Moapa

National Wildlife Refuge - Nevada

The Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge is located in the Warm Springs Natural Area in the Moapa Valley of Clark County, Nevada. The refuge was established to provide and protect the habitat of the endangered species of Moapa dace of which about 1,900 exist in the Muddy River area. The habitat on the refuge consists of stream channels feeding the Muddy River including six hot springs emerging near the center of the refuge.

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Official Nevada State Highway Map. Published by the Nevada Department of Transportation (NVDOT).Nevada State - Nevada State Highway Map

Official Nevada State Highway Map. Published by the Nevada Department of Transportation (NVDOT).

brochures

Brochure of Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Nevada. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Moapa Valley - Brochure

Brochure of Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Nevada. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Brochure and Map of Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Nevada. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Moapa Valley - Brochure and Map

Brochure and Map of Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Nevada. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Map of Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Nevada. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Moapa Valley - Map

Map of Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Nevada. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Moapa NWR https://www.fws.gov/refuge/moapa_valley https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moapa_Valley_National_Wildlife_Refuge The Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge is located in the Warm Springs Natural Area in the Moapa Valley of Clark County, Nevada. The refuge was established to provide and protect the habitat of the endangered species of Moapa dace of which about 1,900 exist in the Muddy River area. The habitat on the refuge consists of stream channels feeding the Muddy River including six hot springs emerging near the center of the refuge.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge The National Wildlife Refuge System consists of 150 million acres in 562 refuges throughout the United States. Refuges are managed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service to conserve and protect America’s fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats. The Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge, established September 10, 1979, was the first refuge created for an endangered fish: the Moapa dace. USFWS A Home for the Moapa Dace Moapa dace I go to nature to be soothed and healed, and to have my senses put in order. This Blue Goose, designed by J.N. Ding Darling, has become the symbol of the National Wildlife Refuge System. John Burroughs Moapa pebblesnail USFWS Moapa dace are endemic to Moapa Valley, which means the entire population are found here and nowhere else in the world. They are the only fish in the genus Moapa, which means they have no close relatives. Adult dace lay their eggs at springheads and use the warm spring water (88°) to incubate their eggs. After hatching, the juveniles have historically moved throughout the Muddy River stream system. When it was time to reproduce, they migrated back toward upstream areas. The full-grown dace are no longer than a human finger and are easily recognized by the black dot on their tails. With only four inches of rainfall per year, water is a precious resource in the hot and dry Mojave Desert. Three warm springheads are located within refuge boundaries. These springs are critical habitat for Moapa dace, Moapa White River springfish, Moapa pebblesnail, and Moapa riffle beetles, all of which are endemic to Moapa Valley. A Rich History © John K. Hillers History of the Moapa Valley Southern Paiute children, 1873. For many generations, the Nuwuvi (Southern Paiute and Chemehuevi Native Americans) have been part of the landscape now called Moapa Valley. Nuwuvi villages originally stretched from the Warm Springs area to the Virgin River. Here the people grew corn, sunflowers, and other crops in the floodplain nourished by the valley’s springs. Today, the nearby Moapa Band of Paiutes continue Nuwuvi cultural traditions and maintain strong ties to the living landscape of people, wildlife, and plants. Their communities thrived with minimal impacts to wildlife before European Americans arrived. The late 1800s brought European settlers to Moapa Valley. Several farms and ranches sprang up in the area. Throughout the early 1900s, small parcels of land were used to raise alfalfa and cotton and to breed cattle. The land was irrigated with water diverted from the natural spring systems. When the Moapa dace was first officially described by scientists in 1948, it was considered “rather common” in all pools and streams surveyed. Abandoned concrete pools at Moapa Valley. During the 1940s, Moapa Valley’s extraordinary warm springs gained more and more popularity. Increasing numbers of locals and tourists visited the springs for camping, swimming, and bathing. As development continued through the 1950s, the springs were transformed into luxurious hot tubs and pools by entrepreneurial businessmen. From the 1950s to the 1970s, the 7-12 Warm Springs Resort featured a snack bar, two concrete swimming pools, and recreational vehicle hook-ups. When the resort went out of business in 1979, it was purchased at fair market value from a willing seller to form the refuge. At this time, there were no dace left on-site. A Constant Struggle Why are they endangered? The Moapa Dace was listed on the very first Endangered Species Act list, alongside the grizzly bear and the Florida manatee. Non-native tilapia, seen here, decimated the dace population in the late 1990s. Rehabilitating the Moapa Valley oasis is a difficult task. Once the refuge was established, the cement pools had to be demolished, the streambeds restored to their original paths, and the native vegetation re-seeded. The refuge’s streams were repopulated using dace from other reaches of the Muddy River system. Even though the Moapa dace are now federally protected, they face continuing threats to their survival. Since 2000, annual counts have fluctuated from 450 – 1900 dace. This is far below the 6000 needed for recovery as set by the Moapa Dace Recovery Plan for the Muddy River’s aquatic species. Most threats to the dace have come from past and recent human activities. Non-native palm trees, planted to shield early Western settlers from the powerful desert sun, have fueled intense fires that destroyed most habitat in their vicinity. Several non-native fish have been introduced to the Muddy River system. Not only did these fish bring in parasites, but they continue to compete with dace for food. Some non-native fish, such as tilapia, have also fed on the dace themselves. As the human population grows, so does their demand for water. This can result in less water overall, and it can cause the water to cool or pool in ways that favor invasive fish species ove
© U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service © Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Moapa Valley What is a National Wildlife Refuge? National Wildlife refuge Simply put, national wildlife refuges are places where wildlife comes first. With over 550 refuges throughout the United States, the National Wildlife Refuge System is the only network of federal lands dedicated specifically to wildlife conservation. Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge “Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are but one thread in it. Whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves.” Nevada 2012 © U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service © Kerry Holcomb — Chief Seattle, 1855 America’s Great Outdoors Get away from the rush and noise of the city. The national wildlife refuges in southern Nevada allow you to experience a real sense of wilderness, marvel at the beauty of the Mojave Desert, watch rare wildlife in their native habitat, and know it will be here for generations to come. © Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Explore this oasis by walking the short trail that meanders along a stream and through the refuge. A stream viewing area allows visitors to get a unique view of the world from the fish’s perspective. Stops along the way tell the story of the many steps taken to protect this vulnerable fish. Learn about the Moapa White River springfish, Moapa pebblesnail, and Moapa Warm Springs riffle beetle, which are only found in this area. Wilderness in Your Backyard © Wendy Smith Welcome to Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge, home of the Moapa dace, a small fish that does not occur anywhere else in the world. Here — in the middle of North America’s driest desert — warm water springs bubble up from the earth to form the Muddy River, a crucial habitat for many rare and endemic species. The refuge is the first of its kind established to protect an endangered fish. Southern Nevada has four national wildlife refuges all within an hour and a half drive from Las Vegas: Desert, Pahranagat, Moapa Valley, and Ash Meadows. Many wildlife refuges, like Pahranagat NWR, were established to protect and enhance the resting and feeding grounds of migratory birds, creating a chain of stepping stones along major migration routes. Others, like Desert, Moapa Valley, and Ash Meadows, were established to conserve the natural homes of our rarest wild species, including desert bighorn sheep, unique wildflowers, and rare desert fish. Kerry Holcomb © U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service © Cyndi Souza The Desert National Wildlife Refuge Complex Vicinity Map PAHRANAGAT NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Refuge Regulations SEASONS OCTOBER FAL L BER M E PT SE SPRING APRI L AUG U ST Listen for tree frogs or SUM M ER chorus frogs croaking loudly at dusk along water’s edge. As temperatures soar, look for zebra-tailed lizards darting in the heat. When they run they lift their tails up, exposing the stripes that give the lizards their name. Can you spot any redtailed hawks teaching their young how to hunt? As spring wildflowers burst into bloom, like yerba mansa and desert marigold, you can find colorful migrating birds and painted lady butterflies passing through on their way north. Look closely near the warm water springheads — you might see Moapa dace and Moapa White River springfish. These fish spawn year-round, but spawning reaches its peak in the spring. 168 MOAPA VALLEY NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Indian Springs § ¨ ¦ 15 North ( Ä Las Las Vegas Vegas Henderson For more information about Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge, including volunteer stewardship opportunities, regulations and any permit requirements, please visit us at www.snap.gov or contact: Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (702) 515-5225 convenience. Please help keep your refuge clean by disposing of waste properly. H MARC Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge constantly changes as the seasons change. Some animals like the heat of summer, while others prefer the cooler winter. JUNE R 93 95 160 Trash cans have been provided for your FE B ( / ASH MEADOWS NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Even the best behaving pet can unintentionally scare or harm our wildlife. Please keep pets leashed at all times and remember to clean up after them. JANUA RY Y MA NOV EM BE MBER E C DE 373 This is a day use facility. No camping or overnight parking. WINTER Y AR RU In response to the cooling weather, the rare desert tortoise prepares to enter its winter sleep, called brumation. Check the sky for American kestrels- small, colorful birds of prey- hunting for insects, lizards, or mice. ( Ä Due to its small size, fragile habitats, and on-going restoration, the refuge is only open on Friday, Saturday and Sunday from Labor Day weekend through Memorial Day weekend. Weekday visitsespecially for groups- are scheduled on request. Search for great horned owls and other birds roosting in trees for warmth and protection. You can spot belted kingfishers and white-crowned sparrows hunting
Ü [ r Warm Springs Natural Area Moapa National Wildlife Refuge War m Springs Road i ! Private Lands BLM Land 168 5 ! ] ! Ü _ ! k ! Private Lands [ ! Warm Springs Natural Area Legend Moapa National Wildlife Refuge 168 93 £ ¤ 95 £ ¤ Area of Interest 15 § ¦ ¨ [ r Moapa NWR Headquarters _ ! Restroom k ! Fish Viewing Area ] ! Kiosk [ ! Overlook i ! Parking 5 ! Picnic Area Trails 515 § ¦ ¨ BLM Land 15 § ¦ ¨ 0 0 0 0.125 0.25 0.5 Streams Scale 1:2,000 0.75 1 Mile Imagery Source: Southern Nevada Water Authority 20 125 250 40 80 500 120 160 Meters 750 1,000 Feet Roads Moapa National Wildlife Refuge Boundary

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