by Alex Gugel , all rights reserved
Flora of Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Nevada. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).
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Flora of Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation Washoe County, Nevada Sarah Kulpa Allison Phillips Version 1.1, 2015 About the Authors Sarah Kulpa is currently the botanist for the Nevada Fish and Wildlife Office in Reno, Nevada. When she was a graduate student at the University of Nevada, Reno, she developed a vegetation monitoring plan for Anaho Island which prompted the need for and development of this booklet. Sarah can be contacted at: Nevada Fish and Wildlife Office 1340 Financial Boulevard, Suite 234 Reno, Nevada 89502 Tel: 775-861-6340 Email: email@example.com Allison Phillips is currently a science teacher at Junipero Serra High School. She also started working on this booklet as a graduate student at the University of Nevada, Reno after Sarah introduced her to the joy of island life. Allison can be contacted at: Junipero Serra High School 451 West 20th Avenue San Mateo, California 94403 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Sarah and Allison collecting vegetation data on Anaho Island, NV. Acknowledgements - Thank you to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge Complex (and especially Donna Withers, Wildlife Refuge Specialist) for the support and funding for the Anaho Island NWR plant survey projects that lead to the creation of this plant identification booklet. - Thank you to Dr. Elizabeth Leger, Associate Professor of Plant Ecology, University of Nevada, Reno, for her dedication to this project and editorial contributions. - Thank you to Arnold (Jerry) Tiehm, Herbarium Curator, University of Nevada, Reno, for sharing his plant identification expertise and his editorial contributions. - Thank you to the Stillwater Wildlife Refuge Complex boat operators who got us safely to and from the island: Matt Wilson, Dave Wills, Bob Henderson, and Keith Schmidt. - Thank you to all the volunteers that helped collect data during the surveys: Kevin Badik, Owen Baughman, Charlene Duncan, Jason Forgette, Erin Goergen, Michelle Hochrein, Sandra Li, and Bryce Wehan. This booklet was developed based on data and herbarium specimens collected by the authors during 2009-2011 (Kulpa and Leger 2013; Phillips 2011), as well as data and herbarium specimens collected in 1964 by W. Verne Woodbury (Woodbury 1966). All herbarium specimens are housed at the University of Nevada, Reno herbarium. Photographs used throughout the booklet were taken by Owen Baughman, Brian Kulpa, Sarah Kulpa, Elizabeth Leger, Allison Phillips, and Donna Withers. Plant common and scientific names, distinguishing characteristics, and terminology are as found in the USDA NRCS Plants database (http://plants.usda.gov), Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, (http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu), Harris and Harris (2009), or as provided by the authors. Version 1.1 contains updates performed by EA Leger, including reformatted pictures and the addition of new species. Table of Contents I. II. Map of Anaho Island Commonly Used Terms Flora of Anaho Island III. Grasses IV. Annual Forbs V. Perennial Forbs VI. Shrubs VII. Trees VIII. Plant Check List IX. Glossary X. References Native grass community on Anaho Island, NV I. Map of Anaho Island Pyramid Lake Reno Anaho Island – 2014 World View 2 imagery from Digital Globe provided to the FWS through the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency Enhanced View Web Hosting Service Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is located near the eastern shore of Pyramid Lake, Washoe County, Nevada and is part of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation. Pyramid Lake is approximately 35 miles northwest of Reno, Nevada. Anaho Island NWR was established in 1913 to provide secure nesting habitat for migratory birds, especially colonial nesting birds such as American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), and California gulls (Larus californicus). This island ecosystem supports a unique variety of birds, plants, reptiles, and small mammals. Anaho Island NWR is closed to the public. II. Commonly Used Terms A complete glossary of terms can be found in Section IX. Types of plants found on Anaho Island (definitions from Webster’s New College Dictionary 2009) Grass: A herbaceous plant with narrow leaves; hollow, jointed stems; and spikes or clusters of membraneous flowers borne on smaller spikelets. Grasses may be annual or perennial. Forb: A herbaceous, non-woody plant other than a grass. Forbs may be annual, biennial or perennial. Shrub: A low, woody plant with one to several stems; usually shorter than a tree. Shrubs are perennial. Tree: A tall, woody plant with a single trunk; usually taller than a shrub. Trees are perennial. How plants grow (definitions from Harris and Harris 2009) Annual: A plant which germinates from seed, grows flowers, sets seed, and dies in the same year. Biennial: A plant which lives two years, usually forming a basal rosette of leaves the first year, then flowers and fruits the second year. Perennial: A plant that lives three or more years once established. Native Plant: With respect to a particular ecosystem, a species that, other than as a result of an introduction, historically occurred or currently occurs in that ecosystem. (definition from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s National Wildlife Refuge System Biological Integrity, Diversity, and Environmental Health Policy 601FW3). Non-Native Plant: With respect to a particular ecosystem, any species, including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of propagating that species, that is not native to that ecosystem (definition from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Wilderness Stewardship Policy 610FW1). A non-native plant did not historically occur in a particular ecosystem, but has become established there as a result of human related changes to the landscape. Non-native plants can reduce biodiversity by displacing native and rare plant species. They can also alter ecosystem functions and characteristics, such as wildfire intensity and frequency, or soil and hydrologic characteristics, that indirectly impact native species. Historic Condition: The composition, structure, and functioning of ecosystems resulting from natural processes that we believe, based on sound professional judgment, were present prior to substantial human related changes to the landscape (definition from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s National Wildlife Refuge System Biological Integrity, Diversity, and Environmental Health Policy 601FW3). III. Grasses Scientific Name Achnatherum speciosum Bromus berteroanus Bromus diandrus ssp. rigidus Bromus rubens Bromus tectorum Distichlis spicata Elymus elymoides ssp. elymoides Hordeum jubatum Hordeum murinum Poa secunda Common Name desert needlegrass Chilean chess ripgut brome red brome cheatgrass saltgrass squirreltail foxtail barley mouse barley Sandberg bluegrass Native, perennial grass Achnatherum speciosum Achnatherum speciosum Achnatherum Desert desert needlegrass speciosum needlegrass ACSP12 POACEAE A bunching, perennial grass •12-24 inches tall •Spikelets appear feathery due to hairy awns •Awns are sharply bent •Callus is well developed and sharp Habitat on Anaho Island: Common, especially on southern and western areas. Occurs in large patches at lower elevations, and becomes more sporadic as elevation increases. Large patches of this grass without their inflorescence resemble hedge-hogs scattered across the landscape. Bromus berteroanus Chilean chess BRBE6 Poaceae A non-native, annual grass •12-24 inches tall •Solitary spikelets •Leaf blades are sparsely to densely covered with hair •Awn is bent and twisted below the middle Habitat on Anaho Island: Found at mid-elevations in rocky areas. Uncommon. Bromus diandrus ssp. rigidus ripgut brome BRDIR Poaceae A non-native, annual grass •12-36 inches tall •Leaf blades are flat and hairy •Florets have very long awns Habitat on Anaho Island: Found in patches along western slope and high elevations. Bromus rubens red brome BRRU2 Poaceae A non-native, annual grass •4-16 inches tall •Erect inflorescence •Leaf blade covered in small, soft hairs •Brush-like inflorescence that becomes reddish-purple at maturity Habitat on Anaho Island: Found all over the island; its presence increases as elevation increases. Bromus tectorum cheatgrass BRTE Poaceae A non-native, annual grass •2-35 inches tall •Drooping inflorescence when mature •Leaf blade covered in soft hairs •Spikelets are nodding towards one-side and spikes turn purple with maturity Habitat on Anaho Island: Common throughout the island especially along lower elevation beach areas. Distichlis spicata Distichlis spicata saltgrass DISP Poaceae A rhizomatous, perennial grass •4-20 inches tall •Salt excreted through glands (and present on leaves) •2-ranked leaves (opposite sides of axis) •Inflorescence of multiple spikelets Habitat on Anaho Island: Common, restricted to lower elevation shorelines. Dense colonies of very green, relatively large plants on northeastern (pelican) shore of the island. Elymus elymoides ssp. elymoides squirreltail ELELE Poaceae A perennial bunchgrass •4-20 inches tall •Spiked inflorescence •Mature seeds appear twisted with awns looking like a squirrel’s tail Habitat on Anaho Island: Common on northwestern and southern portions of the island that were exposed after 1911; more sparsely distributed as elevation increases. Hordeum jubatum foxtail barley HOJU Poaceae A native, tufted, perennial grass •12-36 inches tall •Inflorescence a terminal spike •No auricles at the base of leaf blades •When in flower, nodding clusters are pale green Habitat on Anaho Island: Not seen during 2009-2010 surveys; however, recorded by Woodbury in 1964. Hordeum murinum mouse barley HOMU Poaceae A non-native, annual grass •Up to 10 inches tall •Inflorescence a spike •Well-developed auricles at the base of leaf blade Habitat on Anaho Island: Sparse on the island and is found at low elevations. Poa secunda Poa Sandberg secundabluegrass POSE Poaceae POACEAE A small-clumping, perennial grass •Up to 12 inches tall •Leaves with prow-shaped tip •Numerous, small basal leaves •Begins growth in early spring Habitat on Anaho Island: Common at lower elevations and becomes more sporadic as elevation increases. IV. Annual Forbs Scientific Name Amaranthus albus Amsinckia tessellata Atriplex micrantha* Atriplex rosea* Bassia hyssopifolia Camissonia boothii ssp. boothii Camissonia claviformis ssp. cruciformis Caulanthus lasiophyllus Chaenactis stevioides Chamaesyce serpyllifolia ssp. serpyllifolia* Cryptantha pterocarya Descurainia pinnata Eriogonum deflexum Eriogonum nidularium Eriogonum pusillum Erodium cicutarium Galium aparine Gilia inconspicua Halogeton glomeratus* Lactuca serriola Malacothrix glabrata Mentzelia albicaulis Mentzelia veatchiana Phacelia crenulata Psathyrotes annua Rafinesquia neomexicana Salsola tragus Sisymbrium altissimum Verbascum thapsus* Common Name prostrate pigweed bristly fiddleneck twoscale saltbush tumbling saltweed fivehorn smotherweed Booth’s suncup browneyes California mustard fleshcolor pincushion thymeleaf sandmat wingnut cryptantha western tansymustard flatcrown buckwheat birdnest buckwheat yellowturbans redstem stork’s bill stickywilly shy gilia saltlover prickly lettuce smooth desertdandelion whitestem blazingstar Veatch’s blazingstar cleftleaf wildheliotrope annual psathyrotes desert chicory prickly Russian thistle tall tumblemustard common mullein * species which have been observed on Anaho Island, but for which neither herbarium mounts nor photographs were available, so information is not provided in this edition Amaranthus albus prostrate pigweed AMAL Amaranthaceae A non-native, annual forb •6-36 inches tall and basally branched •Stems are light green •Alternate leaves •Flowers are in small, axillary clusters and have only sepals Habitat on Anaho Island: Not seen during 2009-2010 surveys; however, recorded by Woodbury in 1964. Amsinckia tessellata bristly fiddleneck AMTE3 Boraginaceae A bristly, sticky-haired, annual forb •Up to 24 inches tall •Stiff, bristly hairs cover the entire plant •Scorpioid, coiled inflorescence •Yellow trumpet-shaped 5-petaled flowers with orange markings in the throat Habitat on Anaho Island: Common on western and southern sides of the island. Very common during 2010 (a wet year). Bassia hyssopifolia fivehorn smotherweed BAHY Chenopodiaceae A non-native, annual forb •Up to 36 inches tall •Younger stems are covered with long, soft hairs •Flowers are in a spike and are only made up of sepals •Sepals have five distinctive hook structures which surround each seed Habitat on Anaho Island: Found at low elevations along the northeast and south beaches. Camissonia boothii ssp. boothii Booth’s suncup CABOB Onagraceae A glandular, hairy, annual forb •5-15 inches tall •4-petaled flowers that are pink or white •Head-like stigma Habitat on Anaho Island: Only found on sandy/gravelly shoreline habitat on the northwest, west and south portions of the island. This species can flower as early as April and as late as October. Camissonia claviformis ssp. cruciformis browneyes CACLC Onagraceae A glandular, hairy, annual forb •4-24 inch tall flower stalks •4 petal flowers that are white or yellow with a dark spot near the inner base Habitat on Anaho Island: Only found on sandy/gravelly shoreline habitat of southwest beach. Caulanthus lasiophyllus California mustard CALA35 Brassicaceae A stiff-hairy, annual forb •8-40 inches tall •Stems are erect and often unbranched •Basal leaves wither quickly •4-petaled white flowers with variable size Habitat on Anaho Island: Uncommon; found in one location on the northwestern side of the island. Chaenactis stevioides desert pincushion CHST Asteraceae A branching, rayless, annual forb •2-18 inches tall •Stems are hairy with cobwebby fibers that thin with age •No ray flowers - yellow bumps in the center of the flower are tightly closed disk flowers that will open white. Fully open disk flowers are very narrow, white tubes that resemble ray flowers. Habitat on Anaho Island: Common on sandy/rocky soils at lower elevations of the island. Cryptantha pterocarya wingnut cryptantha CRPT Boraginaceae A bristly, annual forb •4-16 inches tall •Stems with short, stiff hairs; leaves with bristly hairs •Tiny, white, 5 petaled flowers that often occur in a coiled, spike-like cluster Habitat on Anaho Island: Common on sandy/rocky soils at lower elevations of the island. Descurainia pinnata western tansymustard DEPI Brassicaceae A hairy, multi-branched, annual forb •Up to 28 inches tall •Pinnately lobed leaves •Tiny, yellow, four petaled flowers in a terminal raceme Habitat on Anaho Island: Common at south and west beach areas and at lower elevations. Eriogonum deflexum flatcrown buckwheat ERDE6 Polygonaceae A small, branching, annual forb •Up to 30 inches tall (typically shorter) •Woolly, kidney-shaped basal leaves •Flowers small (1-3 mm) with 6 tepals that are white to pink Habitat on Anaho Island: Seen only on the south beach, during the spring of 2010 ( a wet year). Eriogonum nidularium ERNI4 birdnest buckwheat Polygonaceae A small, annual forb •2-12 inches tall •Small, round basal leaves •Rounded form with tangled branches •Small (2-3 mm) fan shaped tepals, yellow-red Habitat on Anaho Island: Common in sandy, gravelly, and rocky areas of the island, particularly on the western and southern sides. Seen at all elevations, in sand and gravel at low southern elevations, and in rocky outcrops at higher elevations. Eriogonum pusillum yellowturbans ERPU6 Polygonaceae An annual forb •5-30 cm tall •Small, round basal leaves that are very white & woolly below •Spindly, naked branches •Small (1-2.5 mm) tepals, yellow becoming reddish Habitat on Anaho Island: Only seen on the southern beach, during the spring of 2010 (a wet year). Erodium cicutarium redstem stork’s bill ERCI6 Geraniaceae A non-native, annual forb •1-24 inch hairy stems and spreads from a rosette along the ground •Hairy leaves divided into narrow, fern-like lobed segments •5-petaled pink to purple flowers with a long, beaked fruit Habitat on Anaho Island: Dense populations found on northeast side of island near nesting birds and along the south and northwest beaches. Galium aparine stickywilly GAAP2 Rubiaceae A sticky, annual forb •2-12 inches tall •Small flowers with 4, white petals •Leaves borne in whorls of 6–8 •Leaves and stems have fine hairs that stick to clothes and fur Habitat on Anaho Island: Found in shadier places in between rock crevices. Seen between rocks at the high elevation pelican viewing platform and the southwest beach area. Gilia inconspicua shy gilia GIIN2 Polemoniaceae A small, annual forb •2-12 inches tall •Mostly basal, cobwebby leaves •Small (2-3 mm) flowers with lavender lobes that have a purple spot at the base Habitat on Anaho Island: Seen only during the wet year of 2010 growing at the base of the western slope of the island. Very hard to spot especially when growing with patches of Erodium cicutarium. Lactuca serriola prickly lettuce LASE Asteraceae A non-native, annual forb •1-5 feet tall with milky sap •Leaves (with a sharp spine on the back side of the midrib) grow along a spiny stem, getting smaller as they get closer to the top of the plant •Branches only in the flowering portion of the plant •Flower heads are yellow and composed of only ray flowers Habitat on Anaho Island: Found mainly on northeast and southern beaches of the island. Malacothrix glabrata smooth desertdandelion MAGL3 Asteraceae A hairless, annual forb •2-16 inches tall •Mostly basal leaves that wither by the time the flower opens •Stalked, yellow, strap-like flowers that sometimes have an orange-tinged spot near the center of the cluster Habitat on Anaho Island: Not seen during 2009-2010 surveys; however, recorded by Woodbury in 1964. Mentzelia albicaulis whitestem blazingstar MEAL6 Loasaceae A white-stemmed, annual forb •2-16 inches tall •Basal rosette of leaves with narrow, pinnate pointed lobes •Bright yellow flowers with 5 petals Habitat on Anaho Island: Only seen during the wet year of 2010. Growing on west facing & south facing slopes on the southwestern side of the island. Seen growing with Amsinckia tessellata and Mentzelia veatchiana. Mentzelia veatchiana Veatch’s blazingstar MEVE5 Loasaceae A hairy, annual forb •1-18 inches tall •Deeply lobed basal leaves •Yellow-orange flowers with five petals; petal bases are generally red-orange Habitat on Anaho Island: Only seen during the wet year of 2010. Growing on west facing & south facing slopes on the southwest side of the island. Seen growing with Mentzelia albicaulis & Amsinckia tessellata. Phacelia crenulata cleftleaf wildheliotrope PHCR Hydrophyllaceae A glandular, stiff-haired, annual forb •4-24 inches tall •Dark green, pinnately divided leaves with scalloped margins •Purple-blue bell shaped flower with 5 petals in a cyme that is curled at the tip like a scorpion’s tail Habitat on Anaho Island: Sparse on the island. Found in rocky patches along the western slope and randomly scattered rocky patches on the island, with just a few plants in each location. DO NOT TOUCH, the hairs on this plant can produce a rash similar to poison ivy. Psathyrotes annua annual psathyrotes PSAN Asteraceae A grayish-green, annual forb •1-6 inches tall and forms a low, spreading mound •Alternate, rounded leaves with teeth toward the tip •Stems are purplish •¼ inch yellow, flower heads on short stalks in leaf axils Habitat on Anaho Island: Grows in sandy, lower elevation southwest beach areas on the island. Larger population observed in 2010 (the wet year). Rafinesquia neomexicana desert chicory RANE Asteraceae A hairless, milky-sapped, annual forb •6-24 inches tall with weak, zigzagging stems •Small, toothed, and alternate stem leaves •Large, white flower heads that occur singly at the end of branches Habitat on Anaho Island: Seen at lower elevations on the island. Salsola tragus prickly Russian thistle SATR12 Chenopodiaceae A non-native, annual forb •Round, multi-branched annual up to 36 inches tall •Stems are red or purple striped •Leaves are alternate •Inconspicuous green flowers borne in the axils of upper leaves, accompanied by spiny bracts Habitat on Anaho Island: Common throughout the island, mostly at lower elevations and along the south, northwest and northeast beaches. Sisymbrium altissimum tall tumblemustard SIAL2 Brassicaceae A non-native, annual forb •24 to 48 inches tall •Multi-branched with a bushy appearance •Divided lower leaves •Small, 4 petaled, pale yellow flowers Habitat on Anaho Island: Common at low elevations on south, northeast, northwest and west beaches. V. Perennial Forbs Scientific Name Arabis holboellii Arabis pulchra Astragalus lentiginosus var. kennedyi Astragalus purshii var. tinctus Castilleja chromosa Cressa truxillensis Delphinium andersonii Erigeron aphanactis Heliotropium curassavicum Lepidium latifolium Mentzelia laevicaulis Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa Oenothera caespitosa Rumex crispus Sesuvium verrucosum Stephanomeria pauciflora Native, perennial forb Astragalus lentiginosus var. kennedyi Common Name Holboell’s rockcress beautiful rockcress Kennedy's milkvetch woollypod milkvetch desert paintbrush spreading alkaliweed Anderson’s larkspur rayless shaggy fleabane salt heliotrope perennial pepperweed smoothstem blazingstar wishbone bush tufted evening primrose curly dock western seapurslane brownplume wirelettuce Arabis holboellii Holboell’s rockcress ARHO2 Brassicaceae A slender, dainty, perennial forb •Up to 28 inches tall with one to several erect stems •Pubescent leaves •4 purpleish pink to white petals that point downward •As they mature, siliques (fruit) dangle downwards from the stem Habitat on Anaho Island: Only seen flowering during the wet year of 2010. Growing on a southwest rocky beach. Arabis pulchra beautiful rockcress ARPU2 Brassicaceae A slender, dainty, perennial forb •8-24 inches tall and branching from a woody base •Pubescent leaves •4 spoon-shaped purple petals •Siliques (fruit) become pendent as they elongate Habitat on Anaho Island: Only seen flowering during the wet year of 2010. Growing on a southwest rocky beach. Astragalus lentiginosus var. kennedyi Kennedy’s milkvetch ASLEK Fabaceae A Nevada endemic, perennial forb •Soft, shaggy, hairs on leaves •Purple pea-like flowers •Pods are glabrous, papery-membranous, and not mottled Habitat on Anaho Island: Grows in rocky, sandy lower elevations of the island. Two locations are known on the island. Astragalus purshii var. tinctus woollypod milkvetch ASPUT Fabaceae A silver-gray, woolly, perennial forb •Up to 5 inches tall forming low mats along the ground •Pink-purple pea-like flowers •Pods are densely hairy and white, resembling little cotton balls Habitat on Anaho Island: Grows in rocky, sandy soil at lower elevations on the island. Castilleja chromosa desert paintbrush CACH7 Orobanchaceae A semi-parasitic, perennial forb •6-18 inches tall •Lower leaves are long and undivided; upper leaves are divided into 3-5 segments •Flowers are small and inconspicuous; colored “flower-like” parts are bracts that range from orange to red Habitat on Anaho Island: Sparse on the island; found growing in a rocky area above beaches. Cressa truxillensis spreading alkaliweed CRTR5 Convolvulaceae A multi-branched, perennial forb •Up to 10 inches tall, low and spreading along the ground •Gray-green in color due to silky hairs on the plant •Small, hairy, oval leaves •Flowers white with 5 petals, surrounded by hairy, green sepals Habitat on Anaho Island: Commonly found on the south beach of the island. Delphinium andersonii Anderson’s larkspur DEAN Ranunculaceae A red and glabrous stemmed, perennial forb •Up to 20 inches tall •Mostly basal leaves that are palmately divided •4 purple-blue petals, 5 purple-blue sepals with the upper sepals extending into a spur Habitat on Anaho Island: Rare on the island. Two locations are known in a rocky patch near the western slope of the island. Erigeron aphanactis rayless shaggy fleabane ERAP Asteraceae A short, clumping, perennial forb •3-10 inches tall •Mostly basal, linear leaves •Leaves and stems covered in stiff, spreading hairs •Inflorescences are a head of yellow, disk flowers Habitat on Anaho Island: Found along rocky shoreline of south beach area. Heliotropium curassavicum salt heliotrope HECU3 Boraginaceae A fleshy, smooth, perennial forb •4-24 inches tall •Spread from underground roots to form mat-like clumps •Many, tiny, white-purple, sessile flowers are produced in 2-4 coiled cymes at the ends of branches Habitat on Anaho Island: Found on low elevation beach areas throughout the island. Lepidium latifolium perennial pepperweed LELA2 Brassicaceae A non-native, perennial forb •1-3 feet tall •Comprised of numerous woody stems •Laceolate, bright green to gray leaves; basal leaves larger than upper leaves •White flowers in dense clusters at branch ends Habitat on Anaho Island: Only known to occur on south beach. Management actions taken to eradicate. Continued monitoring needed to detect regrowth. Mentzelia laevicaulis smoothstem blazingstar MELA2 Loasaceae A white-stemmed, biennial forb •Up to 3 feet tall •Weedy-looking, whitish, branching stem with saw-toothed leaves •5 petals, bright yellow flowers that contain many stamens Habitat on Anaho Island: Found in low elevation beach areas throughout the island. Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa wishbone-bush MIBIR Nyctaginaceae A multi-branched, perennial forb •Up to 30 inches tall •Smooth stems •Ovate to kidney shaped opposite leaves •Flower made up of five white to light pink petal-like sepals that are bell-funnel shaped Habitat on Anaho Island: Found along the shoreline throughout the island. Oenothera caespitosa OECA10 tufted evening primrose Onagraceae A stemless, fragrant, perennial forb •Up to 24 inches tall, spreading to 24 inches wide •Leaves and flowers borne on root crown •Night-blooming, large white to pink flowers with 4 petals •Flower petals have a notched-tip making them heart shaped Habitat on Anaho Island: Found only on western slope at mid-elevation of the island. Rumex crispus curly dock RUCR Polygonaceae A non-native, perennial forb •Up to 5 feet tall •Mostly basal leaves with curly margins •Stems are erect and reddish •Small flowers in dense, green, spike-like clusters •Entire plant turns red at maturity Habitat on Anaho Island: Sparse on the island and is found at low elevations. Sesuvium verrucosum SEVE2 western seapurslane Aizoaceae A succulent, perennial forb •Spoon-shaped leaves with a base that clasps the stem •Leaves covered in small, wart-like bumps •Star-like, bright pink flowers composed of only sepals borne in the leaf axils Habitat on Anaho Island: Common on the south and north beaches. Stephanomeria pauciflora brownplume wirelettuce STPA4 Asteraceae A branching, pale-stemmed, perennial forb •12-24 inches tall •Stems are smooth, slender, and wiry forming a short, branching plant •Flower heads made up of pinkish straplike rays Habitat on Anaho Island: Common on the south, west and north beaches near shoreline. VI. Shrubs Scientific Name Common Name Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis Wyoming big sagebrush Atriplex canescens fourwing saltbush Atriplex confertifolia shadscale saltbush Brickellia microphylla littleleaf brickellbush Ericameria nauseosa ssp. nauseosa var. speciosa rubber rabbitbrush Grayia spinosa spiny hopsage Krascheninnikovia lanata winterfat Lepidium fremontii desert pepperweed Picrothamnus desertorum bud sagebrush Sarcobatus vermiculatus greasewood Tetradymia glabrata littleleaf horsebrush Native shrub Sarcobatus vermiculatus with double-crested cormorant nest towers Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis Wyoming big sagebrush ARTRW8 Asteraceae An evergreen, strongly aromatic shrub •3-9 feet tall with a rounded, uneven crown •Wedge-shaped leaves with 3 lobes at the tip •Inflorescence is an open, many flowered spike Habitat on Anaho Island: Not common on island. Found only on western slope at mid-elevation. Atriplex canescens fourwing saltbush ATCA2 Chenopodiaceae A densely branched, gray-green shrub •3-5 feet tall •Sessile, linear leaves with a scaly texture •Male and female flowers are produced on separate plants •Two flat, ½ inch long bracts enclose the female flowers, wings emerge from each bract, giving the fruit “four” wings Habitat on Anaho Island: Found at mid-elevation areas on the island. Atriplex confertifolia shadscale saltbush ATCO Chenopodiaceae A shrub with stiff, spine-like branches •1-3 feet tall •Long, rounded leaves with entire margins and a grayish, scaly appearance •Male and female flowers are on separate plants Habitat on Anaho Island: Found at mid-elevations on the island. Brickellia microphylla littleleaf brickellbush BRMI Asteraceae A multi-branched, pubescent shrub •1-2 feet tall •Pubescent, gland-dotted stems branching from the base •Round, green, glandular leaves •Petals are pale yellow and often purple-tinged Habitat on Anaho Island: Not found during 2009 or 2010. Location of specimen collected by W. Verne Woodbury in 1964 is unknown. Ericameria nauseosa ssp. nauseosa var. speciosa rubber rabbitbrush ERNAS2 Asteraceae A yellow flowered shrub •1-8 feet tall •White-gray woolly hairs cover the stem and leaves •Leaves are narrow and linear Habitat on Anaho Island: Common throughout the island, mostly at lower elevations and along the southern, northwest and northeast beaches. Grayia spinosa spiny hopsage GRSP Chenopodiaceae A shrub with gray-striped bark •1-3 feet tall with twigs that harden into spines •Alternate, oblong leaves sometimes gray at the tip •Male and female flowers are on separate plants and are produced in dense clusters •2 round, green bracts surround female flowers and turn red with age Habitat on Anaho Island: Uncommon at mid-elevations on the island. Krascheninnikovia lanata winterfat KRLA2 Chenopodiaceae A shrub covered in white, woolly hairs •1-2 ft tall with slender leaves that alternate along the stem •Male flowers have protruding stamens and are clustered at the tops of stems •Female flowers are in clusters in leaf axils below •Bracts under male and female flowers have tufts of hair, giving the flowers a cotton ball appearance Habitat on Anaho Island: Found at mid and high elevations on the island. Lepidium fremontii desert pepperweed LEFR2 Brassicaceae A many branched, smooth, gray-stemmed shrub •1-4 feet tall •Leaves are long and narrow •Clusters of small, white flowers with 4 petals make the plant appear entirely white when in flower Habitat on Anaho Island: Common on south beach at low and mid-elevations. Picrothamnus desertorum bud sagebrush PIDE4 Asteraceae A spiny, hairy, round shrub •12-20 inches tall •Tangled branches are woolly when new and thorny and rough when aged •Palmately divided, small, hairy leaves •Small, tightly packed, yellow, hairy disk flowers Habitat on Anaho Island: Only a few plants found on the western slope. Sarcobatus vermiculatus greasewood SAVE4 Chenopodiaceae A rounded, spiny shrub •3-6 feet tall •Linear, fleshy leaves on yellowish-gray stems •Male flowers form small cone-shaped structures at the ends of branches •Female flowers develop where the leaves meet the stem below the cone Habitat on Anaho Island: Common on north side of the island near nesting birds. Tetradymia glabrata littleleaf horsebrush TEGL Asteraceae A densely branched shrub •1-4 feet tall •Narrow, pointed leaves that are clustered around branches •Stems appear white striped due to white woolly fibers •Inflorescence bears up to