"s" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Sand Creek Massacre

National Historic Site - Colorado

The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre, the Battle of Sand Creek or the massacre of Cheyenne Indians) was a massacre in the American Indian Wars that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 675-man force of Colorado U.S. Volunteer Cavalry attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho in southeastern Colorado Territory, killing and mutilating an estimated 70–163 Native Americans, about two-thirds of whom were women and children.

location

maps

Official Visitor Map of Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site (NHS) in Colorado. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Sand Creek Massacre - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site (NHS) in Colorado. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/sand/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sand_Creek_Massacre_National_Historic_Site The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre, the Battle of Sand Creek or the massacre of Cheyenne Indians) was a massacre in the American Indian Wars that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 675-man force of Colorado U.S. Volunteer Cavalry attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho in southeastern Colorado Territory, killing and mutilating an estimated 70–163 Native Americans, about two-thirds of whom were women and children. On November 29th, 1864, Chiefs Black Kettle, White Antelope, Left Hand and others were encamped with around 750 Arapaho and Cheyenne people in a valley by the Big Sandy Creek. A hope for peace, brought forth by Black Kettle was in the balance. It was a tragic day where the blood of the Cheyenne and Arapaho was shed, and a painful memory for generations of Native Americans was made. The Sand Creek Massacre is located in Kiowa County, Colorado. To visit the site, follow Colorado State Highway 96 east off Highway 287 near Eads, or west off Highway 385 at Sheridan Lake. Near Chivington, turn north onto County Road 54/Chief White Antelope Way or at Brandon, turn north onto County Road 59. Follow these roads to their intersections with County Road W. The park entrance is along CR W a mile east (right) of CR 54 or several miles west (left) of CR 59. Eight miles of dirt/sand roads lead to the Sand Creek Massacre Visitor Contact Station The park Visitor Contact Station is located at the historic site, which is eight miles north of the town of Chivington. It provides education and orientation materials and has a sales outlet for educational merchandise. The Visitor Contact Station maintains the same hours as the park. NOTE: Bookstore sales end at 3:30 pm. The Sand Creek Massacre is located in Kiowa County, Colorado. To visit the site, follow Colorado State Highway 96 east off Highway 287 near Eads, or west off Highway 385 at Sheridan Lake. Near Chivington, turn north onto County Road 54/Chief White Antelope Way or at Brandon, turn north onto County Road 59. Follow these roads to their intersections with County Road W. The park entrance is along CR W a mile east (right) of CR 54 or several miles west (left) of CR 59. Eight miles of dirt/sand roads lead to the Sand Creek Massacre Visitor and Education Center The Sand Creek Massacre Visitor and Education Center is located in downtown Eads, Colorado. It provides education and orientation materials and has a sales outlet for educational merchandise. On the second floor there is an exhibit space featuring images of people connected to the Sand Creek Massacre. NOTE: As of February 2022, the Visitor and Education Center is temporarily CLOSED. From highway 287, turn onto Maine St. (left hand turn if coming from the north, right hand turn if coming from the south) and drive over the railway tracks. Continue on Maine St. for approximately one block and the Visitor and Education Center will be on the right hand side at the intersection with 13th St. Cheyenne Lodges at Dawn Four white Indian lodges on a grassy plain. Cheyenne and Arapaho Lodges erected in commemoration of the 150th Year of the Sand Creek Massacre Remembering the Past A lone tipi frame and two wayside signs stand in a snow-covered landscape A tipi frame is backlit by an evening sky. Memorial at Sunset A stone memorial on the prairie with an evening sky in the background. Back lit clouds form an impressive backdrop to the stone memorial dedicated to the memory of the Sand Creek Massacre. Sunset along Sand Creek The uppermost branches of leafless trees in a grassy plain are lit by the setting sun. The setting sun highlights trees along Sand Creek, forming a hauntingly beautiful landscape Tipi Frame at Dusk A tipi frame is silhouetted by the evening sky. The silhouette of a lone tipi at dusk symbolizes the tragic events that occurred in 1864 and of the indomitable spirit of the Cheyenne and Arapaho people, who overcame the tragedy and continue to work with the NPS to preserve its memory and legacy. Winter clouds over Sand Creek An expanse of winter prairie with brown grasses, leafless trees, and low clouds above. Winter on the Southeastern Colorado Plains can produce beautiful scenes such as this. Fall Colors along the Big Sandy Creek A Sand Creek memorial plaque and fallen tree trunk with trees in fall color behind. The leaves of Cottonwood trees along the Sand Creek burst with color during the fall. Snow on Monument Hill Overlook A wayside in the snow-covered foreground with a winter plain stretching behind. This tranquil winter view shows snow throughout the Sand Creek Valley. Wetland, Riparian, Geomorphology, and Floodplain Conditions at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site In 2004, the National Park Service Water Resources Division evaluated soil, wetland, and riparian habitat conditions in Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site. A team of hydrologists and wetland scientists conducted a preliminary assessment of the site’s hydrologic and geomorphic conditions (surface features). The soils, hydrology, and wildlife habitat of the site were determined to be extremely sensitive to human traffic and other alterations. Wetland in Sand Creek Massacre NHS NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado Sand Creek Massacre NHS is located on the Colorado Piedmont, part of the Great Plains physiographic province in eastern Colorado. Bedrock exposure is poor in the region, but the area is underlain by the Cretaceous Niobrara Formation. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. park sign: sand creek massacre national historic site Multiple Lines of Evidence: Searching for the Sand Creek Massacre Site In 1864, the U. S. Army carried out a surprise attack on a non-combatant encampment of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians along the Big Sandy Creek in southeastern Colorado, killing about 160 men, women, and children, including elderly or infirm. To preserve the memory of this tragic event, the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site was established following a multi-disciplinary effort to identify the actual location of the attack. Detail from The Sand Creek Massacre, elk hide painting by Eagle Robe Sand Creek Massacre Breeding Bird Inventory The Rocky Mountain Bird Observatory conducted the breeding bird inventory at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site in spring and summer 2005. Mountain plover Exotic Plants Monitoring in the Southern Plains and Chihuahuan Desert National parks, like other publicly managed lands, are deluged by new exotic species arriving through predictable (e.g., road, trail, and riparian corridors), sudden (e.g., long distance dispersal through cargo containers and air freight), and unexpected anthropogenic pathways (e.g., weed seeds mixed in with restoration planting mixes). Landscape with a uniform, green foreground consisting of invasive kochia Colorado: Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site tells the story of that fatal attack and its repercussions. site of the massacre The Civilian Experience in the Civil War After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians both near and far from the battlefields became unwilling participants and victims of the war as its toll of blood and treasure grew year after year. In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material, and began to expect that their government should do the same. Painting of civilians under fire during the Siege of Vicksburg Climate Change in the Southern Plains Network Climate change may have direct and/or indirect effects on many elements of Southern Plains network ecosystems, from streams and grasslands to fires and birds. Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) is an invasive plant that has invaded the Southern Plains Climate Monitoring in the Southern Plains, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert Climate is one of many ecological indicators monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Climate data help scientists to understand ecosystem processes and help to explain many of the patterns and trends observed in other natural-resource monitoring. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor climate using the scientific protocol described here. Kayaking across a fl ooded parking lot, Chickasaw NRA, July 2007. Southwestern Plains The Plains of the Southwest include the southern Great Plains, the High Plains, Llano Estacado (Staked Plains), and Edwards Plateau. Sunset lights up the grass at Capulin Volcano National Monument Hancock's War Major General Winfield S. Hancock came out to the Southern Plains in the Spring of 1867 to quell a suspected Indian uprising. He was a distinguished U.S. Army officer with an impressive record, especially for service during the Civil War. However, dealing with an enemy so culturally dissimilar to him proved a difficult challenge. Instead of pacifying the Indians, his burning of a local Indian village incited a summer of violence known to history as "Hancock's War." Black and white head photo of Winfield Scott Hancock Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Series: Southern Plains Bird Inventories Birds are a highly visible component of many ecosystems and because they respond quickly to changes in resource conditions, birds are good indicators of environmental change. Bird inventories allow us to understand the current condition, or status, of bird populations and communities in parks. These data are important for managing birds and other resources and provide baseline information for monitoring changes over time. Violet-green swallow A Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson Read about one of the books that can be found in the library at James A. Garfield National Historic Site by author Helen Hunt Jackson whom shared a mutual acquaintance, Emily Dickinson, with First Lady Lucretia Rudolph. The book was a gift to the newly elected president in January 1881. a red book with the title A Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background

nearby parks

also available

National Parks
USFS NW
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Minnesota
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
North Carolina
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
Wyoming
Yellowstone