Birds of the Oaks and Prairies and Osage Plains of Texas
Birds of the Oaks and Prairies and Osage Plains of Texas. Published by Texas Parks & Wildlife.
|Texas Pocket Maps|
BIRDS OF THE Oaks and Prairies and Osage Plains of Texas A F I E L D C H EC K L I ST BY BRUSH FREEMAN ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This is the fifth ecoregional bird checklist for Texas in a series initiated by Texas Partners in Flight under the direction of Cliff Shackelford at Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. The following reviewers commented on an early version of this checklist: Fred Collins, Bert Frenz, Cliff Shackelford, and Ken Steigman. Also of great assistance in the development of this checklist were Keith Arnold, Kelly Cotten, Tim Fennell, Jeff Hanson, Mark Lockwood, Willie Sekula, and Matt White. We thank the Migratory Bird Office, Region 2 of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for support. Cover: Illustration of Dickcissel and Red-headed Woodpecker by Rob Fleming. This checklist is dedicated to Rob, who died before this checklist was originally printed in 2003. His artwork has graced many of the department’s bird publications for years. He will be missed. Birds of the Oaks and Prairies and Osage Plains of Texas: A Field Checklist INTRODUCTION T he areas covered in this checklist include a rich birdlife from the western edge of the more eastern forested areas gradually changing to a more western grassland influence (Fig. 1). These two ecoregions are commonly known by other names; for example, the Oaks and Prairies refer to both the Post Oak Belt or Post Oak Savannah and the Blackland Prairie (including the Grand Prairie). The Osage Plains is commonly referred to as the (Western) Cross Timbers. Examples of some of the subregions in this coverage area include The Lost Pines, a variety of smaller prairies including the Grand Prairie, Fayette Prairie, and San Antonio Prairie. For a brief yet excellent description of the major plant communities, please see pages 14-16 in Texas Wildscapes: Gardening for Wildlife by Noreen Damude and Kelly Conrad Bender published in 1999 by Texas Parks and Wildlife Press (ISBN: 1-885696-30-2). A total of 471 species has been documented within the two combined areas. Since these areas lie almost in the middle of Texas and extend mostly in a north-south fashion, the avifauna is truly diverse. This checklist is the first of its kind for the coverage area and uses ecological boundaries instead of political ones. The checklist follows the nomenclature and taxonomy as published in the 7th edition of the A.O.U. Check-list of North American Birds (1998) and its supplements. Haskell Baylor Archer Throckmorton Young ShackelStephens ford Montague Grayson Denton Wise Jack Parker Palo Pinto Tarrant Collin Eastland Johnson Somervell Erath Ellis Hamilton Henderson Anderson Freestone McLennan Limestone Leon Falls Robertson Bell Milam Oaks and Prairies Madison Brazos Williamson Burleson Osage Plains Lee Travis Comal Washington Bastrop Hays Caldwell Austin Fayette Colorado Guadalupe Gonzales DeWitt Figure 1. Coverage area of this checklist Goliad 1 Grimes Lavaca Red River Wood Van Zandt Navarro Bosque Coryell Adjacent ecoregions Hopkins Rains Rockwall Dallas Hill Brown Hunt Kaufman Comanche Coleman Fannin Delta Hood Callahan Cooke Franklin Lamar Clay Oaks and Prairies Waller Osage Plains There is no shortage of open water in the region due to a large number of manmade reservoirs. There are dozens of such impoundments, most of which occur in the northeast part of the coverage area. These bodies of water have produced some of the most surprising records in the region; products of an altered ecosystem. A number of species in this checklist are considered very local or confined to either a southern or northern extreme. For example, Brown-crested Flycatchers will only be found in the southern portion of the coverage area, while American Tree Sparrows or Horned Grebes are primarily found in the northern part. It is also important to understand that most birds show preferences for specific habitat types; a good working knowledge of these preferences will provide the observer the ability to master the birds of the area. A wide variety of published material was used to construct this booklet, including local bird checklists, published materials, records published in ABA’s North American Birds (formerly Field Notes), the Texas On-line Clearinghouse www.texasbirding.net/txclrhouse/, many personal communications with other area-experts, and information provided by the Texas Bird Records Committee. Almost 35 years of birding experience in the region by the author was also used to develop this checklist. The abundance codes for some species are subjective evaluations where published data were insufficient. LEGEND Abundant......................................... Common......................................... Uncommon..................................... Rare................................................ Very rare to casual........................... Accidental or single occurrence...... Lingering single occurrence............ B Breeds or has bred in area covered by this checklist B? Breeding suspected or questionable I Introduced N Primarily found only in the northern portion of region S Primarily found only in the southern portion of region W Primarily found only in the western portion of region NW Primarily found only in the northwestern portion of region L Found or breeds very locally H Historic records apply 2 CHECKLIST Species Jan ___Red-throated Loon N ___Pacific Loon N Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep ___Common Loon ___Least Grebe SB ___Pied-billed Grebe B ___Horned Grebe N ___Red-necked Grebe N ___Eared Grebe ___Western Grebe ___Blue-footed Booby ___American White Pelican ___Brown Pelican ___Neotropic Cormorant B ___Double-crested Cormorant B ___Anhinga B ___Magnificent Frigatebird ___American Bittern ___Least Bittern BL ___Great Blue Heron B ___Great Egret B ___Snowy Egret B ___Little Blue Heron B ___Tricolored Heron B ___Reddish Egret S ___Cattle Egret B ___Green Heron B ___Black-crowned Night-Heron B ___Yellow-crowned Night-Heron B ___White Ibis B ___Glossy Ibis B? ___White-faced Ibis BL ___Roseate Spoonbill ___Wood Stork ___Black Vulture B ___Turkey Vulture B 3 Oct Nov Dec Species Jan ___Black-bellied Whistling-Duck ___Fulvous Whistling-Duck Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct B SB ___Greater White-fronted Goose ___Snow Goose ___Ross’s Goose ___Canada Goose NB ___Brant ___Tundra Swan ___Wood Duck B ___Gadwall ___Eurasian Wigeon ___American Wigeon ___American Black Duck ___Mallard NB ___Mottled Duck B ___Blue-winged Teal B ___Cinnamon Teal S ___Northern Shoveler ___Northern Pintail ___Green-winged Teal ___Canvasback ___Redhead ___Ring-necked Duck ___Lesser Scaup ___Greater Scaup ___Surf Scoter ___White-winged Scoter ___Black Scoter ___Long-tailed Duck ___Bufflehead ___Common Goldeneye N ___Barrow’s Goldeneye ___Hooded Merganser B ___Red-breasted Merganser N ___Common Merganser NW ___Masked Duck ___Ruddy Duck BL ___Osprey 4 Nov Dec Species Jan ___Swallow-tailed Kite ___Mississippi Kite ___White-tailed Kite Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov SBH B B ___Bald Eagle BL ___Northern Harrier NB ___Sharp-shinned Hawk B? ___Cooper’s Hawk BL ___Northern Goshawk ___Harris’s Hawk ___Red-shouldered Hawk SB B ___Broad-winged Hawk BL ___Swainson’s Hawk NB ___White-tailed Hawk SB ___Zone-tailed Hawk W ___Red-tailed Hawk B ___Ferruginous Hawk ___Rough-legged Hawk N ___Golden Eagle W ___Crested Caracara B ___American Kestrel BL ___Merlin ___Peregrine Falcon ___Prairie Falcon NW ___Ring-necked Pheasant IBL ___Wild Turkey BL ___Scaled Quail NWB ___Northern Bobwhite B ___Yellow Rail ___Black Rail ___King Rail BL ___Virginia Rail BL ___Sora ___Paint-billed Crake ___Purple Gallinule ___Common Moorhen BL B ___American Coot BL ___Sandhill Crane S ___Whooping Crane 5 Dec Species Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec ___Black-bellied Plover ___American Golden-Plover ___Snowy Plover ___Wilson’s Plover ___Semipalmated Plover ___Piping Plover ___Killdeer B ___Mountain Plover W ___Black-necked Stilt B ___American Avocet ___Northern Jacana ___Greater Yellowlegs ___Lesser Yellowlegs ___Spotted Redshank ___Solitary Sandpiper ___Willet ___Spotted Sandpiper ___Upland Sandpiper ___Whimbrel ___Long-billed Curlew ___Hudsonian Godwit ___Marbled Godwit ___Ruddy Turnstone ___Red Knot ___Sanderling ___Semipalmated Sandpiper ___Western Sandpiper ___Least Sandpiper ___White-rumped Sandpiper ___Baird’s Sandpiper ___Pectoral Sandpiper ___Sharp-tailed Sandpiper ___Purple Sandpiper ___Dunlin ___Curlew Sandpiper ___Stilt Sandpiper ___Buff-breasted Sandpiper ___Ruff 6 Species Jan Feb Mar Apr ___Short-billed Dowitcher ___Long-billed Dowitcher ___Wilson’s Snipe ___American Woodcock B ___Wilson’s Phalarope ___Red-necked Phalarope ___Red Phalarope ___Pomarine Jaeger ___Parasitic Jaeger ___Long-tailed Jaeger ___Laughing Gull ___Franklin’s Gull ___Little Gull ___Black-headed Gull N ___Bonaparte’s Gull N ___Mew Gull ___Ring-billed Gull ___California Gull ___Herring Gull ___Thayer’s Gull ___Lesser Black-backed Gull ___Glaucous Gull ___Black-legged Kittiwake N ___Sabine’s Gull ___Gull-billed Tern ___Caspian Tern ___Royal Tern ___Sandwich Tern ___Roseate Tern ___Common Tern ___Forster’s Tern ___Least Tern BL ___Sooty Tern ___Black Tern ___Black Skimmer ___Rock Dove IB ___Eurasian Collared-Dove IB ___White-winged Dove B 7 May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Species Jan ___Mourning Dove B ___Inca Dove B ___Common Ground-Dove Feb Mar Apr SB ___White-tipped Dove ___Monk Parakeet IBL ___Black-billed Cuckoo ___Yellow-billed Cuckoo B ___Greater Roadrunner B ___Groove-billed Ani SB ___Barn Owl B ___Eastern Screech-Owl B ___Great Horned Owl B ___Snowy Owl ___Burrowing Owl BH ___Barred Owl B ___Long-eared Owl N ___Short-eared Owl ___N. Saw-whet Owl ___Lesser Nighthawk SB? ___Common Nighthawk B ___Common Pauraque S ___Common Poorwill WB ___Chuck-will’s-widow B ___Whip-poor-will B? ___Chimney Swift B ___White-throated Swift ___Green Violet-ear ___Broad-billed Hummingbird ___Buff-bellied Hummingbird SB? ___Blue-throated Hummingbird ___Ruby-throated Hummingbird B ___Black-chinned Hummingbird WB ___Anna’s Hummingbird ___Calliope Hummingbird ___Broad-tailed Hummingbird ___Rufous Hummingbird ___Allen’s Hummingbird ___Ringed Kingfisher B? 8 May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Species Jan ___Belted Kingfisher NB ___Green Kingfisher SB Feb Mar Apr ___Lewis’s Woodpecker ___Red-headed Woodpecker NB ___Acorn Woodpecker ___Golden-fronted Woodpecker ___Red-bellied Woodpecker SB B ___Yellow-bellied Sapsucker ___Red-naped Sapsucker ___Williamson’s Sapsucker ___Ladder-backed Woodpecker WB ___Downy Woodpecker B ___Hairy Woodpecker BL ___Northern Flicker BL ___Pileated Woodpecker B ___Olive-sided Flycatcher ___Western Wood-Pewee ___Eastern Wood-Pewee B ___Yellow-bellied Flycatcher ___Acadian Flycatcher B ___Alder Flycatcher ___Willow Flycatcher ___Least Flycatcher ___Hammond’s Flycatcher ___“Western” Flycatcher ___Eastern Phoebe B ___Black Phoebe ___Say’s Phoebe NW ___Vermilion Flycatcher SB? ___Ash-throated Flycatcher SB ___Great Crested Flycatcher B ___Brown-crested Flycatcher SB ___Great Kiskadee ___Couch’s Kingbird SB? SB ___Cassin’s Kingbird ___Western Kingbird B ___Eastern Kingbird B ___Scissor-tailed Flycatcher B 9 May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Species Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec ___Fork-tailed Flycatcher ___Loggerhead Shrike B ___Northern Shrike N ___White-eyed Vireo B ___Bell’s Vireo NB ___Black-capped Vireo WB ___Yellow-throated Vireo B ___Plumbeous Vireo ___Blue-headed Vireo ___Hutton’s Vireo ___Warbling Vireo NB ___Philadelphia Vireo ___Red-eyed Vireo ___Yellow-green Vireo B SB? ___Blue Jay B ___Green Jay SB? ___Western Scrub-Jay W ___American Crow B ___Fish Crow NB ___Chihuahuan Raven S ___Common Raven W ___Horned Lark BL ___Purple Martin B ___Tree Swallow B ___Violet-green Swallow W ___Northern Rough-winged Swallow B ___Bank Swallow B ___Cliff Swallow B ___Cave Swallow B ___Barn Swalow B ___Carolina Chickadee B ___Tufted Titmouse B ___Black-crested Titmouse WB ___Verdin WB ___Bushtit NW ___Red-breasted Nuthatch ___White-breasted Nuthatch NB ___Pygmy Nuthatch 10 Species Jan ___Brown-headed Nuthatch Feb Mar Apr NB ___Brown Creeper ___Cactus Wren SB? ___Rock Wren WB? ___Canyon Wren NWB ___Carolina Wren B ___Bewick’s Wren B ___House Wren ___Winter Wren ___Sedge Wren ___Marsh Wren BL ___American Dipper ___Golden-crowned Kinglet ___Ruby-crowned Kinglet ___Blue-gray Gnatcatcher B ___Eastern Bluebird B ___Western Bluebird W ___Mountain Bluebird W ___Townsend’s Solitaire W ___Veery ___Gray-cheeked Thrush ___Swainson’s Thrush ___Hermit Thrush ___Wood Thrush BL ___Clay-colored Robin ___American Robin B ___Varied Thrush ___Gray Catbird ___Northern Mockingbird ___Sage Thrasher NB B B ___Brown Thrasher NB ___Long-billed Thrasher SB ___Curve-billed Thrasher WB ___European Starling B ___American Pipit ___Sprague’s Pipit ___Bohemian Waxwing ___Cedar Waxwing 11 May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Species Jan Feb Mar Apr ___Phainopepla ___Blue-winged Warbler ___Golden-winged Warbler ___Tennessee Warbler ___Orange-crowned Warbler ___Nashville Warbler ___Northern Parula B ___Yellow Warbler B? ___Chestnut-sided Warbler ___Magnolia Warbler ___Cape May Warbler ___Black-throated Blue Warbler ___Yellow-rumped Warbler ___Black-throated Gray Warbler ___Golden-cheeked Warbler NWB ___Black-throated Green Warbler ___Townsend’s Warbler ___Blackburnian Warbler ___Yellow-throated Warbler NB ___Pine Warbler BL ___Prairie Warbler B? ___Palm Warbler ___Bay-breasted Warbler ___Blackpoll Warbler ___Cerulean Warbler ___Black-and-white Warbler B?H B ___American Redstart BH ___Prothonotary Warbler BL ___Worm-eating Warbler BL ___Swainson’s Warbler BL ___Ovenbird ___Northern Waterthrush ___Louisiana Waterthrush BL ___Kentucky Warbler BL ___Connecticut Warbler ___Mourning Warbler ___MacGillivray’s Warbler W ___Common Yellowthroat B 12 May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Species Jan ___Hooded Warbler Feb Mar Apr BL ___Wilson’s Warbler ___Canada Warbler ___Red-faced Warbler ___Yellow-breasted Chat BL ___Hepatic Tanager ___Summer Tanager B ___Scarlet Tanager ___Western Tanager ___Olive Sparrow ___Green-tailed Towhee SB? W ___Eastern Towhee ___Spotted Towhee W ___Canyon Towhee NWB ___Bachman’s Sparrow BL ___Cassin’s Sparrow SB ___Rufous-crowned Sparrow ___American Tree Sparrow NWB N ___Chipping Sparrow B ___Clay-colored Sparrow W ___Brewer’s Sparrow ___Field Sparrow NWB ___Vesper Sparrow ___Lark Sparrow ___Black-throated Sparrow ___Lark Bunting B NWB W ___Savannah Sparrow ___Baird’s Sparrow ___Grasshopper Sparrow ___Henslow’s Sparrow BL L ___Le Conte’s Sparrow ___Nelson’s Sharp-tailed Sparrow L ___Fox Sparrow ___Song Sparrow ___Lincoln’s Sparrow ___Swamp Sparrow ___White-throated Sparrow ___Harris’s Sparrow 13 May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Species Jan Feb Mar Apr ___White-crowned Sparrow ___Golden-crowned Sparrow ___Dark-eyed Junco ___McCown’s Longspur W ___Lapland Longspur ___Smith’s Longspur N ___Chestnut-collared Longspur W ___Snow Bunting ___Northern Cardinal ___Pyrrhuloxia B SB ___Rose-breasted Grosbeak ___Black-headed Grosbeak ___Blue Grosbeak B ___Lazuli Bunting W ___Indigo Bunting B ___Painted Bunting B ___Dickcissel B ___Bobolink ___Red-winged Blackbird B ___Eastern Meadowlark B ___Western Meadowlark W ___Yellow-headed Blackbird ___Rusty Blackbird N ___Brewer’s Blackbird W ___Common Grackle B ___Great-tailed Grackle B ___Shiny Cowbird ___Bronzed Cowbird SB ___Brown-headed Cowbird B ___Orchard Oriole B ___Hooded Oriole ___Audubon’s Oriole ___Baltimore Oriole NB ___Bullock’s Oriole WB ___Scott’s Oriole ___Pine Grosbeak ___Purple Finch N ___House Finch B 14 May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Species Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug ___Red Crossbill ___Common Redpoll ___Pine Siskin ___Lesser Goldfinch WB ___American Goldfinch BL ___Evening Grosbeak IB ___House Sparrow LEGEND Abundant......................................... Common......................................... Uncommon..................................... Rare................................................ Very rare to casual........................... Accidental or single occurrence...... Lingering single occurrence............ B Breeds or has bred in area covered by this checklist B? Breeding suspected or questionable I Introduced N Primarily found only in the northern portion of region S Primarily found only in the southern portion of region W Primarily found only in the western portion of region NW Primarily found only in the northwestern portion of region L Found or breeds very locally H Historic records apply 15 Sep Oct Nov Dec The following two Review Species were reported in the region prior to the creation of the Texas Bird Records Committee or were never submitted to this committee for review. Some of these reports likely represent valid records. ■ ■ Trumpeter Swan (undocumented report in 1867) Black-billed Magpie (undocumented reports in 1946, 1954, 1973, and 1990) The following list includes Hypothetical Species that may appear in the region or have previously been reported without supporting documentation. A number of these species have occurred adjacent to the coverage area of this checklist. Clark’s Nutcracker Tropical Parula Hermit Warbler Black-chinned Sparrow Varied Bunting Boat-tailed Grackle Cassin’s Finch Clark’s Grebe Common Black-Hawk Band-tailed Pigeon Vaux’s Swift Dusky Flycatcher Gray Flycatcher Cassin’s Vireo Extinct or extirpated species from the checklist area: Greater Prairie-Chicken Lesser Prairie-Chicken Eskimo Curlew Passenger Pigeon Carolina Parakeet Red-cockaded Woodpecker Ivory-billed Woodpecker 16 NOTES 4200 Smith School Road • Austin, Texas 78744 www.tpwd.state.tx.us © 2012 Texas Parks and Wildlife Department PWD BK W7000-869 (11/12) In accordance with Texas Depository Law, this publication is available at the Texas State Publications Clearinghouse and/or Texas Depository Libraries. TPWD receives federal assistance from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other federal agencies. 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