Trees and Shrubs
Trees and Shrubs at Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument (NM) in Oregon. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).
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BLM Cascade-Siskiyou Common Trees and Shrubs Welcome Thank you for visiting Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument (CSNM), a unit of the BLM’s National Conservation Lands. Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument, proclaimed by President Clinton on June 9, 2000, was the first monument established for its biodiversity. The Monument contains five distinct ecoregions in the presidential proclamation: grassland and shrubland (including unusual rosaceous chaparral), Garry and California oak woodlands, juniper scablands, mixed conifer and white fir forests, and wet meadows and riparian forests. In addition, there are areas of old-growth forest which provide required habitat for several species. Conifers Family and Common Name Scientific Name Family Cupressaceae Incense-cedar Western juniper (Calocedrus decurrens) (Juniperus occidentalis) Ponderosa Pine Family Pinaceae Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)* Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana)* Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)* Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) White fir (Abies concolor)* Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica var. shastensis) Family Taxaceae Pacific yew Douglas-fir (Taxus brevifolia) *components of “mixed conifer forest” CASCADE SISKIYOU Sugar Pine Where are the Communities? • Sugar pine specimens are easy to find at Tub Springs State Wayside. These trees are easy to identify from their huge cones, which can grow to 20 inches long and can weigh up to 4 pounds when green. • Mixed conifer forests transition to mostly white fir at higher elevations in the Monument. Most forests in the Monument are mixed conifer, especially north of Highway 66. • Oak woodlands are common in the Emigrant Creek area and south of Pilot Rock. • Juniper and sagebrush, characteristic of the Great Basin, occur on thin-soiled rock outcroppings such as Boccard Point and Hobart Bluff. The Great Basin eco-region extends into the Monument through the Klamath River gap southeast of the Monument. • Poison oak and Pacific madrone are characteristic of Cascade Foothills and Eastern Siskiyou eco-regions in the north and west end of the Monument, and are not found in the Great Basin or Shasta Valley plant communities to the south and east. National Monument Broadleaf Trees Family Aceraceae Bigleaf maple Rocky Mountain maple Vine maple (Acer macrophyllum) (Acer glabrum) Acer circinatum) Family Betulacaceae White alder (Alnus rhombifolia) Family Cornaceae Dogwood (Cornus ssp.) Family Ericaceae Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) Family Fagaceae Oregon white oak Brewer’s oak California black oak Chinquapin (Quercus garryana) (Quercus garryana brewerii) (Quercus kelloggii) (Chrysolepis chrysophylla) Family Oleaceae Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia) Family Salicaceae Black cottonwood Quaking aspen Willows (Populus balsamifera var. trichocarpa) (Populus tremuloide (Salix ssp.) California Black Oak BLM Scientific Name Cascade-Siskiyou Family and Common Name Big Leaf Maple Pacific Madrone Shrubs Family and Common Name Scientific Name Family Anacardiaceae Poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum) Family Asteraceae Sagebrush Rabbitbrush (Artemisia ssp.) (Ericameria ssp.) Family Berberidaceae Oregon-grape (Mahonia ssp.) Family Caprifolicaceae Blue elderberry Honeysuckle Snowberry (Sambucus mexicana) (Lonicera ssp.) (Symphoricarpos ssp.) R Family Ericaceae Manzanita (Arctostaphylos ssp.) S Family Fagaceae Shrubby golden Chinquapin (Chrysolepis sempervirens) Family Rhamnaceae Wedgeleaf ceanothus Cinnamon bush Blue blossom (Ceanothus cuneatus) S (Ceanothus velutinus) (Ceanothus integerrimus) Family Rosaceae Klamath plum Bitter cherry Western chokecherry Oceanspray Western serviceberry Birchleaf mountain-mahogany Curlyleaf mountain-mahogany Thimbleberry Baldhip rose (Prunus subcordata) R (Prunus emarginata) R (Prunis virginiana) R (Holodiscus discolor) R (Amelanchier alnifolia) R (Cercocarpus betuloides) R (Cercocarpus ledifolius) (Rubus parviflorus) (Rosa gymnocarpa) Poison Oak Manzanita Wedgeleaf ceanothus R = Rosaceous chaparral complex (deciduous, soft leaves, mixed with Oregon white oak) found primarily in the Scotch Creek RNA S = Schlerophyllous chaparral complex (hard leaves, drought-tolerant, evergreen), found throughout the southern end of the Monument in dryer areas. Tree or a Shrub? Trees, often defined as plants with one woody stem that grows at least 15 feet tall, can be divided into two general categories: conifer and broadleaf. Shrubs are woody plants with multiple stems that grow to less than 15 feet tall, but the division between trees and shrubs can be fuzzy. Most of the trees in the CSNM are in mixed conifer forests, but there are many broadleaf trees also. A notable and unusual CSNM plant community is the “rosaceous chaparral,” composed of rose family shrubs and Oregon white oaks and found primarily in the Scotch Creek RNA. NAT I O NAL C O N S E R VAT I O N LAN D S Bureau of Land Management, Medford District Office, 3040 Biddle Road Medford, Oregon 97504 p: 541-618-2200 . http://www.blm.gov/or/resources/recreation/csnm/ CASCADE SISKIYOU National Monument