Plants at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Nevada. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).
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U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Plants I perhaps owe having become a painter to flowers. -Claude Monet Introduction Welcome Enjoying the Refuge's Plants Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, established in 1984, is the largest oasis in the Mojave Desert, supporting an incredible diversity of plants and wildlife year-round. Over 24,000 acres of alkali seeps, springs and other unique habitats make Ash Meadows a biological wonder for everyone to enjoy and protect. With such rare habitats, Ash Meadows has some of the most unique plant communities in the world. Unlike some desert areas where flowers bloom simultaneously in spectacular spring-time displays, the blooms at Ash Meadows are much more subtle and span the entire year. Natural fluctuations in weather can affect bloom times as well. In any season, something is blooming for insects and birds to eat, and people to admire. Look carefully and tread lightly—you will be amazed by what you discover! Plant Guide Key Refuge Symbols Refuge location where plant can be most commonly seen: Crystal Spring boardwalk Point of Rocks boardwalk Longstreet boardwalk Peterson Reservoir Devils Hole Conservation Status Symbols * an Ash Meadows endemic plant (only grows in the Ash Meadows area) † an endangered species ‡ a threatened species ▲ a non-native or invasive species Alkali mariposa lily. Cyndi Souza/USFWS Using this Plant Guide This list includes over 40 of the approximately 340 plant species at Ash Meadows. Each of the plants listed are used by culturally affiliated American Indians for both food and medicines. These tribes have revealed select information and caution visitors not to collect, eat or prepare plants, possibly harming an individual or the land. While collecting plants is strictly prohibited, observation and photography are encouraged. For more information, contact the refuge office at 775/372 5435. Credits Many dedicated individuals made this project possible. Deserving of special recognition are the Nuwuvi/ Newe Working Group, Cyndi Souza, Cristi Baldino, Christina Nalen, Sharon McKelvey, Wendy Smith and Alyson Mack. Trees & Shrubs Alkali Rabbitbrush Chrysothamnus albidus Desert Holly Atriplex hymenelytra This perennial shrub is commonly seen growing in alkaline flats throughout the refuge. Its small, highly resinous leaves help reduce water loss in an intensely hot and dry environment. A member of the aster family, it is covered by bright white or yellow flowerheads in late summer and fall. Native peoples use it as building material and a chewing gum. Size: 1-4' tall Blooms: Aug.-Nov. Size: 1-3' tall Blooms: Jan.-April Arrow Weed Desert Mistletoe Pluchea sericea Phoradendron californicum This tall, willow-like shrub grows in thickets around springs, streams and other wetlands on the refuge. Its pink flowers provide a welcome burst of color in spring and summer. For Native peoples, arrow weed uses include making arrow shafts, shelters, shades, granaries and roasting pit liners from the straight shoots and branches. Size: 3-16' tall Blooms: Mar.-July Size: 1-3' tall Blooms: Jan-March Creosote Bush Dodder Larrea tridentata Size: 2-10' tall Blooms: Apr-May The jagged leaves of this evergreen shrub resemble Christmas holly, though they are not related. Dormant in the summer, the leaves lose moisture, making it appear shriveled and dead. The leaves turn on edge to reduce sun exposure and their silver scales reflect light. This plant grows and flowers in the winter, pollinated not by insects but by wind. All these adaptations allow the desert holly to survive the hottest season. This reddish, parasitic plant is commonly found growing on mesquite trees. Technically, it is a hemiparasite—it relies on its host for water and nutrients, but produces some sugars through photosynthesis. Its leaves and flowers are tiny and scale-like which, like the spines on a cactus, help it to conserve water. Inedible to humans, the white-pink berries are eaten by Phainopepla birds, which help spread the mistletoe seeds from tree to tree. Cuscuta sp. A characteristic shrub of the Mojave Desert, creosote is well-adapted to its harsh environment. Resins on its small leaflets slow water loss— it also drops some leaves during periods of drought. It can continue to photosynthesize despite very dry soil conditions. Through self-cloning, a single plant can survive for hundreds, or even thousands, of years. This important plant is used by American Indians for firewood, arrows, shades, tool handles and other useful items. Size: vinelike Blooms: Mar-May This yellow-orange twining plant has thread-like stems resembling spaghetti. Lacking chlorophyll, leaves, and roots, the mature dodder plant survives through parasitism— obtaining all its sugars and water from a host plant. Its small flowers produce seeds in the spring that need a suitable host plant. The young plant twines in a counter-clockwise direction, then eventually uproots and lives entirely off its host. Quailbush Honey Mesquite Atriplex lentiformis breweri Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana Size: 5-30' tall Blooms: May-June In spring, this thorny tree produces spikes of yellow flowers that attract bees, wasps and other insect pollinators. The seed pods (shown) are long, straight and sweet to the taste—true to its name. Native people managed honey mesquite for its edible pods, which are also enjoyed by cottontails, ground squirrels and coyotes. Found in dense stands wherever ground water is available, a long taproot can reach water at depths of up to 190 feet. Velvet ash trees in the fall. Size: 3-10' tall Blooms: July-Oct. Like many desert shrubs, quailbush sometimes drops its leaves during the summer and remains dormant until spring. Its edible seeds and bluegray leaves provide food and shade for Gambel's quail and other wildlife in the alkaline flats where it grows. Amazingly, quailbush and shadscale are the only known host plants for saltbush sootywing caterpillars (adult butterfly shown here). Screwbean Mesquite Prosopis pubescens This thorny tree is named for its 1-2" long, tightly coiled seed pods that resemble screws (shown). The pods are eaten in large quantities by coyotes and small mammals, which assist in dispersing the seeds to new areas. Native people collect and cure the pods then ground them into flour for consumption. At one time, the pods were also used as a trade item. Size: up to 25' tall Blooms: May-June Leather-leaf or Velvet Ash Fraxinus velutina Size: up to 40' tall Blooms: April-May The leather-leaf ash is the tree for which "Ash Meadows" is named. Historic references to "gallery stands of ash" suggest that it may have been more prominent in years past. The leaves of this smooth-barked tree turn a golden yellow in the fall and completely drop off in the winter. Native people used this plant to make tools, utensils and cradleboard frames. Short sticks of ash were used to hunt chuckwalla. Seep Willow Baccharis emoryi Size: up to 12' tall Blooms: Aug-Dec This tall, leafy shrub forms graceful thickets along springs and streams. Despite its name, seep willow is not a true willow but a member of the sunflower family. It is also called "coyote bush", possibly due to its bushy clusters of flowers resembling a coyote's tail. The long, slender, evergreen leaves are coated with a resin that deters herbivory and aids water retention. Native people use this plant as fuel for starting fires. Grasses & Allies Alkali Sacaton Shadscale Sporobolus airoides Atriplex confertifolia Size: 1-2' tall Blooms: April-July Found in alkaline flats, this densely branched shrub, sometimes called "spiny saltbush" has woody stem tips that become rigid and sharply pointed. Its fruits consist of a single seed clustered between two papery bracts that turn red or pink when mature (shown). Unlike many desert shrubs, shadscale is "semi-evergreen", retaining some leaves year round. This gives it a head start at photosynthesizing—producing food— in the spring while its new leaves are still developing. Size: 1-7' tall Blooms: Apr-Oct Common Reed Wild Grape Phragmites australis Vitis arizonica Size: vinelike Blooms: May-June This perennial bunchgrass forms dense clumps in alkaline flats. Like all grasses, its roots form a dense mat underground that helps hold soil in place. This prevents erosion, retains soil moisture, and keeps down dust. For this reason, managers often use sacaton in habitat restoration on the refuge. Commonly seen growing around springs and streams at Ash Meadows, this large woody vine has maple-like leaves, shreddy bark and coiling tendrils. Tiny, inconspicuous white flowers bloom in spring and turn into dark blue, juicy fruits in late summer and fall. The grapes are edible and provide a tasty treat for birds and other animals. It has been managed by Native people as a food and beverage. Wire-lettuce Stephanomeria pauciflora Size: 6-12' tall Blooms: July-Nov Saltgrass Distichlis spicata The flower stalks of this small shrub are leafless and therefore wire-like, giving wire-lettuce its name. Though not edible, it is related to garden lettuce—characterized by milky sap and heads composed entirely of ray flowers. The seeds bear tufts of fine, light brown bristles that act like parachutes, catching in the wind and spreading the seeds. Size: 1-2' tall Blooms: May-Aug. This bamboo-like grass with purplish-white plumes is widely distributed around the world, and has become a noxious weed in several states. Dense colonies can be found on the refuge. The long plant stems under or along the ground send out roots and shoots known as "rhizomes". American Indians use a local variety to make arrows, fire drills, pipes, game tokens and house walls. Size: up to 1' tall Blooms: Apr-July This low grass forms dense, carpetlike stands in seasonally wet alkaline soils. Its leaves secrete excess salt, allowing it to survive in highly saline soils. The salt crystals may also serve to reflect sunlight off the leaves, thereby reducing water loss. This plant aids habitat restoration by helping to prevent erosion, retain soil moisture and reduce dust. American Indians use this plant to enhance the flavor of their food. Showy Wildflowers Southern Cattail Alkali Heliotrope Typha domingensis Heliotropium curassavicum This tall, perennial aquatic plant grows in dense colonies in springs and streams throughout the refuge. Historically, cattails were less common on the refuge, but developments and agricultural activity have caused them to become overgrown in many wetlands. The brown spikes ripen in summer and break open in fall, releasing millions of fluffy seeds to the wind. Size: 10-12' tall Size: 0.3-2' tall Blooms: May-June Alkali heliotrope, true to its name, is found in moist to dry alkaline (salty) soils, usually near water. Its flowers are borne in a scorpion-tail-like spike that uncoils as the flower opens in May or June. The name comes from the Greek word heli meaning "sun" and tropos meaning "to turn", referring to the plant's ability to turn toward the sun. This plant likes disturbed areas (bare soil) and spreads rapidly from a rhizome-like root. Beavertail Cactus Opuntia basilaris var. basilaris Size: 3-16" tall Blooms: Mar-June Beavertail, like all cacti, is well adapted to extremely hot, arid environments. While most plants make their food during the day, opening up their leaves' pores to absorb carbon dioxide, cacti run the risk of losing too much water to the dry desert air. Instead, cacti photosynthesize at night when temperatures are cooler. Beavertail take it one step further by not photosynthesizing at all during the hot summer. Blue-eyed Grass Sisyrinchium spp. Mojave thistle seeds are an important food for lesser goldfinches in their spring and fall migration. Wendy Smith/USFWS Despite its name and grass-like appearance, blue-eyed grass belongs in the iris family. Its delicate blueviolet blossoms embellish spring pool banks, streams, meadows and alkaline flats throughout the refuge in spring. Botanists have identified two species of blue-eyed grass on the refuge, as well as a possible hybrid with characteristics of both species. Size: up to 1.5 ' tall Blooms: Mar-May Desert Globemallow Sphaeralcea ambigua Preuss' Milkvetch Astragalus preussii Found growing on rocky slopes and roadsides, desert globemallow is the most drought-resistant member of the mallow family. Bighorn sheep often graze on this plant. Another name, "sore-eye poppy", refers to the stiff hairs on its leaves and stems that hurt when accidentally rubbed in the eye. It has been used to make a thick syrup for potter's clay and to coat the surface of drying pottery. The long, branched stems of this plant will often creep, forming a lowcrouching ground cover. Its leaves look like those of the common pea, its close relative. During spring, it blooms in colorful displays of dark purple flowers. Its seed pods are small, pointed and inflated. This is not to be confused with the very rare, federally threatened, Ash Meadows milkvetch. Size: 1-3' tall Blooms: Feb-April Size: up to 1' tall Blooms: Mar-April Desert Paintbrush Mojave Aster Castilleja angustifolia Size: up to 1.5' tall Blooms: Mar-Apr This perennial desert flower is a hemiparasite - it lacks a welldeveloped root system, and instead, attaches to the roots of a host plant to obtain water and nutrients. Surprisingly, it is not the flower that attracts people's attention, but the bright red bracts (modified leaves) beneath each flower. The flowers are the greenish tubes located directly above each bract. The similar Wyoming paintbrush grows up to 4' tall and blooms later, in fall. Desert Trumpet This member of the sunflower family usually blooms in spring but sometimes waits until fall. The brilliant lavender flower head can grow up to 2" in diameter. After wet winters, its petals may be covered with black/gray/orange striped caterpillars—the larvae of the desert checkerspot butterfly. Look for it around the Point of Rocks boardwalk. Size: 0.5-2' tall Blooms: Mar-May Mojave Thistle Eriogonum inflatum Size: up to 1' tall Blooms: Mar-April Xylorhiza tortifolia var. tortifolia Cirsium mohavense Native people use this plant, also called Indian Pipeweed, to make pipes, whistles, and children's toys. It also serves as a food source. It can be seen on rocky slopes, along roads, and on sandy flats. The desert trumpet's most distinctive feature is its swollen stem. A particular species of wasp deposits her eggs inside the young, green stems of desert trumpet. The eggs hatch inside and the wasp larvae grow, eventually chewing their way out. This spiny native thistle grows in a variety of habitats, including alkaline flats, meadows and wetlands. Its pink to white flower blooms in summer. The seeds are a preferred food for migratory lesser goldfinches in fall and winter. Native people eat parts of this thistle after careful processing and preparation. Size: 2-8' tall Blooms: July-Oct Prince's Plume Yerba Mansa Stanleya pinnata Size: 1-5' tall Blooms: Apr-Sept Anemopsis californica This mustard is often seen along washes, slopes, and roadsides. It produces 4–12" spikes of yellow flowers. Prince’s plume prefers selenium-rich soils and accumulates the mineral at levels toxic to humans and livestock. Native people have traditionally managed this plant as a food source, collecting it during particular times of year and preparing it according to exact and proper methods. This low-growing perennial is identified by its large, round leathery leaves and large white blossoms. In winter, the reddish stolons (aboveground shoots) are very conspicuous along the ground. New flowers sprout from these creeping stolons, allowing the plant to form beautiful, dense stands when in springtime bloom. It prefers springs and wet meadow habitats. Size: 6-20" tall Blooms: May-June Sacred Datura Datura wrightii The showy white flowers of datura close during the day, opening at night to attract its primary pollinator— the hawkmoth. Hawkmoths are specially equipped with long tongues to access nectar from these trumpetlike blossoms. Though the moths suffer no permanent damage from their meal, datura is known for its hallucinogenic, and potentially lethal, effect on humans. Size: 1.5-5' tall Blooms: Mar-Nov telescoping mustard grows up to 10 feet tall Telescoping Mustard Thelypodium integrifolium This mustard is striking because of its tall leafless stalks arising from large basal leaves. Found across the western United States, this species likes alkaline soils in Ash Meadows. Native people use this plant for food. Size: 1-10' tall Blooms: Aug-Sept Yerba mansa turns a deep reddish hue in the winter. Alyson Mack/USFWS Rare & Endemic Plants Alkali Mariposa Lily Calochortus striatus Ash Meadows Gumplant*‡ Grindelia fraxino-pratensis These beautiful and delicate flowers are critically endangered in the State of Nevada. Small populations grow in only ten spots within the refuge. The greatest potential threat to their habitat at Ash Meadows is the lowering of the water table caused by groundwater pumping in surrounding areas. Look for them in alkali meadows and washes. Ash Meadows gumplant derives its name from a gum-like substance found on its flower buds. It grows in moist clay and alkaline soils, producing multiple lemon-yellow flowers. In 1985, Ash Meadows gumplant was listed as a threatened species. It is considered an endemic species—it only grows on the refuge and a small area in neighboring Inyo County, California. Size: up to 8" tall Blooms: April-June Size: up to 1' tall Blooms: June-Oct Amargosa Niterwort*† Ash Meadows Ivesia*‡ Nitrophila mohavensis Ivesia kingii var. eremica The Amargosa niterwort is endemic to the Ash Meadows area. It is also our only endemic plant designated as an endangered species. While this plant is now federally protected, some Native people feel that the Amargosa niterwort is endangered because it was disrespected and chose not to reproduce. Ivesia is a genus of the rose family known as "mousetails". These perennial herbs are native to western North America. The incredibly hardy, salt-tolerant Ash Meadows ivesia, also known as Ash Meadows mousetails, grows in alkali washes throughout the refuge. It prefers moist, clay soils with a prominent salt crust. Size: up to 4" tall Blooms: April-June Size: up to 5" tall Blooms: Aug-Oct Ash Meadows Blazingstar*‡ Ash Meadows Lady's Tresses* Mentzelia leucophylla Spiranthes infernalis The Ash Meadows blazingstar is a biennial or short-lived perennial plant—during its first year of growth it forms a whorl of leaves at its base, but doesn't produce any flowers. It grows in small outcroppings, hills or slopes with loose, uncompacted soil. In 1985, this refuge-endemic plant was listed as a federally threatened species and is the rarest endemic plant on the refuge. Size: up to 20" tall Blooms: May-Sept Size: up to 16" tall Blooms: June-Aug This endemic plant is one of only two orchid species on the refuge. Like many orchids, it stores its pollen in a package, or pollinia. Visiting bees collect this pollinia on their long tongues and transfer it to other flowers for pollination. Lady's tresses are found along springs and in wet meadows within only 34.7 acres on the refuge. Since its habitat is so limited, it is a U.S. Fish and Wildlife species of concern. Ash Meadows Milkvetch*‡ Astragalus phoenix Size: 20" wide Blooms: Mar-May Not to be confused with the more common freckled milkvetch, the Ash Meadows milkvetch has hairy, grayish-green leaves that form low mounds up to 20 inches wide. The plants grow in hard alkaline upland soils. The pinkish-purple, peashaped flowers extend up from the foliage, with 1–2 flowers per stem. The fruit is a small legume that can hold 30 seeds. An early bloomer, it is a favorite food of black-tailed jackrabbits on the refuge. Ash Meadows Sunray*‡ Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata Size: up to 2' tall Blooms: April-May This perennial grows from a clumped base with twisted, fuzzy leaves. Its bright yellow flowers grow on leafless stalks. The sunray prefers hard, whitish alkaline soils, particularly in upland areas and limestone washes. It produces copious amounts of nectar and pollen, and attracts a broad array of insects. One study found over 55 species of bees, wasps, flies, ants, beetles, spiders and butterflies on its blossoms—more than any other plant on the refuge after mesquite trees! Spring-loving Centaury*‡ Zeltnera namophila Size: up to 2' tall Blooms: July-Sept This species has rebounded since the refuge was created and is now abundant around wet meadows, seeps and springs in summer. It is capable of self-fertilization, but benefits greatly from the services of insect pollinators like bees and wasps. Its numerous branched stems emerge from a single base, giving a bushlike appearance. These stems bear multiple small, pink flowers about the size of a dime. Tecopa Birds Beak* Cordylanthus tecopensis Size: 6" tall Blooms: July-Oct Tecopa birds beak occurs in Nevada within an extremely limited range that includes the refuge. It is also a known associate of spring-loving centaury and often occurs within the same habitat types, including wet meadows, seeps, and the banks of spring channels. Its small, inconspicuous flowers vaguely resemble a bird's beak, thus its name. Look for it in clay, alkaline soils along the Crystal Spring boardwalk. White Bearpoppy Arctomecon merriamii American Indians were the first to identify and gather traditional knowledge on white bearpoppy, also known as white bearpaw poppy. The first scientifically described specimen was collected by Merriam and Bailey during the 1891 Death Valley expedition, hence its scientific name. Look for these delicate flowers with fuzzy leaves in gravel substrates of alluvial fans. Size: up to 6" tall Blooms: April-June Pollinator Superhero! Megachile lippiae is not your average bee. While most bees store pollen on their legs, Megachile carries it under its abdomen for easy access to a flower's pistil, where new Leaf-cutter bee, seeds develop. Megachile lippiae. Many plants on the refuge depend on Megachile's super-pollinator skills for their survival, including three threatened plants: the spring-loving centaury, Ash Meadows sunray and Ash Meadows lady's tresses. Refuge Plant Checklist Aizoaceae (Fig-Marigold) Sesuvium verrucosum Amaranthaceae (Amaranth) Amaranthus albus▲ Amaranthus blitoides Amaranthus retroflexus▲ Nitrophila mohavensis*† Nitrophila occidentalis Tidestromia oblongifolia Anacardiaceae (Sumac) Rhus trilobata Apiaceae (Carrot) Hydrocotyle verticillata Apocynaceae (Dogbane) Amsonia tomentosa Apocynum cannabinum Arecaceae (Palm) Phoenix dactylifera▲ Washingtonia filifera▲ Asclepidaceae (Milkweed) Asclepias erosa Asclepias fascicularis Asclepias speciosa Asteraceae (Sunflower) Acamptopappus shockleyi Acroptilon repens▲ Ambrosia dumosa Ambrosia psilostachya Amphipappus fremontii Aster pauciflorus Aster subulatus var. ligulatus Atrichoseris platyphylla Baccharis emoryi Baileya pleniradiata Bebbia juncea var. asper Brickellia desertorum Calycoseris parryi Calycoseris wrightii Centaurea melitensis▲ Chaenactis stevioides Chaetadelpha wheeleri Chrysothamnus albidus Chrysothamnus nauseosus Chrysothamnus paniculatus Cirsium mohavense Cirsium vulgare▲ Conyza canadensis▲ Conyza coulteri Crepis runcinata ssp. hallii Dicoria canecens Encelia farinosa Encelia frutescens Encelia viginensis Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata*‡ Eriophyllum lanosum Geraea canescens Gnaphilum luteo-album▲ Grindelia fraxino-pratensis*‡ Gutierrezia microcephala Hazardia brickelloides Helianthus annuus▲ Helianthus nuttalii Hymenoclea salsola Isocoma acradenia Iva acerosa Iva axillaris ssp. robustior Lactuca serriola▲ Machaeranthera arida Machaeranthera carnosa Malacothrix glabrata Monoptilon belloides Palafoxia arida var. arida? Pectis papposa var. papposa Pleurocoronis pluriseta Pluchea odorata Pluchea sericea Porophyllum gracile Prenanthella exigua Psathyrotes annua Psathyrotes ramosissima Pyrrocoma racemosa var. ? Rafinesquia neomexicana Solidago spectabilis Sonchus asper ssp. asper▲ Stephanomeria pauciflora var. ? Xanthium strumarium Xylorhiza tortifolia var. tortifolia Boraginaceae (Borage) Amsinkia tesselata var. ? Cryptantha angustifolia Cryptantha circumscissa Cryptantha confertiflora Cryptantha pterocarya Cryptantha virginensis Heliotropium curassavicum Lappula redowski var. capulata Pectocarya platycarpa Pectocarya recurvata Plagiobothrys stipitatus var. micranthus Tiquilia canescens var. canescens Tiquilia plicata Brassicaceae (Mustard) Arabis holboelli var. ? Cardaria draba▲ Descurania pinnata Descurania sophia▲ Dithyrea californica Hutchinsia procumbens Lepidium flavum var. flavum Lepidium fremontii var. fremontii Lepidium lasiocarpum var. lasiocarpum Lepidium montanum var. cinereum Lepidium perfoliatum▲ Malcolmia africana▲ Physaria chambersii Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum▲ Sisymbrium irio▲ Stanleya pinnata var. ? Streptanthella longirostris Thelypodium integrifolim ssp. affine Cactaceae (Cactus) Echinocactus polycephalus Echinocereus engelmannii Ferocactus cylindraceus var. lecontei Mammillaria tetrancistra Opuntia basilaris var. basilaris Opuntia echinocarpa Opuntia ramosissima Sclerocactus johnsoni Campanulaceae (Bellflower) Nemacladus gladuliferus var. ? Capparaceae (Caper) Cleome sparsifolia Cleomella brevipes Cleomella obtusifolia Oxystylis lutea Caryophyllaceae (Pink) Scopulophila rixfordii Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot) Allenrolfea occidentalis Atriplex canescens ssp. canescens Atriplex confertifolia Atriplex hymenelytra Atriplex lentiformis ssp. torreyi Atriplex parryi Atriplex phyllostegia Atriplex polycarpa Bassia hyssopifolia▲ Chenopodium album▲ Grayia spinosa Halogeton glomeratus▲ Kochia californica Kraschninnikovia lanata Monolepis nuttalliana Salsola paulsenii▲ Sarcobatus vermiculatus Suaeda moquinii Convolvulaceae (Morning Glory) Convolvulus arvensis▲ Cressa truxillensis Cucurbitaceae (Gourd) Cucurbita palmata Cuscutaceae (Dodder) Cuscuta pentagona ? Cyperaceae (Sedge) Bolboschoenus maritimus Bolboschoenus robustus Carex praegracilis Cladium californicum Eleocharis parishii Eleocharis rostellata Fimbristylis thermalis Schoenoplectus americanus Schoenus nigricans Eleagnaceae (Oleaster) Eleagnus angustifolius▲ Ephedraceae Ephedra funerea Ephedra nevadensis Ephedra torreyana Euphorbiaceae (Spurge) Chamaesyce albomarginata Chamaesyce micromeria Chamaesyce parishii Chamaesyce polycarpa Chamaesyce serpyllifolia ssp. serpyllifolia Croton californicus Ditiaxis californica Euphorbia incisa Fabaceae (Legume or Pea) Acacia greggii Astragalus laynae Astragalus lentiginosus Astragalus nuttallianus var. imperfectus Astragalus phoenix*‡ Astragalus preussii Dalea mollis Dalea mollissima Glycyrrhiza lepidota Lotus corniculatus▲ Lupinus arizonicus Lupinus sparsiflorus Medicago sativa▲ Melilotus alba▲ Melilotus indica▲ Melilotus officinalis▲ Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana Prosopis pubescens Psorothamnus fremontii var. fremontii Trifolium ssp.▲ Gentianaceae (Gentian) Zeltnera namophilum*‡ Geraniaceae (Geranium) Erodium cicutarium▲ Hydrocharitaceae (Waterweed) Najas marina Hydrophyllaceae (Waterleaf) Eucrypta micrantha Nama demissum var. demissum Nama pusillum Phacelia calthifolia Phacelia crenulata var. multiflora Phacelia fremontii Phacelia pachyphylla Phacelia vallis-mortae Iridaceae (Iris) Sisyrinshium funereum Sisyrinchium radicatum Juncaceae (Rush) Juncus balticus Juncus cooperi Juncus nodosus Juncaginaceae (Arrow-grass) Triglochin concinna var. debilis Krameriaceae (Rhatany) Krameria erecta Krameria grayi Lamiaceae (Mint) Marrubium vulgare▲ Salazaria mexicana Salvia columbiariae Salvia dorrii var. ? Liliacae (Lily) Asparagus officinalis▲ Calochortus flexuosus Calochortus striatus Dichlostemma capitatum ssp. ? Yucca schidigera Loasaceae (Loasa) Eucnide urens Mentzelia leucophylla*‡ Mentzelia obscura Mentzelia oreophila Mentzelia tricuspis Petalonyx thurberi ssp. ? Lythraceae (Loosestrife) Lythrum californicum Malvaceae (Mallow) Eremalche rotundifolia Malvella leprosa Sphaeralcea ambigua var. ? Nyctaginaceae (Four o'clock) Allionia incarnata Mirabilis bigelovii var. ? Selinocarpus nevadensis Nymphaceae (Water Lily) Nuphar odorata▲ Oleaceae (Olive) Fraxinus velutina Menodora spinescens Onagraceae (Evening Primrose) Camissonia boothii ssp. ? Camissonia brevipes ssp. brevipes Camissonia claviformis ssp. integrior Camissonia heterochroma Gaura mollis? Oenothera deltoides ssp. ? Oenothera elata ssp. hirsutissima Orchidaceae (Orchid) Epipactis gigantea Spiranthes infernalis* Papaveraceae (Poppy) Arctomecon merriamii Argemone corymbosa Eschscholzia minutiflora Plantaginaceae (Plantain) Plantago inuslaris Plantago major▲ Plantago ovata Poaceae Achnatherum hymenoides Agrostis semivericillata ▲ Andropogon glomeratus var. scabriglumis Aristida purpurea var. ? Arundo donax ▲ Avena sativa ▲ Bromus madritensis var. rubens ▲ Cenchrus echinatus ▲ Cynodon dactylon ▲ Distichlis spicata Echniochloa crusgalli ▲ Elytrigia pontica ssp. pontica ▲ Erioneuron pulchellum Festuca arundinacea ▲ Festuca pratensis ▲ Hordeum jubatum Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum ▲ Hordeum vulgare ▲ Leptochloa uninervia Leymus cinereus Lolium perenne ▲ Muhlenbergia asperifolia Muhlenbergia utilis Panicum virgatum Phragmites australis Poa secunda ssp. secunda Polypogon monspeliensis ▲ Schismus arabicus ▲ Sorghum bicolor▲ Sorghum halepense ▲ Spartina gracilis Sporobolus airoides Vulpia octoflora var. ? ▲ Polemoniaceae (Phlox) Eriastrum eremicum ssp. eremicum Gilia hutchinsifolia Gilia latifolia Gilia ripleyi Ipomopsis polycladon Langlosia setosissima ssp. setosissima Polygalaceae (Milkwort) Polygala acanthoclada Polygonaceae (Buckwheat) Chorizanthe brevicornu var. ? Chorizanthe rigida Eriogonum brachypodum Eriogonum contiguum Eriogonum deflexum var. ? Erigonum heermannii var. ? Erigonum inflatum var. deflatum Erigonum inflaum var. inflatum Eriogonum reniforme Eriogonum thomasii Eriogonum trichopes Polygonum argyrocoleon▲ Rumex crispus▲ Rumex hymenosepalus Potamogetonaceae (Pondweed) Potamageton pectinatus Ruppia cirrhosa Primulaceae (Primrose) Dodecatheon pulchellum Samolus parviflorus Pteridaceae (Brake) Cheilanthes feei Pellaea sp. Ranunculaceae (Buttercup) Delphinium parishii ssp. parishii Resedaceae (Mignonette) Oligomeris linifolia Rosaceae (Rose) Ivesia kingii var. eremica*‡ Rubiaceae (Madder) Galium stellatum var. eremicum Rutaceae (Rue) Thamnosma montana Salicaceae (Willow) Populus fremontii ssp. fremontii Salix exigua Salix googgingii Sauraceae (Lizard's Tail) Anemopsis californica Scrophulariacae (Snapdragon) Castilleja angustifolia Castilleja linariifolia Cordylanthus tecopensis* Mimulus guttatus Mohavea breviflora Veronica americana Veronica anagallis-aquatica▲ Solanaceae (Nightshade) Datura wrightii Lycium andersonii Lycium pallidum var. oligospermum Lycium shockleyi Nicotiana obtusifolia Physalis crassifolia Solanum eleagnifolium▲ Tamariacaceae (Tamarisk) Tamarix aphylla▲ Tamarix parviflora▲ Tamarix ramosissima▲ Typhaceae (Cattail) Typha domingensis Viscaceae (Mistletoe) Phoradendron californicum Vitaceae (Grape) Vitus arizonica Zygophyllaceae (Caltrop) Larrea tridentata Tribulus terrestris▲ Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge HC 70 Box 610-Z Amargosa Valley, Nevada 89020 Telephone: 775/372 5435 FAX: 775/372 5436 http://desertcomplex.fws.gov/ashmeadows U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service http://www.fws.gov Cover photo Ash Meadows sunray Alyson Mack/USFWS Inside cover photo desert paintbrush Alyson Mack/USFWS July 2012