Galveston Island

Birds

brochure Galveston Island - Birds

Birds at Galveston Island State Park (SP) in Texas. Published by Texas Parks & Wildlife.

covered parks

TEXAS PARKS AND WILDLIFE BIRDS OF GALVESTON ISLAND S T A T E P A R K A FIELD CHECKLIST 2020 INTRODUCTION O nce little more than a wavering sliver of grass-carpeted sand, Galveston Island now favors the inland cities massed along the shores of the bay that carries its name. The inhospitable nature of a windswept barrier island has been supplanted by more “accommodating” (to humans, at least) beach homes, condominiums and curio shops. Only at Galveston Island State Park has a vestige of the original island coastal prairie been protected. This 2,000-acre park, situated six miles southwest of the western tip of Galveston’s seawall, offers visitors a rare, intimate view of a barrier island ecosystem. Biological communities that once so typified this northernmost barrier island on the Texas coast still flourish at this vestigial spot as though the footsteps of Cabeza de Vaca and Jean Lafitte were only imagined imprints in the beach sand. Spanning the width of the island from the Gulf of Mexico across to West Galveston Bay, the park is comprised of a mosaic of coastal habitats which hosts a surprising variety of birds. The secret to finding any specific bird is to search the right habitat at the right time of year. This checklist has been compiled in hopes that visitors to the park will have adequate information to locate the birds that are the object of their quest. To that end, pay specific attention to the habitat codes that accompany each species on the checklist. These classifications are based upon the general habitat types utilized by the birds in the parks and are not necessarily reflective of vegetational communities. The habitats that are of interest to birders are as follows: Open Waters of the Gulf of Mexico Extending from the beach, gulfward to the horizon, the stretch of the Gulf of Mexico that is visible from the park is noteworthy for the seabirds that periodically pass over and through its waters. In addition to the ubiquitous pelicans, gulls, and terns that congregate over the gulf, birders may also see Northern Gannets, Pomarine and Parasitic jaegers in the winter and during migrations and Magnificent Frigatebirds in summer and fall. There are winters when sea ducks gather offshore, presenting the rare opportunity to see Long-tailed Duck, and Black, Surf and White-winged scoters in Texas. In early spring, migrating Tricolored Herons, White Ibis, Fulvous Whistling-Ducks and Blue-winged Teal can be seen returning from their southerly wintering grounds in an endless stream moving north along the coast. 1 Sandy Beach/Dune This littoral habitat ranges from the water line landward through the fore-island dunes. The vegetation on the gulfward dune faces is dominated by succulents and salt-tolerant species of plants such as gulf croton (Croton punctatus), sea-purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum), fiddleleaf morningglory (Ipomoea stolonifera), bitter or seaside panicum (Panicum amarum) and camphor daisy (Heterotheca subaxillaris). This community grades into a seacoast bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) – gulfdune paspalum (Paspalum monostachyum) community on the landward dune slopes. Gulls and terns roost in mixed flocks along the open beaches, and unusual species such as Franklin’s and Glaucous gulls and Common Tern are usually associated only with these groups. Several species of shore-birds, including the endangered Piping Plover, can be seen feeding in the wet sand along the water line. Horned Larks and several species of sparrows (winter) can be found foraging for seeds in the heavy grasses immediately behind the dunes. In the winter and during migrations, both Merlins and Peregrine Falcons perch on and along the beaches, waiting for an unsuspecting shorebird or migrant passerine to wander their direction. Coastal Grassland Approximately 600 acres of park property were originally midgrass grassland with seacoast bluestem and gulfdune paspalum as dominants. Until purchased by TPWD for the creation of a state park, this grassland was heavily grazed by cattle. After acquisition, this disturbed prairie left ungrazed and unburned, quickly began a succession to woody shrub. Baccharis (Baccharis halimifolia) and the exotic Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum) came to dominate these upland areas, and many of the grassland species of birds were replaced by those more typical of eastern woodlands. TPWD recently began a program to restore these critical coastal grasslands through prescribed fire and cyclical mowing. As these grasslands recover, many prairie-inhabiting birds will return to occupy this unique coastal habitat. For example, we should see birds such as Short-eared Owl and Le Conte’s Sparrow become increasing common in the winter, with species such as the Bobolink appearing in the migration. Coastal Scrub/Woodland Before the arrival of Europeans, Galveston Island lacked significant tracts of native woodlands. Historical records indicate that woodland vegetation was 2 limited to a few live oaks (Quercus virginiana) near the western tip of the island. The trees and shrubs in the park, therefore, have become established since and as a direct result of the arrival of European man. Species such as eastern live oak, Hercules club (Zanthozylum clava-herculis), red mulberry (Morus rubra), wollybucket (Bumelia lanuginose), sugar hackberry (Celtis laevigata) and gulf black willow (Salix nigra) are native to the Texas coast and their presence in the park, although a result of man’s activities, should be considered natural. Exotic species, such as Chinese tallow, slash pine (Pinus elliottii), salt cedar (Tamarix gallica), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and chinaberry (Melia azedarach) originated either as ornamentals cultivated around the homes of early homesteaders or as windbreaks planted for cattle. These exotics are decidedly anomalous and are being eradicated from the park as a part of the program to restore the native ecosystem. Baccharis, although a native woody shrub, is being reduced from its position of dominance in these disturbed grasslands to a relative abundance more in line with its natural occurrence. Several live oak mottes, or tree islands, will be maintained within the park to enhance the native woodland habitat available for Neotropical migrants such as flycatchers, vireos, and warblers. The woodlands in concert with the restored coastal grasslands and associated wetlands will assure a diversity of habitats and bird species at Galveston Island State Park. Freshwater Pond/Swale Assemblage In general, fresh water is restricted and its sources are ephemeral on a barrier island—Galveston Island State Park is no exception. An impressive array of wetland birds, however, can be found in and around the few freshwater swales and ponds in the park. Many of these ponds and swales, particularly those immediately landward of the fore-island dunes, are lined with dense stands of common cattail (Typha domingensis) and common reed (Phragmites australis). These lagoons are a natural geological feature of the dune-upland interface along Texas’ barrier islands, but have been largely destroyed on Galveston Island by draining and filling for development. This assemblage includes both the open waters of these ponds themselves and the freshwater marshes which border them. Several species of dabbling ducks winter in these shallow waters, and herons and egrets are always present feeding on the shores. Many migratory species of shorebirds only appear in the park to feed on the exposed mud around these ponds, and these birds are therefore more common in the park in years when a lack of rain has lowered freshwater levels. Also check 3 the salt cedars around these ponds during spring and fall migration. Vireos, warblers, buntings, and orioles are attracted by the food and protection offered by these pseudo-riparian woodlands. During migrant groundings induced by inclement weather (particularly in the spring), these trees may appear to be festooned with the ornaments of a shattered avian rainbow. Tidal Slough/Saltmarsh Assemblage Unlike the narrow stretch of sandy beach and low dune fields on the seaward side of the island, the bay side is characterized by broad expanses of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) marsh. Several sloughs and tidal bayous indent the bay margin, and these shallow tidal waters teem with a profusion of fishes and invertebrates. These wetlands are critical for the health of Galveston Bay. Juvenile fish and invertebrates are sheltered by the roots and stems of the grasses, and the marshes are a major source of detrital export for the bay system as a whole. The abundance of prey may attract hundreds of herons and egrets on a given day. Other long-legged waders such as Roseate Spoonbill and White Ibis can best be seen in this habitat. The distribution of several salt-marsh specialties, such as Clapper Rail and Seaside Sparrow, is restricted to these smooth cordgrass marshes. The muddy substrate exposed at low tide offers a rich feeding ground for many shorebirds such as Black-bellied Plover, Willet, Dunlin and Short-billed Dowitcher. Grebes, cormorants, and loons are attracted by the fish that crowd the sloughs in winter. Even diving ducks such as Bufflehead may at times venture into the deepest waters of Oak and Carancahua bayous during that season. Emergent tidal marshes and transitional habitats are extremely elevation-sensitive. subsidence of the island over the past half-century has resulted in losses of up to 90% of these critical wetlands in West Galveston Bay marshes, including those at the State park. In the late 1990’s a project was undertaken to protect and restore remaining tidal marshes at the State Park and to protect shallow bay bottom wetlands from further erosion and turbidity. The large fabric-covered “geo-tubes” that can be seen protecting the park’s coves, and the rows of levees in shallow water of Carancahua Cove, now covered with smooth cordgrass, are the products of the project. In addition to increasing the production of small fishes, crustaceans, and other invertebrates, which serve as food for shore and wading birds, these structures act as islands for resting and nesting. In winter they attract species such as the Least Sandpiper, American 4 Oystercatcher, and Marbled Godwit. In spring and summer, the levees attract hundreds of Black Skimmers and other colonial nesting water birds. The protected coves have also become home to expansive seagrass beds, which were extirpated from West Galveston Bay by turbidity and changing water quality in the 1960’s. These beds attract a diversity of fishes and other wildlife, which in turn attract feeding birds. The grasses themselves, especially shoalgrass (Halodule wrightii), also provide food for wintering waterfowl such as Canvasbacks and Redheads. Bay Margin/Tidal Mud Flat At ebb tide, particularly during winter “northerns” when the bay waters are at their lowest, vast areas of normally inundated mudflats and oyster reefs are exposed to feeding shorebirds, herons, and egrets. The reefs may attract one or two American Oystercatchers and an extremely low tide is ordinarily the only opportunity to see this rarity in or near the park. Reddish Egrets will often prey upon the fish left stranded by the receding tides, and Marbled Godwits, normally absent in the park, will wade through the shallow waters looking for bristle worms. A distinctive tidal flat vegetation has evolved upon the saline soils found immediately inland of the bay margins. Plants such as glasswort (Salicornia europaea), saltwort (Batis maritime), saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) and sea ox-eye daisy (Borrichia frutescens) predominate. Drainage culverts and roofs provide nest sites for Barn Swallows. Purple Martins nest in houses erected specifically for that purpose. Killdeer and Common Nighthawks nest in small depressions (scrapes) in oyster shell and gravel roads in the park. Aerial Feeder/Transient Although rarely landing, there are several species of birds that are typically seen only when they fly over or through the park. Except for the Barn Swallows breeding within the park in spring, migrating swallows feed on the wing and therefore rarely stop within the park’s boundaries. Occasionally, hawks are viewed riding thermals (kettling) high overhead, and flocks of shorebirds can be seen in spring flying in from the Gulf of Mexico after non-stop flights from Central and South America. Gulls and terns are forever crossing the park as they move between the gulf and bay, especially in the breeding season. Barn Owls, the only resident owl within the park, are most often seen searching for prey as they hover over the open coastal grasslands at twilight. 5 This bird list was prepared by Ted Eubanks, Jr. of Houston, edited and revised by Jim Stevenson of Galveston in 2001 and updated in 2018 and 2020. Please help protect the natural avian communities in our parks by refraining from using playback tapes of bird songs. Frequent use of these tapes disrupts normal avian activity patterns, disrupts essential territorial behavior and may lead to nest failure. Thank you for your cooperation. LEGEND Habitat Codes 1 – Open waters of the Gulf of Mexico 2 – Sandy beach/dune 3 – Coastal grasslands 4 – Coastal scrub/woodland 5 – Freshwater pond/swale assemblage 6 – Tidal slough salt marsh assemblage 7 – Bay margin/tidal mud flat 8 – Open waters of West Galveston Bay 9 – Rookeries/breeding colonies 10 – Manmade structures 11 – Aerial feeders/transient Seasons SP – Spring: March-May SU – Summer: June-July FA – Fall: August-November WI – Winter: December-February Status Codes (depending on season) C U O R X – Common – Uncommon – Occasional – Rare – Accidental 6 Status/Habitat Modifiers * – Species documented as breeding in park ? – Designated status and/or habitat uncertain M – Habitat utilized primarily during migration [I] – Irruptive species, with numbers fluctuating widely each year CHECKLIST SP SU FA WI O Habitat ___ Black-bellied Whistling-Duck...... C C O 5, 6 ___ Fulvous Whistling-Duck.............. O R 1M, 5 ___ Greater White-fronted Goose....... O U 1M, 8, 11 ___ Snow Goose................................ ___ Ross’s Goose............................... O U 1M, 8, 11 R R 1M, 8, 11 ___ Gadwall....................................... C C C 5, 6, 8 ___ American Wigeon........................ C C C 5, 6, 8 ___ Mallard....................................... R R O 5, 6, 8 ___ Mottled Duck.............................. C C* C C 5*, 6* ___ Blue-winged Teal........................ C R* C O 5, 6, 8 ___ Cinnamon Teal............................ R R R 5 ___ Northern Shoveler....................... C C C 5, 6, 8 ___ Northern Pintail.......................... U U U 1M, 5, 6, 8 ___ Green-winged Teal...................... U U U 1M, 5, 6, 8 ___ Canvasback................................. U U U 5, 6, 8 ___ Redhead..................................... O O O 5, 6, 8 ___ Ring-necked Duck...................... U U U 5, 6, 8 ___ Lesser Scaup............................... C C C R 1, 5, 6, 8 ___ Surf Scoter.................................. R 1 ___ White-winged Scoter................... R 1 ___ Black Scoter............................... R 1 7 SP SU FA WI Habitat ___ Long-tailed Duck........................ R 1 ___ Bufflehead.................................. U 5, 6, 8 U ___ Common Goldeneye.................... O 1, 8 ___ Hooded Merganser..................... R R 5, 6 ___ Red-breasted Merganser............. C C C 1, 6, 8 ___ Ruddy Duck................................ U U U 5, 6 ___ Pied-billed Grebe........................ C O* C C 5*, 6 ___ Horned Grebe............................. R R R 1, 6, 8 ___ Eared Grebe................................ U U U 1, 6, 8 ___ Rock Pigeon............................... O O* O O 10*, 11 ___ Eurasian Collared-Dove.............. U U* U U 10*, 11 ___ Inca Dove................................... U U* U U 4* ___ Common Ground-Dove............... R R R 4 ___ White-winged Dove..................... O O* C O 4* ___ Mourning Dove........................... C C 4* C* C ___ Black-billed Cuckoo................... U R 4 ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo.................. C R C 4 ___ Groove-billed Ani........................ O R U O 4 ___ Lesser Nighthawk........................ O O 4, 10, 11 ___ Common Nighthawk.................... C C* C 4, 10*, 11 ___ Chuck-will’s-widow..................... C C 4, 11 ___ Eastern Whip-poor-will............... O O 4, 11 ___ Chimney Swift............................. C C 11 ___ Buff-bellied Hummingbird.......... R R ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird...... C R 4 C 4 ___ Black-chinned Hummingbird...... R R 4 ___ Rufous Hummingbird................. R R 4 ___ Yellow Rail.................................. R R R? 5, 6 8 SP SU FA WI Habitat ___ Black Rail................................... R R*? 5, 6 ___ Clapper Rail................................ C C C 6*, 7 ___ Virginia Rail................................ O O C* O 5, 6 ___ Sora............................................ U U O 5, 6 ___ Purple Gallinule.......................... O R* O 5* ___ Common Gallinule...................... U O* U U 5* ___ American Coot............................ C C C 5 ___ Sandhill Crane............................ O O ___ Black-necked Stilt....................... C R O 3, 11 C* C R 5*, 6* ___ American Avocet......................... O O O 5, 6, 7 ___ American Oystercatcher.............. R R* R R 7, 9* ___ Black-bellied Plover.................... C C 2, 6, 7 O C ___ American Golden-Plover............. C 3, 11 ___ Snowy Plover.............................. O O O 2, 7 ___ Wilson’s Plover........................... C C* C R 2, 7* ___ Semipalmated Plover.................. U R U U 2, 5, 6, 7 ___ Piping Plover.............................. U U U 2, 7 ___ Killdeer....................................... C C 3, 5, 6, 10* C* C ___ Upland Sandpiper....................... U O 3, 11M ___ Whimbrel.................................... U U R 3, 5, 6, 7 ___ Long-billed Curlew...................... C C C 3, 5, 6, 7 ___ Hudsonian Godwit...................... R 5, 11M ___ Marbled Godwit.......................... U U ___ Ruddy Turnstone......................... C 6, 7 C C 2, 6, 7 ___ Red Knot..................................... U U O 2 ___ Stilt Sandpiper............................ U U R 5, 6, 11M ___ Sanderling.................................. C O C C 2, 6, 7 ___ Dunlin........................................ C C C 5, 6, 7 9 O U UNDER CONSTRUC 10 CTION 11 SP SU FA WI Habitat ___ Baird’s Sandpiper....................... O O 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 ___ Least Sandpiper.......................... C C 5, 6, 7 C ___ White-rumped Sandpiper............ O 5, 6, 7, 11M ___ Buff-breasted Sandpiper............. R R 3 ___ Pectoral Sandpiper..................... U U 3, 5, 11M ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper............ U O 5 ___ Western Sandpiper...................... C R C C 2, 5, 6, 7 ___ Short-billed Dowitcher................ C C C 6, 7 ___ Long-billed Dowitcher................ U U O U 5 ___ Wilson’s Snipe............................. C C C 5 ___ Spotted Sandpiper....................... U O 5, 6, 7 U ___ Solitary Sandpiper....................... U U 5 ___ Greater Yellowlegs...................... C C C 5, 6, 7, 11M ___ Willet ......................................... C C* ___ Lesser Yellowlegs........................ C C C 2, 5, 6*, 7* C U 5, 6, 11M ___ Wilson’s Phalarope..................... O O 5, 6, 7 ___ Laughing Gull.............................. C C* C C 1, 2, 7, 8, 9*, 11 ___ Franklin’s Gull............................ R U 1, 2, 8, 11M ___ Bonaparte’s Gull......................... C C C 1, 2, 8 ___ Ring-billed Gull........................... C O C C 1, 2, 8, 11 ___ Herring Gull................................ C O C C 1, 2, 8, 11 ___ Gull-billed Tern........................... U U* U O 5, 6, 9*, 11 ___ Caspian Tern............................... C C* C C 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9*, 11 ___ Royal Tern.................................. C C* C C 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9*, 11 ___ Sandwich Tern............................ C C* C R 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9*, 11 ___ Common Tern............................. U O U R 1, 2 ___ Forster’s Tern.............................. C C* C C 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9*, 11 ___ Least Tern................................... C C* C 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9*, 11 12 SP SU FA WI Habitat ___ Black Tern.................................. C U C 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 11 ___ Black Skimmer........................... C C* C 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9*, 11 C ___ Pacific Loon................................ X ___ Common Loon............................ U R O U 1, 8 ___ Wood Stork................................. R R 5, 6 ___ Magnificent Frigatebird............... O U U 1, 8, 11 ___ Northern Gannet......................... U O U 1 ___ Neotropic Cormorant.................. C C C O 6, 8 ___ Double-crested Cormorant......... C C C 1, 6, 8 ___ Anhinga...................................... R R 5, 11M ___ American White Pelican.............. C R C C 1, 6, 8 ___ Brown Pelican............................ O U U O 6, 8 ___ American Bittern......................... U U U 5, 6 ___ Least Bittern................................ U U* O 5*, 6* ___ Great Blue Heron........................ C C* C C 5, 6, 7, 9* ___ Great Egret.................................. C C* C C 5, 6, 7, 9* ___ Snowy Egret................................ C C* C C 5, 6, 7, 9* ___ Little Blue Heron......................... C U C O 5, 6, 7 ___ Tricolored Heron........................ C C* C U 5, 6, 7, 9* ___ Reddish Egret............................. C C* C O 6, 7, 9* ___ Cattle Egret................................. C C* C U 3, 5, 7, 9* ___ Green Heron............................... C C* C R 5*, 6 ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron....... C C* C C 5, 6, 7, 9* ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron...... U O U R 5, 6, 7 ___ White Ibis................................... C C C C 5, 6, 7 ___ Glossy Ibis.................................. R 5 ___ White-faced Ibis.......................... U U U U 5, 6 ___ Roseate Spoonbill....................... C C* C U 5, 6, 7, 9* 13 SP SU FA WI ___ Black Vulture.............................. U U U ___ Turkey Vulture............................ U U ___ Osprey........................................ U R Habitat U 10, 11 U U 10, 11 U O 1, 5, 6, 8, 11M ___ Swallow-tailed Kite...................... R 11M ___ White-tailed Kite.......................... U O* U U 3, 4* ___ Mississippi Kite........................... O O 4, 11M ___ Northern Harrier........................ C R* C C 3* ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk................... U U O 4, 11M ___ Cooper’s Hawk............................ U U O 4, 11M ___ Broad-winged Hawk................... O U 4, 11M ___ Red-tailed Hawk......................... U U ___ Barn Owl.................................... C 3, 4, 11 C C 3, 4*, 10* ___ Great Horned Owl....................... U U U 3, 4 ___ Short-eared Owl.......................... U U U 3, 4[I] ___ Belted Kingfisher......................... C C C 5, 6 ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker............. U U U 4 ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker............ U U U 4 ___ Downy Woodpecker.................... U C* U R U U 4 ___ Northern Flicker......................... U U U U 4 ___ Crested Caracara......................... U O* U U 3, 4* ___ American Kestrel......................... C C C 3, 4, 11M ___ Merlin......................................... U U O 2, 4, 11M ___ Peregrine Falcon......................... U U O 2, 11M ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher................. O U 4 ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee................... C C 4 ___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher............ O U 4 ___ Acadian Flycatcher...................... U U 4 ___ Alder Flycatcher.......................... O U 4 14 SP SU FA WI Habitat ___ Willow Flycatcher........................ R? O? 4 ___ Least Flycatcher.......................... U C R 4 ___ Eastern Phoebe........................... C C C 4 ___ Vermilion Flycatcher................... R R R 4 ___ Ash-throated Flycatcher.............. R R 4 ___ Great Crested Flycatcher............. C R C 4 ___ Western Kingbird........................ U U 4 ___ Eastern Kingbird......................... C C* C 4 ___ Scissor-tailed Flycatcher.............. C C* C 4 ___ Loggerhead Shrike...................... C C* C C 4* ___ White-eyed Vireo......................... C C R 4 ___ Blue-headed Vireo...................... U U U 4 ___ Yellow-throated Vireo................. U U 4 ___ Warbling Vireo............................ O U 4 ___ Philadelphia Vireo....................... U O 4 ___ Red-eyed Vireo............................ C C 4 ___ Blue Jay...................................... O O O 4[I] ___ Horned Lark............................... U U* U U 2*, 7* ___ Purple Martin............................. C O C* C 10*, 11 ___ Tree Swallow............................... C C O 11 ___ No. Rough-winged Swallow......... C C 11 ___ Bank Swallow............................. C C 11 ___ Cliff Swallow............................... O O 11 ___ Barn Swallow.............................. C C* C 11 ___ Carolina Wren............................. R R R R 4 ___ House Wren................................ C C C 4 ___ Winter Wren................................ R 4 ___ Sedge Wren................................. C C 15 C 3 SP SU FA WI Habitat ___ Marsh Wren................................ U U* U U 5* ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher................. C C U 4 ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet.............. U U U 4[I] ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet................. C C C 4 ___ Veery........................................... U R 4 ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush.................. U R 4 ___ Swainson’s Thrush...................... C C 4 ___ Hermit Thrush............................ U U U 4 ___ Wood Thrush.............................. C C 4 ___ American Robin.......................... C C C 4 ___ Gray Catbird................................ C C O 4 ___ Brown Thrasher.......................... U U U 4 ___ Northern Mockingbird................ C C* C C 4 ___ European Starling....................... C C* C C 4, 10* ___ Cedar Waxwing........................... U U U 4[I] ___ House Sparrow........................... O O* O O 10* ___ American Pipit............................ U U U 3, 5 ___ Sprague’s Pipit............................ R R R 3 ___ House Finch................................ O O O 4[I] ___ American Goldfinch.................... U U U 4 ___ Eastern Towhee........................... U U 4[I] ___ Chipping Sparrow....................... O O O 4 ___ Clay-colored Sparrow................. R 3 ___ Field Sparrow............................. O O O 3, 4 ___ Vesper Sparrow........................... O O O 3, 4 ___ Lark Sparrow.............................. O O 4 ___ Savannah Sparrow...................... C C C 3 ___ Grasshopper Sparrow................. O O O 3 16 SP SU FA WI Habitat ___ LeConte’s Sparrow...................... O O O 3 ___ Nelson’s Sparrow........................ U U U 6 ___ Seaside Sparrow......................... C C C 6* ___ Song Sparrow............................. U U U 3, 4 ___ Lincoln’s Sparrow....................... C C C 3, 4 ___ Swamp Sparrow.......................... C C C 5, 6 ___ White-throated Sparrow.............. U U U 4 ___ White-crowned Sparrow............. O O O 4[I] ___ Harris’s Sparrow......................... O O 4[I] ___ Dark-eyed Junco......................... R R R 4[I] C* ___ Yellow-breasted Chat................... U U 4 ___ Bobolink..................................... R 3[I] ___ Red-winged Blackbird................ C C* C C 3*, 4*, 5, 6 ___ Eastern Meadowlark................... C C* C C 3* ___ Western Meadowlark.................. R? R? R? 3 ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird............ R R 3, 5 ___ Common Grackle........................ U U U U 3, 4, 10 ___ Boat-tailed Grackle..................... U U U U 5, 6, 10 ___ Great-tailed Grackle.................... C C* C C 4*, 10* ___ Bronzed Cowbird........................ R R*? O 3, 4 ___ Brown-headed Cowbird.............. C C 3, 4* ___ Brewer’s Blackbird .................... R R 2, 3 ___ Orchard Oriole........................... C C* C* C C 4* ___ Baltimore Oriole......................... C C 4 ___ Blue-winged Warbler.................. C C 4 ___ Golden-winged Warbler.............. U O 4 ___ Tennessee Warbler...................... C C 4 ___ Orange-crowned Warbler............ C C 17 C 4 SP SU FA WI Habitat ___ Nashville Warbler........................ O U 4 ___ Northern Parula.......................... C C 4 ___ Yellow Warbler........................... C C 4 ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler............... C C 4 ___ Magnolia Warbler....................... C C 4 ___ Cape May Warbler....................... R 4 ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler....... R R 4 ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler.............. C C C 4 ___ Black-throated Green Warbler.... C C 4 ___ Blackburnian Warbler................. C C 4 ___ Yellow-throated Warbler............. U U 4 ___ Pine Warbler............................... R R R 4[I] ___ Prairie Warbler........................... R U 4 ___ Palm Warbler.............................. U U U 4 ___ Bay-breasted Warbler.................. C C 4 ___ Blackpoll Warbler....................... U R 4 ___ Cerulean Warbler........................ U R 4 ___ Black-and-white Warbler............ C C 4 ___ American Redstart...................... C C 4 ___ Prothonotary Warbler................. C C 4 ___ Worm-eating Warbler.................. C C 4 ___ Swainson’s Warbler..................... O R 4 ___ Ovenbird..................................... C C 4, ___ Northern Waterthrush................. C C 4, 5 ___ Louisiana Waterthrush................ U U 4, 5 ___ Kentucky Warbler........................ C C 4 ___ MacGillvray’s Warbler................. R R 4 ___ Mourning Warbler...................... R U 4 18 SP SU FA WI ___ Common Yellowthroat................. C C* C C Habitat 3*, 4*, 5* ___ Hooded Warbler......................... C C 4 ___ Wilson’s Warbler......................... O U R 4 ___ Canada Warbler.......................... U C 4 ___ Summer Tanager......................... C C R 4 ___ Scarlet Tanager........................... C R 4 ___ Western Tanager......................... R R R 4[I] ___ Northern Cardinal....................... U U* U U 4* ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak............. C C 4 ___ Blue Grosbeak............................ C C 4 ___ Indigo Bunting............................ C C R 4 ___ Painted Bunting.......................... C O* C 4* ___ Dickcissel................................... C O* C 3*, 11M The following species have been recorded in Galveston Island State Park, but should not be expected every year: Horned, Least and Western grebes, Masked Booby, Glossy Ibis, Wood Stork, Black Vulture, Bl

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