Woodcock walks on the forest floor. Species Spotlight - Puffballs Puffballl mushrooms offer many joys - from stomping on them as children to eating them fried with butter. Learn more about this natural history of this fascinating fungi. Puffball emitting spores. Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains I Cast Iron: Molly Harrington Learn from a Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt) Iron Corps student, Molly Harrington, about why she casts iron and see some of her work in this online "I Cast Iron Exhibition" at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site, Massachusetts. A cast iron head with stem sprouting out of the ground I Cast Iron: Erica Hayes Learn from a Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt) Iron Corps student, Erica Hayes, about why she casts iron and see some of her work in this online "I Cast Iron Exhibition" at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site, Massachusetts. A cast iron spine with protruding sharp, pointed spikes I Cast Iron: Katie Henson Learn from a Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt) Iron Corps student, Katie Henson, about why she casts iron and see some of her work in this online "I Cast Iron Exhibition" at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site, Massachusetts. A ram's skull sculpture with cast iron horns I Cast Iron: Olivia Curtis Learn from a Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt) Iron Corps student, Olivia Curtis, about why she casts iron and see some of her work in this online "I Cast Iron Exhibition" at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site, Massachusetts. Many cast iron potatoes of different styles and colors I Cast Iron: Sophia DiLibero Learn from a Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt) Iron Corps student, Sophia DiLibero, about why she casts iron and see some of her work in this online "I Cast Iron Exhibition" at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site, Massachusetts. Twelve cast iron squares depicting a series of parallel train tracks I Cast Iron: Josephine Wermuth Learn from a Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt) Iron Corps student, Josephine Wermuth, about why she casts iron and see some of her work in this online "I Cast Iron Exhibition" at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site, Massachusetts. A cast iron piece of art that depicts a radiator I Cast Iron: Bridget Mara-Williams Learn from a Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt) Iron Corps student, Bridget Mara-Williams, about why she casts iron and see some of her work in this online "I Cast Iron Exhibition" at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site, Massachusetts. Cast iron children's lifejacket I Cast Iron: Sara Giordano Learn from a Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt) Iron Corps student, Sara Giordano, about why she casts iron and see some of her work in this online "I Cast Iron Exhibition" at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site, Massachusetts. Cast iron plaque with the words I Cast Iron: Ezekiel Moriarty Learn from a Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt) Iron Corps student, Ezekiel Moriarty, about why he casts iron and see some of his work in this online "I Cast Iron Exhibition" at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site, Massachusetts. A pair of gloves in cast iron with Series: I Cast Iron Because... Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site partnered with students from Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt) and Visiting Lecturer in Sculpture, Marjee-Anne Levine, to create this special online exhibition, “I Cast Iron Because…" The featured artists are members of the MassArt Iron Corps, a student-run group dedicated to the art and practice of casting iron. Each article contains unique metal sculptures, artist statements, and self-made artist video profiles. Arrowhead with bison, tree, mountain, words National Park Service with park and series name below MassArt Iron Corps Learn about the the MassArt Iron Corps at Massachusetts College of Art and Design. This program brings people together in the spirit of teamwork, problem solving, and cross-creativity. A cast iron piece of art that depicts a radiator Curator's Statement Learn from Emily Murphy, Museum Curator, about the significance of the I Cast Iron Because... art series and the history of iron casting at the site. A cast iron piece of art that depicts a radiator The Unsung Heroes of Essex County On Sunday, March 28, Essex National Heritage Area and the National Park Service co-hosted “Unsung Heroes: Black Women’s History in Essex County”. The virtual event presented research from a project funded by the National Park Service (NPS) and the Organization of American Historians (OAH) and included the work of two local leading scholars in United States history, women’s and gender studies, race and ethnicity, and social justice. Red Saltbox house. Green grass, wildflower garden, and historical sign in front. Firebacks Two of the most impressive pieces of iron work in our collections are two firebacks that were made at Saugus Iron Works in the 17th century. Firebacks, also called “iron backs” or “cast backs” in the 17th century, were designed to sit against the back of a fireplace and protect the bricks from the direct heat of the fire. They would also reflect some of the heat back into the room. Black cast iron fireback with raised decorations. Top 10 Tips for Visiting Saugus Iron Works We’re expecting an especially busy summer season and want everyone to have a great experience. A little advance trip planning can ensure that your only surprises are happy ones. Check out our top 10 list to get the most out of your summer vacation. A wooden waterwheel spinning around outside a wooden mill. Staff Highlight: Karla Bonilla Karla Bonilla is an intern at Salem Maritime and Saugus Iron Works National Historic Sites. She is a bilingual education/interpretation intern and her project has focused on visitor services, community engagement, and media development. Learn more about why she wanted to work for the National Park Service and how she thinks more youth should be involved. A woman in blue shirt sitting in front of large wooden building. Staff Highlight: Tahmoor Chadury Tahmoor Chadury is an intern at Salem Maritime and Saugus Iron Works National Historic Sites. He is a bilingual education/interpretation intern and his project has focused on exhibit development and community outreach. Learn more about why he wanted to work for the National Park Service and how he thinks more youth should be involved. A smiling man in a blue shirt standing next to a wooden ship's steering wheel. New England Archeological Time Periods Native American tribal histories define their own pasts using various chronologies specific to individual experiences and belief systems. This is in stark contrast to archeologists and historians, who have imposed the following time periods on Indigenous history in order to compare changes in patterns of settlement, land usage, and tool technology. Projectile points with triangular blades and a rounded stem tapered toward the base. How Do Archeologists Talk About Time? In archeology, the date of production of an artifact, date of occupation of a site, or a cultural period can be described in several ways. We are taught history in grade school in terms of BC and AD, which are used to describe time in relationship to events in the Christian calendar. In the late 20th century, scholars began shifting to the use of BCE and CE, before common era and common era, which directly correlate to BC and AD but instead are secular. A triangular shape projectile point with concave shaped base. Types of Native American Artifacts The Native American archeology collections at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site consist of a variety of material types totaling over 14,000 artifacts, most of which were excavated from the within the site boundaries through archeological investigations carried out in the 20th century. The precolonial Indigenous artifacts in SAIR’s collections can be broken down into three main material categories: lithics, ceramics, and organic artifacts. A variety of projectile points ranging in size and shape, made from many different stone materials. Puritans and Iron Making In 1630, a group of Puritans left England in search of a place to practice their religion freely. They had a charter from the Massachusetts Bay Company to settle land in New England. The Puritans founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony north of the Plymouth Colony that had been established by the Pilgrims ten years earlier. Two men in wide hats and collared shirt with two women in black flowy clothing on a boat. The Joseph Bellamy House: The Great Awakening in Puritan New England (Teaching with Historic Places) Examine the influence of Reverend Joseph Bellamy, a leading preacher in New England from 1740-1790, in colonial American religion, and learn about the role of religion in 18th-century life as well as the resurgence of religious fervor known as the Great Awakening. Anadromous Fish Make the journey from salt to freshwater to learn about anadromous fish! This article is a source for information about anadromous fish in the Saugus River. Details include a myriad of species that are born in freshwater estuaries, live their lives in the ocean, and return to freshwater to spawn. Anadromous fish range in size from an average of 10 inches in one species, to 50 inches in another, can be found in the waters tied to the Saugus Iron Works. A slender fish with a down-to-top gradient from light blue to dark blue. Preserving the Iron Works In the early twentieth century a newfound interest in American heritage and colonial revival led to a preservation movement. Preservation of the iron works started with the restoration and protection of the Iron Works House. Learn more about how this work continues to this day. two people wearing green lab coats and a third wearing a purple shirt, look over shelves of objects. Iron Workers The iron workers in Massachusetts were recruited from England for their special iron making knowledge. Skilled iron workers were not Puritan, and they were not property owners, so they did not have a say in the governance of the colony. Learn more about their struggles and experiences living in a Puritan society in this article. A person standing in front of a brick structure holding a rake-like object over several troughs. Scottish Prisoners at the Iron Works The Scots were soldiers who were defeated in the English Civil War at the Battle of Dunbar in 1650. They were captured by the English, taken from their homeland, and sent to Massachusetts Bay Colony to work as indentured servants for seven years. Learn more about their experience at the Iron Works in this article. Two men in white shirts and dark hats standing around a fire. New England Province The New England province is part of the Appalachian Highlands and contains similar rock types to those found in the Piedmont. However, the provinces differ in that the New England province contains more mountains and has been subjected to Pleistocene glaciation. Structural features on this province include block-fault basins, large intrusive igneous masses, and shoreline cliffs. Baker Island in Acadia National Park. NPS photo Saugus Birds of Prey Are you curious as to what species of birds can be spotted hunting at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site? This article details birds of prey that can be found in Saugus, Massachusetts. Complete with information on numerous species including the Bald Eagle, Owls, and a variety of Hawks. To learn more about their appetites or migration patterns, read on and your hunt for information will be complete! hawk with stripped brown and white feathers stands on wooden pole. Snapping Turtles One of the snappiest visitors to Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site is the snapping turtle! They can be spotting lying on the bottom of the muddy river, sometimes best at low tide. When they aren’t in the mud of the tidal river, during summer months they can be spotted up in the grass looking for good places to lay their eggs. Snapping turtles have extremely powerful jaws, sharp claws, a serrated beak, and a fierce snap that can reach farther than you may expect. Snapping turtle nestled amid green grasses and beside a faucet. Saugus Mammal Predators What mammalian predators could you encounter at Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site? Daytime visitation would uncommonly put you at risk at bumping into one of these pesky predators, but should you find one, it is best to give them space. The historic site is frequented by coyotes, red fox, racoons, mink, skunks, and river otters. Potential dangers range from foul-smelling stink, exposure to disease, or situations you need to immediately flee from. Grey raccoon with dark eyes looking at camera. Iron Making: Smelting In 1646, the original blast furnace roared to life, lit with a 3000 degree fire that was kept burning 24 hours a day for months at a time. The blast furnace is where bog ore was smelted to create cast iron "pig" bars, so named because liquid cast iron was fed from a larger trench into smaller trenches as a mother sow to suckling pigs. To make cast iron, three raw materials were brought over the charging bridge and loaded into the chimney of the furnace. Wooden bridge extends from grassy field to stone chimney. Iron Making: Introduction Iron making evolved over a few thousand years. Using the ancient "bloomery" method, iron ore was converted directly into wrought iron by heating the ore while at the same time melting the ore's impurities and squeezing them out with hand hammers. Flames emerging from metal barrel with several people standing around it with helmets. Series: Iron Making This series breaks the iron making process into its major steps. A person standing in front of a brick structure holding a rake-like object over several troughs. Full Grooved Axes A grooved axe is a large stone tool, one end typically tapered, with a groove around the midsection where a split wooden handle would have been attached or hafted to the stone using animal sinew. Full grooved axes have an indentation that goes completely around the circumference of the tool. Gray stone with concave indentation around the center. Species Spotlight - Cecropia Moth Cecropia moths are the largest moth in North America. Their fascinating one-year life cycle is one of the most amazing transformations known to nature. Face of a male cecropia moth. Iron Making: Casting The casting shed at the base of the furnace is where the cast iron and slag waste were removed from the furnace. Molds were specially prepared and awaited the molten metal. Learn more about casting in this stage of the iron making process. Stone wall with large air bellows and wooden wheel.

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