Star-Spangled Banner

National Historic Trail - MD,VA,DC

The Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail, named after the United States national anthem, commemorates the Chesapeake Campaign of the War of 1812. The 290-mile (467 km) trail consists of water and overland routes. The trail extends from Tangier Island, Virginia, through southern Maryland, the District of Columbia, the Chesapeake Bay, and Baltimore, Maryland. The trail also contains sites on Maryland's Eastern shore. Sites on the trail include towns raided and/or burned by the British, battles and engagements, museums, and forts.

maps

Map of the Underground Railroad routes that freedom seekers would take to reach freedom. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Underground Railroad - Routes to Freedom

Map of the Underground Railroad routes that freedom seekers would take to reach freedom. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/stsp/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star-Spangled_Banner_National_Historic_Trail The Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail, named after the United States national anthem, commemorates the Chesapeake Campaign of the War of 1812. The 290-mile (467 km) trail consists of water and overland routes. The trail extends from Tangier Island, Virginia, through southern Maryland, the District of Columbia, the Chesapeake Bay, and Baltimore, Maryland. The trail also contains sites on Maryland's Eastern shore. Sites on the trail include towns raided and/or burned by the British, battles and engagements, museums, and forts. For three years the young United States was embroiled in the War of 1812 and the Chesapeake Bay region felt the brunt of it, choked by shipping blockades and ravaged by enemy raids. Through sites and landscapes in Virginia, the District of Columbia, and Maryland, the Trail tells the stories of the events, people, and places that led to the birth of the U.S. national anthem. The Trail's headquarters is at Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine. The park is three miles southeast of the Baltimore Inner Harbor and just off I-95. Follow the brown Fort McHenry directional signs along all major routes to the park. From I-95 northbound, take Exit 55 Key Highway and follow Fort McHenry signs. To visit other trail locations, download a trail map. Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine As of March 31, 2021, visitor access will increase in a phased approach. Fee collection will resume via Rec.gov only. The historic area and visitor center restrooms will be open Wed-Sun, 9AM-4:45PM. The trail has many points of entry and exploration along its auto route and water route. The visitor center at Fort McHenry serves as the trail's headquarters and visitor center. A short 10-minute orientation film is shown two times per hour. Restrooms, exhibits and a gift shop are also located in the building. The park is three miles southeast of the Baltimore Inner Harbor and just off I-95. Follow the brown Fort McHenry directional signs along all major routes to the park. From I-95 northbound, take Exit 55 Key Highway and follow Fort McHenry signs. PRIDE OF BALTIMORE II A tall ship sails on the water. The PRIDE OF BALTIMORE II is a sailing ambassador for the Trail. Historic Sotterley Image of a large historic house with green lawn in foreground. Historic Sotterley White House A close-up of the White House portico. British forces set fire to the original home of the U.S. president on August 26, 1814. Paddling on the Sassafras A person in a yellow kayak paddles through lotus blossoms. The Sassafras River Water Trail is one of the many paddle trails to explore along the Star-Spangled Banner Trail Living History at Fort McHenry People in 18th century period clothing standing in a line and firing muskets. Living history at Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine. Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail e-Newsletter Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail, WARO quarterly e-newsletter War of 1812: Burning of the Sewall House Why did British troops burn down Robert Sewall's house on August 24, 1814? Summer 1814: American troops flee in humiliation, leaving Washington exposed In the hot, humid summer of 1814, British troops advanced on Washington, DC. Their only obstacle was American troops guarding the heights at Bladensburg, Maryland, ten miles outside the capital. After a brief battle, the Americans took flight in their most humiliating defeat of the war, and British troops captured Washington. British troops watch in foreground as city of Washington burns in background "At early dawn his eye was again greeted by the proudly-waving flag of his country" The British 1814 failure to capture Baltimore Harbor helped change the course of the War of 1812 and inspired the American national anthem. Illustration of British ships bombarding Fort McHenry "The first step was plunder without distinction" Americans living on the Chesapeake Bay paid a steep price for the War of 1812. Portrait of Admiral Cockburn with smoke of Washington burning behind Ten Tips for Visiting Fort Washington Park Follow these tips to make your visit to Fort Washington Park memorable. The grassy fort in front of a river
Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Chesapeake Bay Region Maryland, Virginia, and Washington, DC O! say can you see by the dawn’s early light . . . Patrick O’Brien/the Patricia Kummerow 1812 Memorial Fund Richard Schlect Test of a New Nation In 1812, the United States of America was less than 30 years old, and only one generation had been raised to adulthood under the American flag. Many people still personally remembered the daring and exhausting fight to win independence from Britain, pitting 13 allied colonies against the largest military force in the world. Gerry Embleton The conflict had launched a new nation, but in 1812 much was still taking shape. Americans were wary of a strong central government and grappled with questions about trade, slavery, and expansion. Washington City was a fledging capital. National defense was hotly debated and poorly funded. Then, war came again. Britain, at war with France, set policies that interfered with American trade. In need of men for their huge navy, the British boarded American vessels and seized men said to be British deserters. In the process, they forced thousands of American sailors into service. Along the Great Lakes and Northern Frontier, they united with American Indians to obstruct American expansion into disputed territory. The tension between Britain and America, still smoldering from the revolution, grew into flames. Some Americans wanted to strike back. Others cautioned against the human and financial costs of war. Britain had over 500 warships; America had 17. The nation was deeply and bitterly divided. On June 18, 1812, Congress finally declared war, but Americans continued to argue over the course of the nation. In Baltimore, a pro-war mob destroyed the offices of an anti-war newspaper, igniting riots that left dead and wounded in their wake. ©Don Troiani Gerry Embleton Riots erupted in Baltimore in response to an anti-war newspaper. Maryland Historical Society Over the next two years, British and American conflicts erupted from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. By the time the fighting ended, the war had propelled America into greater maturity as a nation. Having been tested against a world superpower, the states were now more truly “united.” Americans felt a stronger sense of collective identity and greater commitment to a robust, national military. And, by defending rights at sea and expansionist goals at home, America confirmed its entry on the international stage. The war also inspired two lasting symbols of pride—the StarSpangled Banner that flew in defiance of British attack and the national anthem that honors it. Armed Forces History, NMAH, Smithsonian Institution The bombardment of Fort McHenry inspired new lyrics to a popular tune. The tune was then re-named The Star-Spangled Banner and became the United States of America’s national anthem in 1931. Maryland militia at the Battle of North Point. War on the Chesapeake People lived in fear. When attacked, they faced a difficult choice: flee, cooperate, or stage civilian resistance to a far superior force. In Havre de Grace, the defense soon dwindled to one man, John O’Neill, who continued to fight until captured. In Georgetown, Kitty Knight confronted the British admiral herself and successfully spared both her home and that of her neighbor. The British occupied the Chesapeake Bay during the War of 1812 to disrupt trade, bring war to the center of the country, and draw troops from the north. After declaring a blockade on the bay in 1812, they established a base on Tangier Island and raided waterfront towns at will, burning homes, taverns, ships, and farms. Towns in Southern Maryland and along the upper bay were among the targets. In Virginia, the British sacked towns and raided plantations along the James, Rappahannock, and other rivers. Gerry Embleton Maryland Historical Society Enslaved people made bold decisions, too. The British promised freedom to those who fled slavery and joined British forces. At least seven hundred men, women, and children escaped. Most were taken to Tangier Island, where some of the men trained to fight their former masters. Richard Schlect Gerry Embleton Joshua Barney and the “Mosquito Fleet” In a daring plan to defend the Chesapeake, Commodore Joshua Barney organized a flotilla of nimble gun boats to bedevil the British on the bay’s shallow waters. Gerry Embleton In August 1814, the British trapped Barney’s “mosquito fleet” in the Patuxent River, where they battled on St. Leonard Creek. Then, trapped further upstream, Barney received orders to destroy the flotilla. As the barges exploded and sank, he and his men rushed on foot to help defend Washington. Dolley Madison and the Rescue of Washington’s Portrait Washington in Peril Modern visitors who ponder the portrait of George Washington in the White House can thank First Lady Dolley Madison for her determination. As

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