Fort Stevens

State Park - Oregon

Fort Stevens was an American military installation that guarded the mouth of the Columbia River in the state of Oregon. Built near the end of the American Civil War, it was named for a slain Civil War general and former Washington Territory governor, Isaac Stevens. Much of Fort Stevens is preserved within Fort Stevens State Park. The park includes camping, beach access, swimming at Coffenbury Lake, trails, and a military history museum.

maps

Map of the Northern part of the Northwest Oregon Protection District. Published by the Oregon Department of Forestry.Northwest Oregon - North 2019

Map of the Northern part of the Northwest Oregon Protection District. Published by the Oregon Department of Forestry.

brochures

Brochure of Battery Russell at Fort Stevens State Park (SP) in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.Fort Stevens - Battery Russell

Brochure of Battery Russell at Fort Stevens State Park (SP) in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.

Trail Guide and Military Sites for Fort Stevens State Park (SP) in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.Fort Stevens - Trails

Trail Guide and Military Sites for Fort Stevens State Park (SP) in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.

Campground Brochure and Map of Fort Stevens State Park (SP) in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.Fort Stevens - Campground

Campground Brochure and Map of Fort Stevens State Park (SP) in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.

Brochure of the Graveyard of the Pacific at Columbia River Bar and Fort Stevens State Park (SP) in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.Fort Stevens - Graveyard of the Pacific

Brochure of the Graveyard of the Pacific at Columbia River Bar and Fort Stevens State Park (SP) in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.

Guide to Military Sites at Fort Stevens State Park (SP) in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.Fort Stevens - Military Sites

Guide to Military Sites at Fort Stevens State Park (SP) in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.

Guide to Mushrooms at Fort Stevens State Park (SP) in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.Fort Stevens - Mushrooms

Guide to Mushrooms at Fort Stevens State Park (SP) in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.

Brochure of Horse Camps and Trails in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.Oregon State Parks - Horse Camps and Trails

Brochure of Horse Camps and Trails in Oregon. Published by Oregon State Parks and Recreation.

Brochure about the Western Snowy Plover at the Oregon Coast. Published by Oregon State Parks.Oregon State Parks - Western Snowy Plover

Brochure about the Western Snowy Plover at the Oregon Coast. Published by Oregon State Parks.

Brochure about Whale Watching at the Oregon Coast. Published by Oregon State Parks.Oregon State Parks - Whale Watching

Brochure about Whale Watching at the Oregon Coast. Published by Oregon State Parks.

Tide Tables for the Oregon Coast. Published by Oregon State Parks.Oregon State Parks - Tide Tables 2021

Tide Tables for the Oregon Coast. Published by Oregon State Parks.

Fort Stevens SP https://oregonstateparks.org/index.cfm?do=parkPage.dsp_parkPage&parkId=129 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Stevens_(Oregon) Fort Stevens was an American military installation that guarded the mouth of the Columbia River in the state of Oregon. Built near the end of the American Civil War, it was named for a slain Civil War general and former Washington Territory governor, Isaac Stevens. Much of Fort Stevens is preserved within Fort Stevens State Park. The park includes camping, beach access, swimming at Coffenbury Lake, trails, and a military history museum.
TO WASHINGTON Trestle Bay South Jetty Clatsop Spit Columbia Columbia Wildlife Viewing Bunker River Observation Platform HAMMOND ASTORIA 30 202 WARRENTON BUS Youngs River OCEAN Wildlife Viewing Deck Wreck of the “Peter Iredale” Battery Russell PA C I F I C OCEAN Coffenbury Lake oad Lewis and Clark River WARRENTON Ridge R 101 Swash Lake Fort Stevens may be a peaceful park today, but it was once an active military base and the target of a surprise World War II naval attack. Day-Use Area 101 Lewis and Clark National Historical Park Fort Stevens State Park Historic Area Military Museum Batteries HAMMOND Fort Stevens State Park PA C I F I C River 101 To Seaside Columbia Wildlife Viewing Bunker Observation Platform River Historic Area Military Museum Batteries HAMMOND Battery Russell Swash Lake Wildlife Viewing Deck Day-Use Area Wreck of the “Peter Iredale” WARRENTON OCEAN Coffenbury Lake Ridge R PA C I F I C oad 101 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department 725 Summer St NE, Suite C, Salem OR 97301 1-800-551-6949 Check out other Oregon State Parks by visiting www.oregonstateparks.org Printed on recycled paper. Information subject to change without notice. This publication is available in alternative formats on request. Write to OPRD: 725 Summer St. NE, Salem, OR 97301; or call 1-800-551-6949 (hearing impaired: dial 7-1-1). Photo of the 2nd Coast Artillery unit from Coos Bay that became part of the 249th Coast Artillery Corps of the Oregon National Guard. 63400-9827 (10/17) ©The Oregonian. All righ ts reserved. Reprinted wit “A Triangle of Fire” Battery Russell was a later addition to a large military installation built in the 19th century to defend the mouth of the Columbia River. Fort Stevens, which dates back to the Civil War, protected the Oregon side of the river, while Fort Columbia and Fort Canby stood guard on the Washington side. Together, these three forts comprised the Harbor Defenses of the Columbia. Battery Russell was constructed between 1903 and 1904 by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for the U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps. It was one of nine concrete gun batteries (emplacements for cannon or heavy artillery) built at Fort Stevens to conceal and protect Brigadier General mounted guns from enemy ships. David A. Russell Battery Russell was named for Brigadier General David A. Russell, who served with the U.S. 4th Infantry Regiment in the Oregon Territory and commanded Fort Yamhill before he was killed in action during the Civil War. Battery Russell was built separate from the other gun batteries at Fort Stevens clustered along the banks of the Columbia River. It faced the ocean to the south, expanding the network of artillery and the “triangle of fire.” It was armed with two 10-inch “disappearing guns” whose barrels could retract from view into the gun pits h permission. to provide cover for soldiers while they reloaded. Each gun was manned by a team of 35 men. A well-trained gun crew could fire a 600-pound shell once every minute with an effective range of eight miles. Fire Control Hill and Squirrelsville Firing the guns at Battery Russell required gathering data from the stations located at either end of each base line. The two stations reported the target’s angle from their position to the plotting room, enabling the soldiers to use triangulation to aim. A number of base lines for guns on both sides of the Columbia River ended at Fire Control Hill, directly above Battery Russell. Throughout the 1930s, Battery Russell was the practice battery for a coast artillery regiment with the Oregon National Guard. In September 1940, the unit was federalized; after receiving new training at nearby Camp Clatsop (now Camp Rilea), the regiment was moved back to Fort Stevens in February 1941. But it was only after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7th that Battery Russell was manned on a regular basis. Because it was some two miles from the main fort, primitive housing was hastily constructed for the gun crews in the wooded area behind the dune. This area was known as “Squirrelsville” to the soldiers who were rotated in and out every few days. Soldiers reloading a 10″ disappearing rifle from behind the parapet, or wall, of the battery. Overlapping arcs representing the effective range of the guns on both sides of the Columbia River. Attack! At about 11:30 p.m. on the night of June 21, 1942, an imperial Japanese Navy submarine bypassed the entrance of the Columbia River. It was the I-25, a member of the I-class of long-range submarines dispatched to go after military targets and naval vessels along the western coast of the U.S. The sub surfaced just south of Fort Stevens about 10 miles offshore and began firing shells from its 5.5-inch deck gun in the direction of the fort. Soldiers scrambled out of bed and raced to their posts. They located the submarine by its gun flashes, but were told to hold their fire. It’s unclear why the order was given—per
Fort Stevens State Historical Site 39 4 5 C ol 38 3 2 6 Experience Civil War History with a Self-Guided Tour umb 35 7  ADA Restroom 11 14 for the first half (stops 1–14 on the map) and an hour for the second half (stops 15–39). 30 28 27 13 Hospital (site) Communications Bunker Test Tanks BOU 15 Mine Cable Storeroom Commissary Post Chapel (site) Searchlight Generator and Searchlights 3 & 4 (sites) Torpedo Loading Room Mine Dock Pilings Mine Loading Building Coincidence Range Finder Booth Battery Smur Coal Yard Mine Casemate and Mine Commander’s Station 25 16 PA 20 17 18 NDA RY RK 22 Boat Basin 21 23 24 BOUNDARY Fire Station (site) Chief of Engineers’ House Site and Bunker Laundry (Site) 26 ENTRANCE 19  P AR K Battery Clark Commander’s Station Non-Commissioned Officers’ Quarters (sites) World War II Barracks and Automotive School (sites) Battery Clark Central Power Plant Bakery - Service Club Center (sites) Artillery Engineer Guardhouse A walking tour takes about an hour 29 12 War Games Building Battery Pratt Command Station Battery Pratt West Battery Battery Mishler Battery 245 Rifle Range West Battery Commander Station and Mine Observation Station Parados Steam Plant 155mm Gun Visitor Center. 32 36 PARKING SITE LOCATION KEY After the army coast artillery abandoned Fort Stevens, many of the buildings in the fort area were demolished. To get a sense of what the fort looked like when it was an active military post, visit the scale model and other exhibits in the 33 rive Fort Stevens, named for Territorial Governor General Isaac Ingalls Stevens, who was killed at Chantilly, Virginia, in 1862, was constructed during the Civil War and remained active until shortly after World War II. From 1897 to 1904, the fort experienced significant development, including the construction of eight concrete gun batteries. Although the guns have been removed, nearly all the batteries remain and are the primary features of this tour. 34 1 10 9 31 37 MUSEUM 8 ia Ri v er Lake D Guide to Historic Military Site & Recreation Trails City of Hammond Pacifi c Drive Original Earthwork (site) Battery Freeman (site) Native American Longhouse (site) Historic Military Cemetery To Washington Trestle Bay South Jetty Clatsop Spit Columbia River Hammond 101 Observation Platform Astoria Fort Stevens State Park Columbia River Fort Stevens State Park Wildlife Viewing Bunker Historic Area Military Museum Batteries Hammond 30 Swash Lake Wildlife Viewing Deck Warrenton 202 101 Y ou BUS sR iv er Wreck of the Trail “Peter Iredale” Riv er To Seaside Fort Stevens State Park Guide & Historic Military Site Coffenbury Lake Warrenton Ridge Road ark Historical Park ng Pacific Ocean i s an d Cl Lewis Clark 101 and National Le w Pacific Ocean Day-Use Area 101 Welcome to Fort Stevens The Fort Stevens Military Reservation guarded the mouth of the Columbia River from the Civil War through World War II. The park has more than five miles of hiking trails and seven miles of bike paths. The Oregon Coast Trail begins at the South Jetty and continues along the beach. Hiking Trails Scenic views of the water abound on the two-mile trail around Coffenbury Lake. A mile-long trail runs between the north end of the lake and Battery Russell along a ridge created by dune action many years ago, then connects with a nature trail east of the campground. This trail can also be accessed from the dump station. If you look carefully at the forest, you can see how it is layered, with the tall trees on top, small trees and shrubs next, and small flowering plants on the ground. Each type of plant has found the level where the amount of sun is just right for its growth. 100 Peter Iredale Road Hammond, OR 97121 Park: 503-861-3170 Info: 1-800-551-6949 oregonstateparks.org Trees & Flora oregonstateparks.org Printed on recycled paper. All information or fees subject to change without notice. This brochure is available in alternative formats upon request. Call 1-800-551-6949. Oregon Relay for the hearing impaired: dial 711. 63400-8051 (7/18) The park is full of Sitka Spruce, Shore Pine, Western Hemlock, Red Alder and Cascara Buckthorn. Small trees and shrubs include Pacific Red Elder, Oregon Crabapple, Coast Rhododendron, Red Huckleberry, Salmonberry and Salal. The ground cover is patched with Horsetail, Skunk Cabbage, and a variety of ferns such as licorice, Guardhouse sword, bracken, deer and wood. Watch for uprooted trees exposing broad, shallow root systems. This is caused by high water levels in the ground, which prevent the roots from going very deep. Because of shallow roots, large trees are toppled by storms. These decaying trees return to the soil and supply nutrients for other plants. You are not walking alone on this trail; deer like to walk here, too. Civil War Rodman Cannon Other wild animals that inhabit the park, include waterfowl, ravens, squirrels, possum, beaver
Fort Stevens CAMPGROUND Reserve early! Reserve campsites, yurts and group areas one day Need to cancel your reservation? Follow these guidelines: Park Information: to nine months in advance by calling 1-800-452-5687. Campsites and yurts are also reservable through www.oregonstateparks.org. If your reservation is for today, call 503-861-1671. Otherwise, call 1-800-452-5687. 1-800-551-6949 www.oregonstateparks.org O Ships, Waves, and Wildlife ne of the nation’s largest public campgrounds, Fort Stevens lies next to the site of a military installation once used to guard the mouth of the Columbia River. Year-round Camping • 150 full-hookup sites with sewer, electricity, and water (36 pull-through) • 302 electrical sites with water (11 pull-through) • 6 tent sites with water nearby • 15 yurts (7 pet-friendly) • 11 deluxe cabins (5 pet-friendly) • Paved parking, picnic table, and fire ring at all sites • Hiker/biker sites • Flush toilets and hot showers • RV dump station (300 feet east of ranger station) Note: Up to two pets (cats and/or dogs only) are allowed in the pet-friendly facilities for an additional fee per night. • Day-use area with access to • • miles of broad, sandy beach Two covered, reservable picnic shelters Freshwater lakes Camping Rates Fort Stevens State Park Off US 101, 10 miles W of Astoria 100 Peter Iredale Road, Hammond, OR 97121 503-861-1671 Latitude: 46.18422 N Longitude: -123.95682 W • Nine miles of bike paths • Ten miles of hiking trails • Northern trailhead for the Oregon Coast Trail • Wildlife viewing platforms Rates are subject to change. You can get up-to-date information by calling 1-800-551-6949 or visiting www.oregonstateparks.org. Driving on the Beach Motor vehicles are prohibited on the beach from the Peter Iredale access point to the South Jetty from noon to midnight, May 1–Sept. 15. Motor vehicles are allowed year-round between the Peter Iredale access point and the Gearhart beach ramp. Maximum speed is 25 mph. Smoking in Oregon State Parks is allowed only in personal vehicles, RVs, campsites and portions of day use parks along state highways that are designated as safety rest areas by the Oregon Department of Transportation. Shipwreck remains: The wreck of the Peter Iredale lies near the southern beach access parking area. The English sailing ship ran aground during a storm in 1906. More History Survives Nearby Visit the Fort Clatsop unit of Lewis and Clark National Historical Park, where the Corps of Discovery spent the winter of 1805-06. Astoria, the first permanent European-American settlement on the west coast, features Fort Astoria, a reconstructed fur-trading outpost; several museums, including the Columbia River Maritime Museum; and historic homes. Support your parks by becoming a member of the Oregon State Parks Foundation. Free 12-month day-use parking permit with your membership. oregonstateparksfoundation.org. Astoria Fort Stevens State Park Wildlife viewing platform Military museum and batteries Observation platform Hammond Swash Lake wildlife viewing platform North loops Wreck of the Peter Iredale Coffenbury L. 30 Hammond Columbia R. Military museum: The Military Museum contains artifacts depicting the history of the fort. 503-861-2000. Guided tours: Enjoy tours of the underground Battery Mishler and the back of a restored 1954 “deuce-and-a-half” army truck. Tours, special events, and museum services are courtesy of the nonprofit Friends of Old Fort Stevens. Columbia R. Warrenton Sunset Beach State Recreation Site Fort Clatsop 101 Campground entrance Gearhart Seaside . Other Park Features The Fort Stevens Military Reservation guarded the mouth of the Columbia River from the Civil War through World War II. Explore the gun batteries and climb to the commander’s station for a view of the Columbia River and South Jetty. Trestle Bay Clatsop Spit e Rd Four campsites (#77, 78, 89 and 90 in the North loop), eight of the 11 cabins, and all but five yurts are accessible according to the Americans with Disabilities Act. Western snowy plovers nest along some parts of the Oregon coast— watch for special signs during nesting season. Summertime programs include Junior Ranger activities, evening campfire presentations, and guided kayak tours. Explore the Historic Military Site South Jetty Ridg Universal Access Watch waves breaking and big ships crossing the famous Columbia River bar from the observation platform near the South Jetty on Clatsop Spit. Wildlife viewing platforms on Clatsop Spit, overlooking Trestle Bay, and near Swash Lake are excellent places for birdwatching. Please note: All dogs must be on a leash March 15-July 15 (or longer) on a short stretch of Clatsop Spit. Driving and vehicles are also prohibited. Look for signs. 63400-8121 (2/19) South loops Pacific Ocean Tsunami Assembly Area (Warrenton Soccer Fields) Warrenton Tillamook Head Ecola State Park Cannon Beach  Trailhead parking 101 26 Portland Vi
P L A C E S Graveyard of the Pacific T he Columbia River Bar, where the Pacific Ocean and Columbia River meet, can be a navigational nightmare. Since 1792, approximately 2,000 ships have sunk in this area, earning it the nickname “Graveyard of the Pacific.” Water, weather, and geography work together at times to make the bar treacherous. The Columbia River flows into the Pacific through a narrow channel. As the river water surges toward the ocean, it slows down, dropping sand and silt. That sand and silt form a fan-shaped sandbar that extends more than six miles into the ocean. Columbia River Bar 1 Fort Stevens State Park Off U.S. Hwy. 101, 10 miles west of Astoria 100 Peter Iredale Road, Hammond OR 97121 Info: 1-800-551-6949 or www.oregonstateparks.org Park: 503-861-1671 Sometimes, strong river discharges collide with heavy Pacific waves, making passage extremely dangerous for all vessels. The bar’s weather and waves are notoriously violent and quick to change. Before jetties and dredging, 23 feet was the maximum draft for ships crossing the bar. To provide greater safety, engineers have deepened the limit to 40 feet. This “safe” limit is still affected by wind and wave conditions on the bar. JETTY: A man-made structure that extends into the ocean to influence the current. Oregon Parks and Recreation Department 725 Summer St. NE, Suite C Salem, OR 97301 A vessel’s DRAFT is the distance from the waterline to the deepest point of the keel. Fort Stevens State Park is home to the remains of the century-old shipwreck Peter Iredale and the South Jetty. A viewing platform overlooking the jetty is an excellent spot to watch ships as they enter and exit the Columbia River. The military institution Fort Stevens guarded the mouth of the river between the Civil War until just after 1947. Today, this 3,800-acre park has one of the largest public campgrounds in the United States, a freshwater lake, miles of trails, and is a great place to view birds and wildlife. 3 Park Columbia River Maritime Museum 1792 Marine Drive, Astoria OR 97103 (503) 325-2323 or www.crmm.org The Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center focuses on the famous expedition. It also displays maritime exhibits and artifacts, including a First Order Fresnel Lens, a Life Saving Service Surfboat, and shipwreck name boards. Visitors can hike to the Cape Disappointment Lighthouse, overlooking the Columbia River Bar. The North Head Lighthouse is often open for tours. Visitors can climb its spiral staircase to the lantern room and take in the Pacific Ocean view. Dr. North Head Lighthouse Cape Disappointment N TH OR ia mb u Baker Bay WA S H I N G T O N 101 Cape Disappointment State Park, Lighthouse Lewis & Clark Interpretive Center Y Col Ilwaco 2 TT JE Explore marine transportation from the days of dugout canoes, through the age of sail, to the present. Watch a dramatic 12-minute film introducing the history of life and commerce on the Columbia River, including the dangerous work of the Bar and River Pilots. Walk the bridge of a World War II warship, marvel at the 44-foot motor lifeboat plowing through a wave in a rescue mission. Participate in four interactive, handson exhibits, including taking the helm in a tugboat wheelhouse. You can board the Lightship Columbia, a National Historic Landmark, that once guided ships to safety at the mouth of the Columbia River. 101 Chinook 401 er Riv BUOY 10 Colu mbia SOUTH JETTY River Observation Deck Desdemona Sands Park Museum Hammond Fort Stevens State Park Printed on Recycled Paper 63400-8117 (6/14) Peter Iredale Wreck Rd All information or fees subject to change without notice. This brochure is available in alternative formats upon request. Call 1-800-551-6949. Oregon Relay for the hearing impaired: dial 711. 1 Columbia River Maritime Museum Astoria ge A vessel’s DRAFT is the distance from the waterline to the deepest point of the keel. V I S I T Rid DREDGING: Removing bottom sediments from under water and disposing of them at a different place, usually to keep waterways navigable. Check out other Oregon State Parks by visiting www.oregonstateparks.org T O 2 Cape Disappointment State 244 Robert Gray Drive, Ilwaco WA 98624 Park: 360-642-3029 or www.parks.wa.gov ber t Gray Ro Hazards at the “Bar” Warrenton Cathlamet 3 Astoria Column 101 30 Youngs Bay Svensen 202 OREGON Shark—1846 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 Millicoma—2005 Laurel—1929 After completing its mission in the Oregon Country, the U.S.S. Shark attempted to leave the Columbia River on September 10, 1846, but ran afoul of the treacherous bar. Although the ship broke up, no one died. Debris spread over 70 miles, some coming to rest on the beach south of the river mouth. Three small cannons, called carronades, and a capstan from the ship were discovered and lent their name to the area known as Cannon Beach. Two restored carronades are on display at the Columbia River Maritime Museum. A tug was
ty Visitor Center Displays and photographs provide insights to what the fort looked like when it was an active military post. Hours: October – April, 10am – 4pm May – September, 10am – 6pm  Hammond Drive ge R o Battery Russell Rid Pacific Ocean ad Pacific Support Fort Stevens Originally built in 1864 toward the end of the Civil War, Fort Stevens stayed active through the SpanishAmerican war and World War II. All but one of the fort’s nine concrete batteries were constructed between 1897 and 1904. Day-use area entrance Campround entrance Peter Iredale Shipwreck Shortly after World War II, the Army demolished many of the buildings and closed Fort Stevens. Although the guns have been removed, their concrete emplacements remain. Today, Oregon State Parks preserves these remnants of early 20th-century U.S. military history. Road Coffenbury Lake e Ridg Friends of Old Fort Stevens sponsors tours of the Historic Area and has been actively involved in reconstructing the earthworks, Civil War era-cannons, and various other projects. Information: visitftstevens.com. Fort Stevens may be a peaceful park today, but it was once an active military base and the target of a surprise Japanese naval attack during World War II. d Check the Visitor Center for a schedule of guided tours. The guardhouse is open to the public during the summer on a limited schedule. HISTORIC MILITARY SITES Historic Area a Ro tty Je Guided Tours Columbia River Trestle Bay Fort Stevens State Park sion. Jet Ready, aim, fire! Soldiers practice firing from Battery Russell. rights reserved. Rep rinted with permis So uth Fort Stevens State Park Clatsop Spit ©The Oregonian. All EXPAND YOUR KNOWLEDGE Civil War Rodman Cannon Eight batteries were built along the Columbia River, in today’s Historic Area. The ninth, Battery Russell, was emplaced about a mile southwest of the main fort, facing the ocean. This brochure serves as a selfguided tour of the Historic Area and Battery Russell. STEVENS stateparks.oregon.gov 800-551-6949 This June 23, 1942 article documents the Fort Stevens attack. EXPLORING BATTERY RUSSELL Built in 1904, Battery Russell was a later addition to the large military installation at Fort Stevens. It was built south of the other batteries, facing the ocean, to expand the fort’s network of artillery. Each of Battery Russel’s two 10-inch riffles was manned by a team of 35 men. A well-trained gun crew could fire a 617-pound shell up to 8 miles away, once per minute. Battery Russell. Printed on Recycled Paper All information or fees subject to change without notice. This brochure is available in alternative formats upon request. Call 1-800-551-6949. Oregon Relay for the hearing impaired: dial 711. Fire Control Hill and Squirrelville All told, approximately nine shells were fired at Fort Stevens. A monument now marks the site where one of the shells landed along DeLaura Beach Lane, creating a 5-foot crater. Although there were no casualties, and the shelling caused minimal damage to property, it alarmed local residents about the possibility of further attacks or even an invasion. The dunes south of Battery Russell marked the highest point at Fort Stevens, with a clear view of the ocean and the river. Thus, this was the perfect location to scan the battlefield for enemy vessels. Called Fire Control Hill, this is where orders were coordinated for all guns at Fort Stevens as well as Washington’s Fort Canby and Fort Columbia. Throughout the 1930s, Battery Russell was the practice battery for the 249th Coast Artillery Regiment Photo ofthe 2nd Coast Artillery unit from Coos Bay that became part of with the Oregon National Guard. the 249th Coast Artillery Corps of the Oregon National Guard. Only after Japan attacked Pearl why the order was given—we can only speculate. Harbor on December 7, 1941 was Battery Russell Perhaps those on Fire Control Hill thought the manned on a regular basis. Because it was about sub was beyond the reach of the guns, or the a mile from the main fort, primitive housing harbor defense commander may have wanted to was hastily constructed for the gun crews in the avoid revealing the precise location of the fort wooded area behind the dune. This area was and the extent of its arsenal. known as “Squirrelville” to the soldiers who were rotated in and out every two weeks. Fortunately, most of the I-25’s shells landed Attack! At about 11:30 p.m. on the night of June 21, 1942, an Imperial Japanese Navy submarine surfaced just south of Fort Stevens and began firing shells in the direction of the fort. Soldiers scrambled out of bed and raced to their posts. They located the submarine by its gun flashes, but were told to hold fire. It’s unclear A photograph of the I-15, a submarine from the same class as the I-25. GLOSSARY OF TERMS Aftermath harmlessly in isolated swamp and beach areas, although several did hit near Battery Russell. A regional newspaper at the time said that the sub “p
Fort Stevens State Park & Historical Site Mushroom Regulations Harvesting small quantities of mushrooms at Fort Stevens is allowed for personal use only. Commercial picking is prohibited. • Picking in the campground is prohibited. Limit your search to the day-use areas. • Park only in designated parking areas. Do not park on the road shoulders. • Fort Stevens State Park Vicinity Maps Clatsop Spit Picking of psilocybin (hallucinogenic) mushrooms is a felony and therefore prohibited. Columbia TO WASHINGTON Trestle Bay South Jetty Columbia Wildlife Viewing Bunker River HAMMOND Observation Platform ASTORIA 30 PA C I F I C A knife or trowel to cut or dig up mushrooms. • Bucket, basket or container to store mushrooms. Avoid using plastic bags. Mushrooms “sweat” in plastic bags. South Jetty 101 To Seaside Fort Stevens State Park 30 202 WARRENTON PA C I F I C 101 BUS OCEAN Observation Platform Historic Area HAMMOND Swash Lake Wildlife Viewing Deck Day-Use Area Wreck of the “Peter Iredale” WARRENTON PA C I F I C Lewis and Clark River River Military Museum Batteries OCEAN Coffenbury Lake oad To Seaside Youngs River Wildlife Viewing Bunker OCEAN Lewis and Clark River Ridge R 101 Fort Clatsop National Memorial PA C I F I C Columbia TO WASHINGTON C o l uremembermbia River And always Clatsop HAMMOND When in doubt, throw it out! Spit ASTORIA Wreck of the “Peter Iredale” Youngs River Coffenbury Lake WARRENTON oad • Fort Clatsop National Memorial Guide to Mushrooms Ridge R A field guide to identify mushrooms. Trestle Bay BUS Historic Area Military Museum Batteries Day-Use Area 101 OCEAN • Swash Lake Wildlife Viewing Deck 202 WARRENTON Equipment and Tools River HAMMOND Fort Stevens State Park 101 More information? Call the Oregon State Park Information Center: 1-800-551-6949 or visit the Oregon state parks website: www.oregonstateparks.org This publication is available in alternative formats. Call 1-800-551-6949 For hearing impaired, call: 1-800-735-2900 All information and prices subject to change without notice. 63400-8153 (4/16) • 101 Many mushroom species live and grow in Fort Stevens State Park. This brochure is an introduction to some of the more common fungi found in the park. Please use a reliable field guide to identify mushrooms you intend to eat. Remember: Don’t eat it if you don’t know what it is. King Bolete (Boletus edulis) Russula Species The varieties of Russula mushrooms number in the hundreds. They range in color from bright red to green to white. Some are edible and some are poisonous. The species is common and can be identified by their stems, which break in half like a piece of chalk. Lobster Mushroom The King Bolete is a very large mushroom that grows in the fall after the first heavy rains. A bulbous fungus with a sponge-like layer on the underside of the cap, the King Bolete is considered a choice edible. Sold in stores under its Italian name, Porcini. (Hypomyces lactifluorum) Oyster Mushroom Fly Amanita (Pleurotus ostreatus) Oyster mushrooms grow on dead trees (typically alders) year-round. The mushrooms vary in color from white to brown and are the shape of an oyster shell. The oyster mushroom is delicious. The Lobster mushroom is a fascinating fungus that grows on other mushrooms. Lobsters usually attack the shortstemmed Russula. The Lobster mushroom is most abundant in late summer and early fall and is delicious when still crisp — a definite improvement over the Russula host. (Amanita muscaria) Fly Amanita is beautiful but poisonous, and should never be eaten. The Fly Amanita is one of the most well-known species because of its bright red color and white spots. White Matsutake (Tricholoma magnivelare) The White Matsutake is found occasionally in late fall in the Fort Stevens forests. Also called the pine mushroom, it typically grows beneath shore pine trees. This mushroom is highly prized in Japan and Asia, where it garners high prices in markets and restaurants. The Matsutake smell is unforgettable; a spicy odor described as a cross between cinnamon candy and dirty socks! Prince (Agaricus augustus) The Prince is considered to be a delicious edible. Identified by its golden cap and almond-like smell, the Prince can be found from late summer through fall. They are rare, and if you are lucky enough to find a patch, you are in for a treat. Prince (Agaricus augustus)
Horse Camps and Trails W hether you ride the trails or spread your bedroll in one of our eight horse camps, an equestrian getaway in an Oregon state Tryon Creek State Natural Area park will give you campfire fodder to last a lifetime. Nehalem Bay State Park Call the State Parks Information Center, 800-551-6949, for additional information on horse trails and horse camping. Follow the 100-mile OC&E Woods Line State Trail east of Klamath Falls, once an early rail line for the timber industry. Combine camping and miles of trail riding at Howard Creek Horse Camp in Silver Falls State Park or at Hares Canyon Horse Camp in L.L. “Stub” Stewart State Park. If you like the sound of waves and purplishblue glow of an ocean sunset, then eight state parks with beach access are for you. Meadows, woodlands and rivers are typical features of parks such as Elijah Bristow, Willamette Mission and Milo McIver. For a look at grasslands, deep canyons and the John Day River, try the Lone Corral Trail at Cottonwood Canyon State Park in eastern Oregon. Check out other Oregon State Parks by visiting oregonstateparks.org Oregon Parks and Recreation Department 725 Summer St. NE, Suite C Salem, OR 97301 Printed on Recycled Paper All information or fees subject to change without notice. This brochure is available in alternative formats upon request. Call 800-551-6949. Oregon Relay for the hearing impaired: dial 711. 63400-8111 (/18) Elijah Bristow State Park Silver Falls State Park Nehalem Bay State Park Trail Rules Banks-Vernonia State Trail Trail Courtesy Ride with a buddy. If you must ride alone, tell someone where you’re going and when you’re returning. Let bicyclists and hikers know the best way to get around your group. Downhill traffic yields to uphill traffic. Ride only on trails designated for horses and other areas open to horses. Be aware of prohibited areas. Cutting switchbacks and taking shortcuts destroy vegetation and encourage others to use the unauthorized route. Please respect private property along trails. Pack it in, pack it out. Tie horses to corrals or horse trailers, not to trees. Please ride single file and in the middle of the trail. Avoid muddy or soggy areas, especially riverbanks. Campground Rules Keep all pets under physical control and on a leash not more than six feet long. Please remove all pet waste from the equestrian campground. Keep corrals free of straw and animal waste. Remove animal waste from parking and hitching post areas and trailheads. Camping and campfires are allowed in designated areas only. Do not camp along trails. Horses are prohibited in main overnight campgrounds and developed day-use areas. L.L. “Stub” Stewart State Park How to Volunteer Many dedicated individuals and organizations volunteer their time and donate material to their favorite riding areas. If you or your organization is interested in adopting a horse trail or camping area, please call the State Parks Volunteer Hotline, 877-225-9803. Campgrounds 15 ASTORIA Del Rey Beach 12 SEASIDE Day-use trails UMATILLA 5 9 6 TILLAMOOK South Jetty 21 NEWBERG SALEM NEWPORT WALDPORT 8 MAUPIN MILTON-FREEWATER Cottonwood Canyon 7 1 WINSTON REMOTE 2 SIXES DETROIT 20 REDMOND 14 MITCHELL DAYVILLE JOHN DAY MT. VERNON PRINEVILLE PAULINA La PINE DIAMOND LAKE UNITY SENECA RILEY FORT ROCK CHEMULT ONTARIO VALE BURNS FORT KLAMATH ASHLAND WAGONTIRE BUCHANAN LAWEN NARROWS JUNTURA Off I-5, 8 miles north of Salem CRANE NEW PRINCETON JORDON VALLEY FRENCHGLEN PAISLEY 3 BEATTY KLAMATH FALLS 18 MERRILL  Horse Camping and Trails Unless noted, sites in horse camps may be reserved. Camping rates vary. To make or cancel a reservation, call 800-452-5687. Go online to oregonstateparks. org or call (800) 551-6949 for more information. Day-use parking fee noted where required. 1 Bullards Beach State Park U.S. 101, 2 miles north of Bandon on Bullards Beach Road Trails: 4 miles of beach riding. 11 miles of designated trails, one leads to Coquille River Lighthouse. Sites: Eight primitive stalls, each 12′ x 12′. Maximum one horse per stall. Three sites have stalls for two horses; five sites have stalls for four horses. All stalls are galvanized tube. Features: Picnic tables, fire rings, drinking water, vault restrooms. Showers/flush toilets in main campground. Other Info: Tethering outside the stall is prohibited. Please clean the site and stalls and dispose of trash and manure in the designated area. Parking and hitching posts available for day-use visitors. One camping unit per site. 2 Cape Blanco State Park Off U.S. 101, 9 miles north of Port Orford Trails: 6 miles of riding trails. 150-acre open riding area. Beach access. Sites: Eight primitive. Six single-horse corrals; two doublehorse corrals; two pull-through sites each with double stalls for four horses. Hitching posts located in the camp. Features: Picnic tables, fire rings, drinking water. Showers/flush toilets in main campground. 3 C
W e know that Oregon’s 362 miles of shoreline and beaches are a magnet for happy dogs and their people. Dogs are welcome at (almost) all times and places on Oregon’s beaches. But please keep in mind that all dogs, even well-behaved ones, can be a threat to birds and wildlife. Some beaches are part of protected nesting grounds of the western snowy plover. During its spring and summer nesting season (March 15-Sept. 15), certain recreation activities may be restricted or prohibited. The Bird The western snowy plover is a tiny shorebird that lives and breeds along some west coast beaches from Washington to southern California. It is a threatened species under the federal government’s Endangered Species Act (ESA). Plovers nest in dry open sand, in tiny, shallow scrapes that are very well camouflaged. Not only are nests easy to miss (or step on), but the bird will abandon its eggs if repeatedly disturbed by activities it considers a threat—activities we may see as harmless, like walking a dog, throwing a ball and flying a kite. For more info, go to bit.ly/wsplover The Law Oregon State Parks is legally responsible for managing recreation on Oregon’s ocean shore. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) oversees the ESA and thus the status of the western snowy plover. What is a management area? Management areas are stretches of beach that are either known to be occupied by breeding plovers, or places where their presence is significant and the habitat attractive. Not all management areas have recreation restrictions. What does this mean for beachgoers? It means that visitors need to watch for special signs or fences during nesting season and follow the rules. Generally, where plovers are nesting, dogs, vehicles, bicycles, camping and fires are prohibited. Pedestrians and equestrians need to stay on wet sand. Potential nesting areas may call for dogs to be leashed and driving to be curtailed. Beach Behavior We Love • Walk around birds instead of through their flocks. • Leash your dogs before they chase birds. • Respect restricted areas set aside for endangered or nesting species. • Stay away from birds and marine mammals that look sick or unable to get away from humans. Western Snowy Plover North Coast Beaches Places to Play with your Dog • Always clean up after your dog. • Always keep your dog on a leash or under voice control. Watch for restrictions during nesting season March 15- Sept. 15 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department 725 Summer St. NE, Suite C Salem OR 97301 All information or fees subject to change without notice. This brochure is available in alternative formats upon request. Call 1-800-551-6949. Oregon Relay for the hearing impaired: dial 711. 63400-9879 (4/18) “MIKE” MICHAEL L. BAIRD, FLICKR.BAIRDPHOTOS.COM Oswald West State Park Plover Management Areas Western Snowy 1 Columbia River Fort Stevens Watch for Seasonal Restrictions State Park Neahkahnie-Manzanita During nesting season, March 15 - Sept. 15 Warrenton State Park Columbia River AstoriaFort Stevens Astoria State Park Warrenton 2. Nehalem Spit 1. Clatsop Spit 30 Nehalem Garey St. Rd . Manzanita Lot C Neca me y Ci t y 202 Clatsop Spit Gearhart Lot D Gearhart Seaside Nehalem Bay Lot B Nehalem Bay State Park Seaside Ecola State Park State Park 26 d. yR Jett Ecola Trestle Bay 26 Wheeler Cannon Military Museum and Batteries Lot A 53 Cannon 26 Beach Beach rm Bu d. aR NehalemFort Stevens Bay State Park 104 Hammond Oswald West Battery Russel Garibaldi Manhattan Beach State Recreation Site State Park Manzanita Manzanita 53 Bay 4. SouthNehalem Sandlake State Park State Natural Area at Whalen Island Rockaway Beach Rockaway Beach 101B 3 Rockaway Beach Cape Meares Tillamook Bay Cape Meares State Scenic Viewpoint 6 Rd Sa n an .N Rd Twin Rocks State Park Cape Lookout State Park Cape Lookout State Park To Pacific City Oregon State Parks – leashes required Oregon Coast Trail Road NOTE: Restricted areas not to scale. Some restrictions may be lifted early; watch for signs. Plover management area (March 15 - Sept. 15) Leashes required Leash optional, Cape Kiwanda with voice control State Natural Area No dogs, kites, bikes, vehicles, camping or fires. Pacific Pedestrians, equestrians: stayCity on wet sand. Garibaldi Tillamook 6 e Sitka Sedge Tillamook State Scenic Viewpoint . 104S State Natural Area W Tillamook Bay ak ce Bayo To Tillamook Bayocean Spit dl Rockaway Bay Beach City 2 Warrenton Clay Myers Sandlake Bayocean Spit Estuary Tillamook Bay 53 Nehalem Bay State Park e Rd Barview da r Ire Pete d. le R Ridg 3. Bayocean Spit Oswald West State Park 4 Cape Kiwanda State Natural Area Pacific City
Oregon Coast Whale Watching W hale watching is one of the most popular activities on the coast, enjoyed by tens of thousands of visitors per year. Oregon has more than two dozen excellent whale watching spots on the coast; many are in or near state parks. When is the best time to see whales? Park staff are ready to answer your questions and help you spot Gray whales at the Whale Watching Center in Depoe Bay. Perched on the seawall with expansive ocean views, the center is a perfect spot to see whales. Gray whales are the most commonly sighted whales on the coast. Their seasonal migration patterns bring more than 20,000 of them past the coast each year. In the winter, from mid-December through mid-January, the whales travel south to the warm lagoons of Baja Mexico. Spring watching begins with a surge in late March as the gray whales travel north to Alaska. Whales are northbound through May. About 200 Gray whales remain in Oregon’s coastal waters every year. Summer and fall you may see them feeding closer to shore. The central coast is a hot-spot for whales from May through October. Whale Watch Week Oregon State Parks celebrates the migrations twice per year with Whale Watch Week during late December and late March. Volunteers are stationed at more than 20 of the best whale watching sites along the coast, ready to help visitors spot whales and offer fun facts about the marine mammals. For Whale Watch Week dates and locations, visit whalespoken.org. Hours: Daily, 10am – 4pm (call ahead for winter hours) Address: 119 SW Hwy. 101, Depoe Bay Information: 541-765-3304 Be a volunteer The Whale Watching Spoken Here program places volunteers at great whale watching sites during the two official whale watch weeks. Volunteers help visitors see and learn about migrating and resident Gray whales. Are whales your passion, too? Visit whalespoken.org to sign up. oregonstateparks.org Whale Watch Week, Dec. 2018. Printed on Recycled Paper This brochure is available in alternative formats on request. Write to OPRD, 725 Summer St. NE, Suite C, Salem, OR 97301; or call 1-800-551-6949 (for the hearing impaired 1-800-735-2900). 63400-8109 (08/19) Minke (30') Gray (45') Humpback (50') Sperm (60') Fin (90') Blue (100') Lewis and Clark Center Fort Stevens State Park The Blow Gray whales usually surface every 20 seconds as they swim, but will often stay under for 3 to 5 minutes when they are eating. If they have been down for 5 minutes they usually blow 5 times when they surface to replenish their oxygen supply. The blow, or spout, shoots nearly 12 feet high and expels 400 liters of air in a single blast. The whales take a few breaths at the surface then dive again. If they are frightened they can stay down for 30 minutes, hiding on the bottom or traveling great distances. The Breach The Spyhop Whales are intelligent and curious, and are often seen “spyhopping,” or lifting their heads above the surface of the water. They like to rise out of the water to get a better sense of their surroundings. During the summer, Gray whales have been known to spyhop regularly, especially when local tour boats are near. Perhaps this means the whales enjoy watching us as much as we enjoy watching them? 20 seconds Diving Pattern Swimming Pattern Seaside Cannon Beach The Best Whale Watching Sites The Dive Other Species Humpback whales are the second most common whale on the coast; the best time to spot them is August and September. Orcas, also known as killer whales, can also be sighted. Look for them April - June. Neahkahnie Mountain Nehalem Bay State Park Portland Garibaldi Cape Meares Lighthouse Tillamook Cape Lookout State Park Cape Kiwanda Inn at Spanish Head Boiler Bay State Park Whale Watching Center Rocky Creek State Park Cape Foulweather Devil’s Punch Bowl State Park Yaquina Head Lighthouse Don Davis Kiosk Pacific City Lincoln City D River Salem State Recreation Site Depoe Bay Beverly Beach State Park Newport South Beach State Park Alsea Bay Interpretive Center Waldport Yachats Cape Perpetua Center Cooks Chasm Sea Lion Caves Pacific Ocean Eugene Florence Jessie M. Honeyman Memorial State Park Reedsport Umpqua Lighthouse State Park Shore Acres State Park Coos Bay 300 to 400 yards 3 to 5 minutes Astoria Ecola State Park A deep dive, also known as sounding or fluking, happens when a whale lifts its tail flukes out of the water. This helps propel the whale downward at a steep angle to the bottom, where they feed on zooplankton and amphipods. After the flukes disappear under the water, the turbulence of the dive will cause a circle of smooth water, known as a fluke-print. The ultimate in whale sightings is a breach: a whale launches itself out of the water in a spectacular show of power and grace. Scientists aren’t sure why whales breach. Possibly they do it to remove parasites, communicate with each other or maybe it’s just for fun. Gray whales aren’t known for breaching nearly as often as
TIDE TABLES 2021 OREGON NORTH COAST Tide Tables are predictions and are least accurate during storms and extreme high and low tide periods. ★Monthly tide data taken from Tillamook Bay, North Jetty. Tide height and times will be slightly different depending on your North Coast location. Astoria Fort Stevens 101 Seaside OC EA N PA C I F I C PAC I F I C O C E A N Ecola Cannon Beach Oswald West Nehalem Bay Nehalem Wheeler ★ Cape Meares Cape Lookout Garibaldi Tillamook Netarts 101 Cape Kiwanda Neskowin Beach Pacific City Neskowin Lincoln City D River 2021 TIDE TABLES, TILLAMOOK BAY, NORTH JETTY Fogarty Creek Gleneden Oregon State Parks Information: 800-551-6949 Reservations: 800-452-5687 stateparks.oregon.gov Information printed from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov Mt. Ang Silver PAGE 1 Aumsville 214 StationId: 9437585 Source: NOAA/NOS/CO-OPS Station Type: Primary Time Zone: LST_LDT Datum: MLLW NOAA Tide Predictions JETTY, TILLAMOOK BAY, ,2021 OREGON, NORTHNORTH COAST Times and Heights of High and Low Waters January Time Height February Time h m 02:20 AM 07:13 AM 01:02 PM 08:04 PM ft 7.3 3.9 8.8 -0.8 cm 223 119 268 -24 h m 02:53 AM 16 08:12 AM Sa 02:07 PM 08:47 PM 2 03:00 AM 07:58 AM Sa 01:43 PM 08:43 PM 7.3 3.8 8.4 -0.6 223 116 256 -18 3 03:41 AM 08:50 AM Su 02:31 PM 09:25 PM 7.4 3.7 7.9 -0.2 4 04:22 AM 09:49 AM M 03:28 PM 10:09 PM Height Time Height March Time ft 7.7 3.2 8.3 -0.2 cm 235 98 253 -6 h m 03:00 AM 1 08:37 AM M 02:33 PM 08:59 PM ft 7.9 2.3 8.0 0.1 cm 241 70 244 3 h m 03:19 AM 16 09:15 AM Tu 03:21 PM 09:17 PM 03:34 AM 17 09:02 AM 7.6 3.2 Su 02:54 PM 7.6 09:25 PM 0.5 232 98 232 15 2 03:37 AM 09:32 AM Tu 03:30 PM 09:39 PM 8.1 1.9 7.3 0.9 247 58 223 27 226 113 241 -6 04:15 AM 18 09:55 AM 7.5 3.1 M 03:45 PM 6.8 10:03 PM 1.2 229 94 207 37 3 04:17 AM 10:33 AM W 04:38 PM 10:24 PM 8.2 1.6 6.6 1.8 7.5 3.4 7.3 0.4 229 104 223 12 04:55 AM 19 10:53 AM 7.4 3.0 Tu 04:45 PM 6.1 10:42 PM 2.0 226 91 186 61 4 5 05:06 AM 10:56 AM Tu 04:39 PM 10:57 PM 7.7 3.0 6.6 1.2 235 91 201 37 05:37 AM 20 11:55 AM 7.4 2.7 W 05:58 PM 5.6 ◐ 11:24 PM 2.7 226 82 171 82 6 7.9 2.3 6.2 1.9 241 70 189 58 06:21 AM 21 01:01 PM 226 73 165 1 F 05:53 AM 12:08 PM W 06:06 PM ◑ 11:51 PM 7 06:42 AM 8.3 01:20 PM 1.5 Th 07:37 PM 6.0 8 7.4 2.4 Th 07:18 PM 5.4 253 22 12:14 AM 07:08 AM 46 183 F 02:05 PM 08:35 PM Height Time Height Time Height ft 7.6 2.0 6.8 1.6 cm 232 61 207 49 h m 01:43 AM 1 07:33 AM M 01:43 PM 07:53 PM ft 8.3 0.9 8.4 -0.1 cm 253 27 256 -3 h m 02:57 AM 16 09:03 AM Tu 03:21 PM 09:06 PM 03:50 AM 17 10:02 AM 7.4 2.0 W 04:12 PM 6.2 09:50 PM 2.4 226 61 189 73 2 02:17 AM 08:21 AM Tu 02:34 PM 08:31 PM 8.5 0.5 7.9 0.7 259 15 241 21 250 49 201 55 04:23 AM 18 10:54 AM 7.3 2.0 Th 05:15 PM 5.6 10:26 PM 3.1 223 61 171 94 3 02:53 AM 09:13 AM W 03:32 PM 09:12 PM 8.6 0.3 7.2 1.6 8.3 1.3 6.0 2.7 253 40 183 82 05:02 AM 19 11:55 AM 7.2 2.0 F 06:36 PM 5.3 ◐ 11:12 PM 3.8 219 61 162 116 4 03:34 AM 10:11 AM Th 04:39 PM 09:57 PM 5 05:56 AM 8.4 12:54 PM 0.9 07:31 PM 5.9 256 27 180 05:51 AM 20 01:04 PM 7.1 1.9 Sa 08:00 PM 5.4 216 58 165 5 6 12:18 AM 06:57 AM Sa 02:08 PM 08:54 PM 3.5 8.5 0.5 6.1 107 259 15 186 12:16 AM 21 06:54 AM 4.2 7.2 Su 02:13 PM 1.5 09:12 PM 5.7 128 219 46 174 6 4.4 7.4 1.0 6.1 05:03 AM 11:41 AM Th 06:01 PM ◑ 11:16 PM F 3.4 7.5 1.9 5.5 104 229 58 168 01:32 AM 7 08:03 AM Su 03:16 PM 10:02 PM 4.0 8.7 -0.1 6.5 122 265 -3 198 01:34 AM 22 07:59 AM M 03:13 PM 10:07 PM ft 7.7 0.9 7.1 1.6 cm 235 27 216 49 03:24 AM 17 09:40 AM 7.6 0.9 W 04:03 PM 6.7 09:36 PM 2.2 232 27 204 67 262 9 219 49 03:49 AM 18 10:20 AM 7.5 1.0 Th 04:50 PM 6.2 10:07 PM 2.9 229 30 189 88 8.5 0.3 6.5 2.6 259 9 198 79 04:17 AM 19 11:05 AM 223 37 174 107 8.4 0.4 6.0 3.4 256 12 183 104 04:50 AM 20 12:00 PM 7.1 1.4 Sa 07:02 PM 5.4 11:28 PM 4.0 216 43 165 122 05:19 AM 8.1 12:31 PM 0.5 Sa 07:26 PM 5.9 247 15 180 05:36 AM 21 01:06 PM 6.8 1.5 Su 08:26 PM 5.4 207 46 165 134 226 30 186 7 12:04 AM 06:31 AM Su 01:49 PM 08:46 PM 4.0 7.9 0.4 6.1 122 241 12 186 12:36 AM 22 06:46 AM 4.4 6.7 M 02:19 PM 1.3 09:36 PM 5.7 134 204 40 174 F 04:20 AM 11:16 AM 05:59 PM 10:52 PM ◑ F 7.3 1.2 05:48 PM 5.7 10:42 PM 3.5 ◐ 12:50 AM 07:34 AM 02:27 PM 08:57 PM 2.7 8.7 0.7 6.3 82 265 21 192 01:13 AM 23 07:56 AM 3.9 7.7 Sa 03:01 PM 1.4 09:40 PM 5.8 119 235 43 177 8 02:48 AM 09:05 AM M 04:14 PM 10:57 PM 4.1 8.9 -0.5 6.9 125 271 -15 210 02:47 AM 23 08:58 AM 4.3 7.7 Tu 04:02 PM 0.4 10:50 PM 6.5 131 235 12 198 8 4.4 6.7 Tu 03:26 PM 0.9 10:29 PM 6.1 134 204 27 186 3.2 9.1 -0.2 6.6 98 277 -6 201 4.2 8.0 Su 03:50 PM 0.8 10:33 PM 6.2 128 244 24 189 3.9 9.1 -0.9 7.3 119 277 -27 223 03:46 AM 24 09:50 AM 128 241 3 198 01:54 AM 08:26 AM Sa 03:28 PM 10:05 PM 9 4.2 7.9 0.1 6.5 02:06 AM 23 08:13 AM 02:15 AM 24 08:44 AM 01:31 AM 07:49 AM M 03:01 PM 09:50 PM 3.9 8.1

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