"History Day November 17, 2007 Winding Down" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Washita Battlefield

National Historic Site - Oklahoma

Washita Battlefield National Historic Site protects and interprets the site of the Southern Cheyenne village of Chief Black Kettle where the Battle of Washita occurred. The site is located about 150 miles (241 km) west of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, near Cheyenne, Oklahoma. Just before dawn on November 27, 1868, the village was attacked by the 7th U.S. Cavalry under Lt. Col. George Custer. In the Battle of Washita, the Cheyenne suffered large numbers of casualties. The strike was hailed at the time by the military and many civilians as a significant victory aimed at reducing Indian raids on frontier settlements as it forced the Cheyenne back to the reservation set aside for them.

maps

Official visitor map of Washita Battlefield National Historic Site (NHS) in Oklahoma. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Washita Battlefield - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Washita Battlefield National Historic Site (NHS) in Oklahoma. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/waba/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washita_Battlefield_National_Historic_Site Washita Battlefield National Historic Site protects and interprets the site of the Southern Cheyenne village of Chief Black Kettle where the Battle of Washita occurred. The site is located about 150 miles (241 km) west of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, near Cheyenne, Oklahoma. Just before dawn on November 27, 1868, the village was attacked by the 7th U.S. Cavalry under Lt. Col. George Custer. In the Battle of Washita, the Cheyenne suffered large numbers of casualties. The strike was hailed at the time by the military and many civilians as a significant victory aimed at reducing Indian raids on frontier settlements as it forced the Cheyenne back to the reservation set aside for them. On November 27, 1868, Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer led the 7th US Cavalry on a surprise dawn attack on a Cheyenne village led by Peace Chief Black Kettle. The event was an example of the tragic clash of cultures that occurred during the Great Plains Wars. It is also a place of remembrance and reflection for those who died here. Washita Battlefield is located just west of Cheyenne in western Oklahoma approximately 130 miles west of Oklahoma City and 140 miles east of Amarillo, Texas; just 25 miles north of I-40 on State Highway 283. From Cheyenne head west on State Highway 47 for about 1 mile and then make a right on State Highway 47A. The visitor center will be on the right and the battlefield is about .5 miles past the visitor center on the right as well. Visitor Center Open 7 days a week from 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. Closed on Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's Day. Cheyenne is situated in western Oklahoma approximately 140 miles west of Oklahoma City and 128 miles east of Amarillo, Texas; just 22 miles north of I-40 on State Highway 283. The Visitor Center is 1 mile west of Cheyenne. Tipis at Sunset Cheyenne tipis backlite by sunset Cheyenne tipis backlite by sunset Washita River The Washita River in winter covered in ice and snow The Washita River looking much the same as it did during the attack on November 27, 1868 Cheyenne Dog Soldier Telling Stories A Cheyenne Dog Soldier tells stories inside his tipi A Cheyenne Dog Soldier tells stories inside his tipi The Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Visitor Center The Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Visitor Center on a summer day The Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Visitor Center on a summer day Learning Something New at Washita A Park Ranger knells down among Junior Rangers so only his hat shows within the crowd of children. A Park Ranger helps children with their Jr. Ranger books. "Meeting the Enemy" A Cheyenne Warrior and U.S. Cavalry soldier hold a meeting next to a tipi A Cheyenne Warrior and U.S. Cavalry soldier hold a meeting next to a tipi National Park Getaway: Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Nearly 150 years ago an event on the Great Plains would change the Cheyenne way of life forever. Washita Battlefield National Historic Site is a powerful place full of stories that have significance even today. Inside of long building with a tipi in front of a window at the end. Air Quality Monitoring in the Southern Plains and Chihuahuan Desert Networks Both the Clean Air Act and the National Park Service Organic Act protect air resources in national parks. Park resources affected by air quality include scenery and vistas, vegetation, water, and wildlife. Over the past three decades, the National Park Service has developed several internal and cooperative programs for monitoring various measures of air quality. Cactus and clear skies at Tonto National Monument Streams Monitoring in the Sonoran Desert and Southern Plains Because of their importance, streams were chosen as a focus for monitoring in the National Park Service (NPS) Sonoran Desert and Southern Plains inventory and monitoring networks. Portions of several major river systems (or their tributaries) are found within many parks of both networks. Monitoring water quality from a boat NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Washita Battlefield National Historic Site, Oklahoma The camp of Peace Chief Black Kettle was located on the floodplain of the Washita River within the Western Red-Bed Plains geomorphic province of the Great Plains. The area is characterized gently rolling hills of nearly flat-lying Permian red sandstone and shale Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. tipi on the prairie Washita Battlefield Bird Inventory State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry and the University of Akron conducted a bird inventory of Washita Battlefield National Historic Site in Oklahoma. Interior least tern, a white and gray bird with a black mask, and a long yellow beak Climate Change in the Southern Plains Network Climate change may have direct and/or indirect effects on many elements of Southern Plains network ecosystems, from streams and grasslands to fires and birds. Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) is an invasive plant that has invaded the Southern Plains Climate Monitoring in the Southern Plains, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert Climate is one of many ecological indicators monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Climate data help scientists to understand ecosystem processes and help to explain many of the patterns and trends observed in other natural-resource monitoring. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor climate using the scientific protocol described here. Kayaking across a fl ooded parking lot, Chickasaw NRA, July 2007. Southwestern Plains The Plains of the Southwest include the southern Great Plains, the High Plains, Llano Estacado (Staked Plains), and Edwards Plateau. Sunset lights up the grass at Capulin Volcano National Monument National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Series: Southern Plains Bird Inventories Birds are a highly visible component of many ecosystems and because they respond quickly to changes in resource conditions, birds are good indicators of environmental change. Bird inventories allow us to understand the current condition, or status, of bird populations and communities in parks. These data are important for managing birds and other resources and provide baseline information for monitoring changes over time. Violet-green swallow

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