Davis Mountains


brochure Davis Mountains - Birds

Birds of Davis Mountains State Park (SP) in Texas. Published by Texas Parks & Wildlife.

TEXAS PARKS AND WILDLIFE BIRDS OF DAVIS MOUNTAINS S TAT E PA R K A N D V I C I N I T Y A FIELD CHECKLIST 2016 INTRODUCTION L ying within the northern portion of the vast Chihuahuan biotic province, Jeff Davis County is located in the heart of the TransPecos region of far west Texas. The county comprises 2,258 square miles and varies in elevation from approximately 3,800 feet to 8,378 feet above sea level. About 3,000 residents inhabit Jeff Davis County which is predominately ranching country and includes only two towns – Valentine and Fort Davis, the county seat. The most prominent geographical feature, the Davis Mountains, are characterized by rugged mesas, jagged escarpments, and sharp peaks in the highlands that are interspersed with gentle, rolling hills. Formed by a burst of intrusive and extrusive volcanic activity approximately 35 million years ago during the Miocene, the Davis Mountains today represent the largest and highest mountain range entirely within the state of Texas; over 600 square miles of the range are at elevations over 5,000 feet. The highest paved road in Texas terminates on top of Mount Locke at the McDonald Observatory at an elevation of 6,791 feet. Jeff Davis County supports a diversity of habitat types due in large measure to the variance in elevation. Grasslands composed of mixed-grass or short-grass communities occur in the basin flats surrounding the mountains as well as on plateaus and rolling hills and are best developed up to 5,200 ft elevation. Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) and sideoats grama (B. curtipendula) are dominant although many other species occur, including bluestems (Bothriochloa spp.), three-awns (Aristida spp.), tobosa (Hilaria mutica), and muhlys (Muhlenbergia spp.). Chihuahuan desert scrub, typical of the lowland desert, has invaded certain grassland areas where lack of fire, soil erosion and periodic droughts have allowed the encroachment of desert plants. Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata), honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), catclaw mimosa (Mimosa aculeatacarpa var. biuncifera), and other shrubs are common in these areas. Grassland habitats and their associated birdlife are best observed from US 90, TX 17, TX 118, TX 166, and RR 505 generally south and west of Fort Davis. 1 Elements of pinyon-juniper-oak woodlands are found generally between 4,400 – 5,500 feet elevation where gray oak (Quercus grisea), Emory oak (Q. emoryi), and rose-fruited juniper (Juniperus coahuilensis) are dominant. At elevations above 5,500 feet, Mexican pinyon pine (Pinus cembroides) is found, alligator juniper (J. deppeana) begins to replace the other junipers, and silverleaf oak (Q. hypoleucoides) appears as a co-dominant. Chisos red oak (Q. gravesii), chinkapin oak (Q. muhlenbergii), bigtooth maple (Acer grandidentatum) and Texas madrone (Arbutus xalapensis) occur in moist canyons and on protected slopes. At still higher elevations, generally above 6,000 feet, a montane woodland of pines and scattered oaks is found, skirted by an understory of grasses. Dominant trees in this woodland are ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa), southwestern white pine (P. strobiformis), and Gambel’s oak (Q. gambelii). Occasional stands of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) are also present. The scenic loop drive through the Davis Mountains (TX 17, TX 118, and TX 166) traverses portions of both the pinyon-juniper-oak and pine-oak communities. Streams, marshes (ciénegas), and earthen stock tanks dot the landscape and provide a variety of aquatic and wetland habitats, offering much-needed water, shelter, and food resources for wildlife. Riparian vegetation occurring in these areas includes Rio Grande cottonwood (P. deltoides ssp. wislizenii), Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii), yewleaf willow (Salix taxifolia), little walnut (Juglans microcarpa), netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), velvet ash (Fraxinus velutina), seepwillow baccharis (Baccharis salicifolia), and cattails (Typha sp.). Well developed cottonwood/ash/willow gallery woodlands occur in some locations along permanent watercourses, such as portions of Limpia and Musquiz creeks, although in other settings riparian vegetation forms low, dense thickets. Davis Mountains State Park is situated in the transition zone between extensive grassland communities that encircle the Davis Mountains and the lower extension of the oak-juniper-pinyon woodlands, which 2 dominate intermediate elevations of the mountains (altitudes in the park range from 4,900 to 5,675 feet). Emory oak woodlands occur along Keesy Creek and its canyon, while junipers and oaks occur intermixed with numerous shrubs, grasses, forbes, and succulents such as yucca and agave on slopes and at higher elevations in the park. Cottonwood and willow are common components of the riparian vegetation bordering Limpia Creek. The avifauna of the park is composed of species characteristic of grasslands, woodlands and riparian areas. Most of the birds found within the park and its immediate surroundings commonly occur in similar mountainous terrain throughout the American Southwest and northern Mexico. Occasionally, birds of the pine and oak forests, more characteristic of the highest portions of the Davis Mountains, visit the park, especially during severe winters, and irruptive species of the Rocky Mountain montane guild invade in some years. Some of the higher and more significant elevations and habitats of the mountain range are included in the Davis Mountains Preserve, owned by The Nature Conservancy. It is here that the majority of montane (pineoak) habitats are located. Numerous exclusive species can be found in these upper elevation habitats, especially during the breeding season. Exclusive nesting species include Flammulated Owl, Band-tailed Pigeon, Mexican Whip-poor-will, Magnificent Hummingbird, Gray, Dusky, and Cordilleran Flycatchers, Violet-green Swallow, Plumbeous, Hutton’s, and Warbling Vireos, House Wren, Hermit Thrush, Orange-crowned, Virginia’s, Yellow-rumped (Audubon’s), and Grace’s Warblers, Painted Redstart, Western Tanager, Green-tailed Towhee, Red Crossbill, and Pine Siskin. Overall, an amazing 108 species are known or suspected to nest in the Davis Mountains at elevations above 5,500 feet. Other species essentially restricted to this zone during the periods indicated on the checklist include Northern Saw-whet Owl, Williamson’s Sapsucker, Steller’s Jay, Mountain Chickadee, Pygmy Nuthatch, and Hutton’s Vireo. This checklist includes all species known to occur within Jeff Davis County. Those recorded within Davis Mountains State Park and immedi- 3 ate vicinity, including Fort Davis and Fort Davis National Historic Site, are denoted by boldface. The habitat(s) in which each species is most likely to be encountered is also denoted; exclusive breeding habitats are indicated by boldface. Checklist nomenclature and organization follow the A.O.U. Checklist of North American Birds (7th Edition, 1998 as currently supplemented). This checklist was compiled by Kelly B. Bryan of Fort Davis, the late Pansy Espy of Fort Davis, and Jody and Clay Miller of Valentine, and is based in part on previous editions which were the result of many years of field observation by these and other observers, particularly the late Frances Williams of Midland. Please help protect natural avian communities by refraining from using playback tapes of bird songs. Frequent use of these tapes alters normal avian activity patterns, disrupts essential territorial behavior, and may lead to nest failure. Also remember that most land in the Davis Mountains is privately owned. At the present time, general public access is not permitted to any of the Nature Conservancy’s holdings in the Davis Mountains. DO NOT TRESPASS. Cover: Illustration of Montezuma Quail by Clemente Guzman. 4 LEGEND SP S EF LF W Seasonal Occurrence – Spring (March, April, May) – Summer (June, July) – Early Fall (August, September) – Late Fall (October, November) – Winter (December, January, February) Abundance Designations A – Abundant, always present and observed, expect large numbers in proper habitat and season C – Common, always encountered in proper habitat and season, numbers may vary from low to high U – Uncommon, usually present in proper habitat and season but may be overlooked, never common or abundant O – Occasional, not always present but usually encountered at least once during season indicated, may occur in a narrow time frame within a season or in a very specialized habitat, numbers may vary R – Rare, seldom recorded, not expected each season as designated, may not be recorded each year X – Accidental, may be observed only once in ten years or more, not expected I – Irruptive/Irregular, invasion species which may be absent some seasons/years, abundant others Habitats WA – All open water-related habitats including ponds and streams/rivers SM – Shorelines and marsh-type habitats including all wetlands (ciénegas) and mudflats UR – Urban/domesticated habitats including towns, subdivisions, farms and ranch complexes GR – Grassland habitats including all open/mixed desert, basin and/or mountain grasslands RI – Riparian habitats including shrub-tree thickets, oak woodlands and cottonwood galleries 5 DS – Desert habitats including desert scrub, open desert country and dry desert canyons PJ – Pinyon/juniper habitats including juniper woodlands and the more mesic pinyon/juniper/oak habitats PO – Pine/oak woodlands generally found above 5,500 feet elevation also called montane woodlands CHECKLIST Species Habitat SP ___ Fulvous Whistling-Duck WA, SM X ___ Tundra Swan ___ Snow Goose S EF LF W X WA, SM WA, SM, GR O ___ Ross’s Goose WA, SM, GR ___ Canada Goose WA, SM, GR ___ Wood Duck X R X O WA, SM, RI R R R R ___ Gadwall WA, SM U O U U ___ American Wigeon WA, SM U O U U ___ Mallard WA, SM O R O O ___ (Mexican Duck) Mallard WA, SM U O U U U ___ Blue-winged Teal WA, SM C R C U O ___ Cinnamon Teal WA, SM O R O O ___ Northern Shoveler WA, SM U O U U ___ Northern Pintail WA, SM O R O O ___ Green-winged Teal WA, SM U O C C ___ Canvasback WA, SM O O O ___ Redhead WA, SM O O O ___ Ring-necked Duck WA, SM C C C ___ Lesser Scaup WA, SM O O O ___ Surf Scoter WA, SM X ___ Bufflehead WA, SM 6 X U U U Species Habitat ___ Common Goldeneye WA, SM ___ Common Merganser WA, SM R ___ Ruddy Duck WA, SM U R R U U ___ Scaled Quail GR, DS A A A A A RI U U U U U X X ___ Gambel’s Quail SP S EF LF W X ___ Northern Bobwhite GR, DS ___ Montezuma Quail RI, PJ, PO C C C C C PJ R R R R R ___ Ring-necked Pheasant ___ Wild Turkey ___ Pied-billed Grebe RI, PJ, PO C C C C C WA, SM O R O O O ___ Horned Grebe WA R R R ___ Eared Grebe WA R R R R ___ Western Grebe WA R R ___ Clark’s Grebe WA X ___ Double-crested Cormorant R WA X ___ Anhinga WA, SM X ___ American White Pelican WA, SM R ___ Brown Pelican WA, SM ___ American Bittern ___ Great Blue Heron R X X SM R WA, SM, RI O O O O ___ Great Egret WA, SM R R ___ Snowy Egret WA, SM O O ___ Cattle Egret WA, SM, GR O R O R ___ Green Heron WA, SM, RI O R O R ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron SM, RI O R O ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron SM, RI X ___ White-faced Ibis WA, SM O ___ Roseate Spoonbill WA, SM ___ Black Vulture SM, GR, RI (Rio Grande corridor only) 7 O R R X X O X R R R R Species ___ Turkey Vulture Habitat SP S EF LF W SM, GR, RI A A A C ___ Osprey WA, SM O X O R ___ Swallow-tailed Kite UR, RI X ___ White-tailed Kite SM, GR R ___ Mississippi Kite SM, RI ___ Bald Eagle ___ Northern Harrier ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk ___ Cooper’s Hawk WA, SM, GR R R R R R R O O SM, GR C R C C C RI, DS, PJ, PO U R O U U RI, PJ, PO U U U U U X X X ___ Northern Goshawk PO ___ Common Black-Hawk RI, PO O O O R ___ Harris’s Hawk RI, DS R R R R ___ White-tailed Hawk GR X ___ Gray Hawk RI R R ___ Red-shouldered Hawk RI X X ___ Broad-winged Hawk C R X RI, PO X X PO X ___ Short-tailed Hawk R ___ Swainson’s Hawk RI, GR C U C O X ___ Zone-tailed Hawk RI, PJ, PO U U U X ___ Red-tailed Hawk DS, GR, RI C C C A A ___ Rough-legged Hawk GR X X X ___ Ferruginous Hawk GR U O U U U U U ___ Golden Eagle DS, GR, PO O O ___ King Rail SM X ___ Virginia Rail SM R R R R R ___ Sora SM O R O O R ___ Purple Gallinule WA X ___ Common Moorhen WA, SM X ___ American Coot WA, SM U O U U ___ Sandhill Crane SM, GR O U O 8 O Species Habitat SP S EF LF W ___ Black-necked Stilt SM R O R ___ American Avocet SM O O R ___ Snowy Plover SM R R ___ Semipalmated Plover ___ Killdeer R SM O UR, SM, GR C C C ___ Mountain Plover SM, GR O X R ___ Spotted Sandpiper SM, RI U R O U ___ Solitary Sandpiper SM U U O ___ Greater Yellowlegs SM O R U O ___ Willet SM O R O ___ Lesser Yellowlegs SM O R O ___ Upland Sandpiper SM, GR O R U ___ Long-billed Curlew SM, GR C X O O SM X ___ Red Knot ___ Stilt Sandpiper SM, GR C R O X ___ Sanderling SM ___ Baird’s Sandpiper SM ___ Least Sandpiper SM ___ Pectoral Sandpiper SM X ___ Western Sandpiper SM O R R ___ Long-billed Dowitcher SM O O O X U O O U U O SM, RI U O ___ Wilson’s Phalarope WA, SM O O ___ Bonaparte’s Gull WA, SM ___ Franklin’s Gull WA, SM R ___ Ring-billed Gull WA, SM O O ___ Herring Gull WA, SM X ___ Sooty Tern WA, SM ___ Least Tern WA, SM X X ___ Black Tern WA, SM O O X R X ___ Wilson’s Snipe 9 C R U X R X O Species Habitat SP ___ Forster’s Tern WA, SM ___ Rock Pigeon UR ___ Band-tailed Pigeon EF LF W O R O U U U U U RI, PJ, PO U U U U O UR A A A A A ___ Eurasian Collared-Dove ___ Inca Dove O UR, RI R R O O R RI O O O O O ___ Common Ground-Dove ___ White-winged Dove S UR, RI, PJ A A A A A UR, GR, DS, RI A A A A A ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo RI U U U X ___ Black-billed Cuckoo RI X ___ Mourning Dove ___ Greater Roadrunner GR, RI, DS ___ Groove-billed Ani ___ Barn Owl ___ Flammulated Owl ___ Western Screech-Owl U U RI U U X UR, SM, GR, RI O O O O RI, PO U U O X RI, PJ, PO U U U U ___ Eastern Screech-Owl RI U O U X ___ Great Horned Owl GR, RI, DS U U U ___ Elf Owl GR, RI, DS O O R ___ Burrowing Owl GR, DS U U U O R ___ Spotted Owl RI, PO R R R R R R X X R R O O O ___ Long-eared Owl RI, PJ, PO ___ Short-eared Owl SM, GR ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl ___ Lesser Nighthawk ___ Common Nighthawk U PO X X X SM, GR, DS C C U GR, RI C C U ___ Common Poorwill GR, RI, DS, PO C C C ___ Chuck-will’s-widow PO X X ___ Mexican Whip-poor-will PO A A A UR X X X X RI, PO A A A C ___ Chimney Swift ___ White-throated Swift 10 U U R I Species Habitat ___ Green Violetear SP S EF LF W PJ X X X ___ Magnificent Hummingbird PJ, PO U U U R ___ Blue-throated Hummingbird PO R R R R ___ Lucifer Hummingbird RI, DS R O O X ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird UR, RI X R U O X ___ Black-chinned Hummingbird UR, RI, DS, PJ A A A O X ___ Anna’s Hummingbird X X R U O UR, RI, PJ ___ Costa’s Hummingbird ___ Broad-tailed Hummingbird ___ Rufous Hummingbird ___ Allen’s Hummingbird ___ Calliope Hummingbird ___ Broad-billed Hummingbird PJ X RI, PJ, PO A U X UR, RI, PJ, PO R(Mar) C(July) A U O UR, RI R(July) O R R UR, RI, PJ, PO R UR, RI, PJ R R R X PO X X X ___ Violet-crowned Hummingbird UR, RI, PJ, PO X X X PO R R R WA, SM, RI U R U ___ White-eared Hummingbird ___ Green Kingfisher A X U(July) U ___ Berylline Hummingbird ___ Belted Kingfisher A X SM, RI U X O X ___ Lewis’ Woodpecker UR, RI R R R ___ Red-headed Woodpecker UR, RI X X C C ___ Acorn Woodpecker ___ Golden-fronted Woodpecker ___ Williamson’s Sapsucker UR, RI, PJ, PO X C C C UR, RI X PJ, PO O U O ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker RI, PJ, PO U U U ___ Red-naped Sapsucker RI, PJ, PO C C C ___ Red-breasted Sapsucker PO ___ Ladder-backed Woodpecker ___ Downy Woodpecker RI, DS, PJ, PO RI, PJ, PO ___ Hairy Woodpecker RI, PO ___ Northern Flicker RI, PJ, PO 11 O X C C C C X C X X X X X X C C C C C Species Habitat SP S EF LF W ___ (Red-shafted) Flicker RI, PJ, PO C C C C C ___ (Yellow-shafted) Flicker RI, PJ, PO X X X ___ American Kestrel RI, GR, DS C O C C C ___ Merlin WA, SM, GR O R O O ___ Aplomado Falcon (reintroduced) ___ Prairie Falcon ___ Peregrine Falcon ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher GR X X X X X GR, DS, PO U O U U U GR, RI, PJ, PO O R O R R RI, PO U R U ___ Greater Pewee RI, PJ, PO X X X ___ Western Wood-Pewee RI, PJ, PO A A A X X ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee RI ___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher RI X ___ Willow Flycatcher RI U ___ Least Flycatcher RI O U ___ Hammond’s Flycatcher ___ Gray Flycatcher ___ Dusky Flycatcher ___ Cordilleran Flycatcher RI, PJ, PO X U O U C C U RI, PJ, PO C U U RI, PO U U U PO R R R WA, SM, RI C C C C C O RI, PO ___ Buff-breasted Flycatcher ___ Black Phoebe X ___ Eastern Phoebe X O R O UR, GR, DS, RI C C C C C ___ Vermilion Flycatcher WA, SM, RI U U U R R ___ Dusky-capped Flycatcher PO R R R RI, DS, PJ, PO C C O ___ Say’s Phoebe ___ Ash-throated Flycatcher RI R X ___ Great Crested Flycatcher RI ___ Brown-crested Flycatcher ___ Cassin’s Kingbird R X RI X X UR, GR, RI, PO A A ___ Thick-billed Kingbird PO ___ Western Kingbird UR, GR, RI 12 A U X C U C R Species Habitat SP S EF UR, RI R X R UR, GR, RI R X R ___ Eastern Kingbird ___ Scissor-tailed Flycatcher ___ Rose-throated Becard ___ Loggerhead Shrike RI GR, RI, DS ___ White-eyed Vireo RI C LF W X C C C C X X ___ Bell’s Vireo RI, DS C ___ Black-capped Vireo RI, PJ X ___ Gray Vireo RI, PJ O R RI O R ___ Yellow-throated Vireo C ___ Plumbeous Vireo RI, PJ, PO C ___ Cassin’s Vireo RI, PJ, PO O ___ Blue-headed Vireo U O O R O RI X PJ, PO U U U RI, PJ, PO U U U ___ Hutton’s Vireo ___ Warbling Vireo C C ___ Philadelphia Vireo RI ___ Red-eyed Vireo RI X U O X X ___ Pinyon Jay GR, PJ, PO I I I I ___ Steller’s Jay RI, PJ, PO C C C C ___ Blue Jay UR, RI C I I I I ___ Western Scrub-Jay UR, PJ, PO A A A A A ___ Clark’s Nutcracker GR, PJ, PO I X I I I GR X X ___ Black-billed Magpie ___ Chihuahuan Raven GR, DS A A C O R ___ Common Raven RI, PJ, PO C C C C C ___ Horned Lark SM, GR, DS A A A ___ Tree Swallow RI ___ Violet-green Swallow RI, PJ, PO ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow RI A A O O O A A A R O R O ___ Cliff Swallow UR, RI A A A ___ Cave Swallow UR, RI U U U 13 R Species Habitat SP S EF LF W ___ Barn Swallow UR, RI A A A U ___ Mountain Chickadee PJ, PO C C C C C PJ X X ___ Juniper Titmouse ___ Black-crested Titmouse RI, PJ, PO C C C C C ___ Verdin RI, DS U U U U U ___ Bushtit RI, PJ, PO A A A A A ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch UR, RI, PO I I I I ___ White-breasted Nuthatch UR, RI, PO C C C C C X ___ Pygmy Nuthatch PO X X X X ___ Brown Creeper RI, PO O R O O ___ Rock Wren RI, DS C C C C C ___ Canyon Wren RI, DS, PO C C C C C ___ House Wren RI, DS, PO C C C U O ___ Winter Wren RI, SM, PO R O R ___ Sedge Wren SM, GR X X ___ Marsh Wren RI, SM U U R ___ Carolina Wren RI ___ Bewick’s Wren RI, DS, PJ C C C C ___ Cactus Wren GR, RI, DS C C C C C ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher RI C X O C R ___ Black-tailed Gnatcatcher RI, DS R R R R R WA X X U U U RI, PJ, PO C O C C ___ Eastern Bluebird RI, PJ U O U U ___ Western Bluebird RI, PJ, PO A A A A A ___ Mountain Bluebird GR, PJ I X I ___ American Dipper ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet ___ Townsend’s Solitaire PJ, PO PJ, PO, RI ___ Veery ___ Swainson’s Thrush RI RI, PJ, PO 14 X X I I C I I X X O R R Species ___ Hermit Thrush Habitat SP S EF LF W RI, PJ, PO U U O C ___ Wood Thrush RI ___ Rufous-backed Robin ___ American Robin RI UR, RI, PJ, PO U X I X R X I I ___ Varied Thrush RI X X ___ Gray Catbird RI R X R R X DS, RI, PJ C C C C C RI R X R R R ___ Curve-billed Thrasher ___ Brown Thrasher ___ Long-billed Thrasher ___ Crissal Thrasher RI RI, DS X X O O R R ___ Sage Thrasher DS, RI, PJ O R U U ___ Northern Mockingbird UR, DS, RI A A A A A UR U U U ___ European Starling ___ American Pipit O U U GR, SM U U O GR O O R C R U C C C C U ___ Sprague’s Pipit ___ Cedar Waxwing UR, RI, PJ ___ Phainopepla UR, RI, PJ ___ Olive Warbler PO X ___ McCown’s Longspur GR U U ___ Smith’s Longspur GR X ___ Chestnut-collared Longspur GR, DS ___ Ovenbird C A A U A RI X ___ Worm-eating Warbler RI X X ___ Louisiana Waterthrush WA, RI, SM X X X ___ Northern Waterthrush WA, RI, SM O O ___ Golden-winged Warbler RI ___ Blue-winged Warbler ___ Black-and-white Warbler ___ Prothonotary Warbler RI RI, PJ, PO WA, RI ___ Swainson’s Warbler RI 15 X X X O R O X X Species Habitat ___ Tennessee Warbler RI SP S EF LF W X X ___ Orange-crowned Warbler RI, DS, PJ, PO U R U ___ Colima Warbler PO X X X ___ Lucy’s Warbler RI X X X ___ Nashville Warbler RI ___ Virginia’s Warbler RI, DS, PJ, PO ___ MacGillivray’s Warbler RI, SM, PO ___ Mourning Warbler RI ___ Kentucky Warbler ___ Common Yellowthroat RI SM, RI ___ Hooded Warbler RI C U U O U R U O C X U O X X X X O R O R R X ___ American Redstart RI, PO ___ Cape May Warbler RI X X ___ Northern Parula RI X X ___ Tropical Parula RI X ___ Blackburnian Warbler RI X ___ Yellow Warbler RI U U ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler RI X RI, PJ X ___ Blackpoll Warbler ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler ___ Pine Warbler O X O R R X RI X X X PO X X X ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler UR,RI, PJ, PO A O O A U ___ (Myrtle) Warbler UR, RI, PJ, PO R X O O ___ (Audubon’s) Warbler UR, RI, PJ, PO A O O A U ___ Yellow-throated Warbler RI R X R ___ Grace’s Warbler PO C C U RI, PJ U X U R X R C U X X R R X X X R ___ Black-throated Gray Warbler ___ Townsend’s Warbler RI, PO, PJ ___ Hermit Warbler RI, PO ___ Canada Warbler RI 16 Species Habitat SP S EF LF W ___ Wilson’s Warbler UR, RI, PJ, PO A X A O ___ Red-faced Warbler PO X X ___ Painted Redstart PO R ___ Slate-throated Redstart PO X R R X ___ Yellow-breasted Chat RI, DS O O O ___ Green-tailed Towhee RI, DS, PO C O U U U ___ Spotted Towhee RI, PJ, PO A A A C U C C C C C ___ Rufous-crowned Sparrow DS, RI, PJ, PO ___ Canyon Towhee DS, RI, PJ A A A A A ___ Cassin’s Sparrow DS, GR, RI C C C U O ___ American Tree Sparrow ___ Chipping Sparrow RI UR, RI, PJ, PO X X A A A A A ___ Clay-colored Sparrow GR, DS, RI C C U I ___ Brewer’s Sparrow GR, DS, RI U O C C R R O R U U O C ___ Field Sparrow ___ Black-chinned Sparrow RI DS, RI, PJ, PO U U ___ Vesper Sparrow GR, DS, RI C O C ___ Lark Sparrow GR, RI, PJ C C C U X DS, RI C C C C C O O O ___ Black-throated Sparrow ___ Sagebrush Sparrow DS ___ Lark Bunting DS, GR, RI A C A ___ Savannah Sparrow DS, GR, RI A U A A I U U U R R R ___ Grasshopper Sparrow ___ Baird’s Sparrow GR DS, GR R(July) I A ___ Fox Sparrow RI R R R R ___ Song Sparrow RI O U O ___ Lincoln’s Sparrow RI C O C U ___ Swamp Sparrow RI U U U ___ White-throated Sparrow RI O O O ___ Harris’s Sparrow RI X 17 Species Habitat SP ___ White-crowned Sparrow DS, RI A ___ Golden-crowned Sparrow ___ Dark-eyed Junco ___ (Red-backed) Junco EF LF W O A C DS, RI X X UR, RI, PJ, PO PJ, PO C S X O A A X X X ___ (Gray-headed) Junco UR, RI, PJ, PO C R C C ___ (Pink-sided) Junco UR, RI, PJ, PO C X O A A ___ (Oregon) Junco UR, RI, PJ, PO O O C C ___ (Slate-colored) Junco UR, RI, PJ, PO R R R ___ (White-winged) Junco PJ, PO X X ___ Hepatic Tanager PJ, PO C C U ___ Summer Tanager RI C C C ___ Scarlet Tanager RI X ___ Western Tanager RI, PJ, PO U U O C ___ Flame-colored Tanager PJ, PO X X ___ Northern Cardinal UR, RI U U U U U ___ Pyrrhuloxia RI, DS A C C A A ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak RI R X R ___ Black-headed Grosbeak UR, RI, PO, PJ A A A ___ Blue Grosbeak GR, DS, RI A A A ___ Lazuli Bunting RI, DS O U R ___ Indigo Bunting RI R R O ___ Varied Bunting DS,RI O O O RI U U U GR, DS I I I ___ Painted Bunting ___ Dickcissel ___ Bobolink GR X X ___ Red-winged Blackbird RI, SM C C C U O ___ Eastern Meadowlark GR, DS A A A A A ___ Western Meadowlark GR, DS C U C C RI, SM U U O A C A ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird ___ Brewer’s Blackbird UR, DS, GR 18 X A Species Habitat SP ___ Common Grackle UR, RI O O R ___ Great-tailed Grackle UR, SM U R R R ___ Bronzed Cowbird UR, RI C C O UR, RI, DS, PJ A A A ___ Brown-headed Cowbird S EF LF W R C O ___ Orchard Oriole UR, RI C C U ___ Hooded Oriole UR, RI R R R ___ Bullock’s Oriole RI C U C ___ Scott’s Oriole DS, RI, PJ C C C X X ___ House Finch UR, RI, DS, PJ A A A A A ___ Purple Finch RI X ___ Cassin’s Finch UR, RI, PJ, PO I X I I ___ Red Crossbill UR, PJ, PO I R I ___ Common Redpoll ___ Pine Siskin ___ Lesser Goldfinch PJ, PO ___ Evening Grosbeak X X A R R U A RI, DS, PJ C C C C U DS X X O UR, RI R O I I I UR A A A A A UR, RI, DS, PJ A A A A A UR, PJ, PO ___ House Sparrow ___ House Finch ___ Red Crossbill ___ Pine Siskin ___ Lesser Goldfinch ___ Evening Grosbeak U UR, PJ, PO I R I I I UR, RI, PJ, PO A R R U A RI, DS, PJ C C C ___ Lawrence’s Goldfinch ___ American Goldfinch I UR, RI, PJ, PO ___ Lawrence’s Goldfinch ___ American Goldfinch I DS UR, RI UR, PJ, PO ___ House Sparrow UR 19 C U X X X U O R O I I I A A A A A CITATION Bryan, Kelly, Pansy Espy and Jody Miller. November 2015. Birds of Jeff Davis County, Texas, including Davis Mountains State Park: a seasonal checklist. Natural Resource Program, Texas Parks and Wildlife. In 1983, the Texas Legislature created the Special Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Fund. This fund may be used for nongame wildlife and endangered species research and conservation, habitat acquisition and development and dissemination of information pertaining to nongame management. Money for this fund is obtained through private donations and sale of nongame wildlife art prints and stamps. This fund now gives Texans a unique opportunity to help support this state’s valuable and sensitive nongame resources. Your individual contributions and purchases of nongame art prints and stamps will help determine the level of nongame conservation activities in Texas. For more information call toll-free (1-800-792-1112) or contact: Nongame and Endangered Species Program, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 4200 Smith School Road, Austin, Texas 78744. TPWD receives funds from the USFWS. TPWD prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, disability, age, and gender, pursuant to state and federal law. To request an accommodation or obtain information in an alternative format, please contact TPWD on a Text Telephone (TTY) at (512) 389-8915 or by Relay Texas at 7-1-1 or (800) 735-2989 or by email at accessibility@ tpwd.texas.gov. If you believe you have been discriminated against by TPWD, please contact TPWD, 4200 Smith School Road, Austin, TX 78744, or the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office for Diversity and Workforce Management, 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041. 20 Natural Resources Program Texas Parks and Wildlife 4200 Smith School Road Austin, Texas 78744 © 2019 Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. PWD BK P4501-004A (5/19) In accordance with Texas Depository Law, this publication is available at the Texas State Publications Clearinghouse and/or Texas Depository Libraries.

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