Wildlife at Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Washington. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).
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U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge Watchable Wildlife Introduction Home for Wildlife Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge was set aside by executive order in 1915 as a refuge, preserve, and breeding ground for native birds. Located in the northwest corner of Washington State on the Salish Sea, approximately 60 miles northwest of Seattle, it offers a diversified habitat of sand beaches, protected bay waters, seagrass beds, mudflats, and forested and grass uplands. ©Guy Monty Good wildlife viewing opportunities occur throughout the year on the Refuge. In winter, the area is important to sea ducks and other waterfowl who feed and find storm shelter in the protected waters of Dungeness Bay. The Bay remains an important migration stop and wintering ground for brant. Many shorebird species also feed on the shorelines and mudflats during the spring and fall migrations with a few species overwintering on the Refuge. Bald eagles and other raptors are commonly seen year round on the Refuge. Harlequin duck Brant. ©Guy Monty Summer brings nesting songbirds to the forested and grass uplands and on to the spits. Often visitors see harbor seals swimming in the marine waters and hauling out on shore to rest and nurse their pups within the protection of the Refuge boundaries. Visitors have also spotted other marine mammals, such as orca and minke whales, in the Refuge waters. About this Checklist The following fish and wildlife species list includes 244 species of birds, 29 species of mammals, 8 species of reptiles and amphibians, and 26 species of fish that are found on the Refuge. Since most birds are migratory, their seasonal occurrence and abundance, as well as associated habitats are coded. The list was prepared with the assistance of Bob Boekelheide, Rod Norvell and other knowledgeable birders. If you see something rare or unusual, please share the information with the Refuge biologist. We will periodically update this checklist with new information and we welcome your wildlife sightings on the Refuge. Bird species are listed according to the seventh edition (1998) American Ornithologists’ Union checklist and the 52nd supplement to that checklist (August 2011). Symbols used in this list are defined on the following page. Wildlife List Key Wildlife Watching Tips Seasons Sp S F W - Spring (March-May) Summer (June-July) Fall (August-November) Winter (December-February) Patience and Magnification Viewing marine birds can be challenging. At first glance the waters appear empty, but slowly scan the area with binoculars or a scope for a closer look. Seasonal Abundance a - abundant – occurring in large numbers in proper habitat - common – likely to be seen or heard in proper habitat - uncommon – present, but not certain to be seen - occasional – present only a few times a season, but may be more common in habitat adjacent to the Refuge - rare – may be present but not every year - irruptive – occurs in large numbers some years, but is absent in others - hypothetical – within normal range, but not recently documented - accidental – outside of normal range Natural Blinds Some areas are closed to public entry to provide wildlife sanctuary. Watch for closed area signs and stay to the north, or strait-side, as you view wildlife from the cover of driftwood. Nature's Soundtrack Walk quietly in designated areas, being aware of sounds. Teach children quiet observation. Other wildlife watchers will appreciate your consideration. Super Sleuthing Be aware of animal sounds, smells, and signs. Tracks, scat, feathers, and nests left behind tell interesting stories. Wild Diets Don’t share your food. Your lunch could disrupt wild digestive systems. Family Ties Leave all young animals alone. A parent is probably close by waiting for you to leave. c u o r i h x A symbol (*) precedes species known to nest or breed on the Refuge. Threatened or endangered species are preceded by (✔) symbol. The “H” column lists the habitat types that are found on the Refuge in which the listed bird species can be found. The habitat codes are as follows: f g h m s t b o - mixed coniferous/deciduous forest grassland hedges/shrubs marsh/pond sand spit/strand tideflats/open mudflats bay marine open marine Bufflehead Peter Davis/USFWS Habitat Birds of Dungeness NWR Common Name Common Name Habitat Sp S F W Loons Red-throated Loon Pacific Loon Common Loon Yellow-billed Loon ob ob ob ob u c c r u c c r c c c r Grebes Pied-billed Grebe Horned Grebe Red-necked Grebe Eared Grebe Western Grebe mb ob ob ob ob o c c o u o c c o u o c c o u r r r r r r r r Fulmars, Petrels and Shearwaters Northern Fulmar o Sooty Shearwater o Short-tailed Shearwater o Storm-Petrels Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel Leach’s Storm-Petrel o o Pelicans Brown Pelican ob Cormorants Brandt’s Cormorant Double-crested Cormorant Pelagic Cormorant ob bo bo Bitterns, Herons and Egrets American Bittern Great Blue Heron Green Heron m tms m o u o r r r r r o o r c c r c u r c c u c c o c o c r o c o c Swans, Geese and Ducks Greater White-fronted Goose Snow Goose Brant *Canada Goose Mute Swan Trumpeter Swan Tundra Swan Wood Duck Gadwall Eurasian Wigeon American Wigeon *Mallard Blue-winged Teal Cinnamon Teal Northern Shoveler Northern Pintail Green-winged Teal Canvasback Redhead Ring-necked Duck Greater Scaup Lesser Scaup Harlequin Duck Surf Scoter White-winged Scoter Black Scoter Long-tailed Duck Bufflehead Common Goldeneye Barrow’s Goldeneye Hooded Merganser Common Merganser Red-breasted Merganser Ruddy Duck New World Vultures Turkey Vulture Habitat Sp S F W m bgm bt btgs b gm gm mf mtb tbm tbm tbm m mt tm tbm tm bm bm bm b bm bto bo bo ob ob bom bom bom bm bm bot bm o r a c x o r o o u c c r r u c c r r o u o c c c u u c c o o o c r o r c c x o r o o u a a r r u a c r r o u o c c c u u c u o o u c r r r a c x o r o u u a a st u u r r c x o o o o r r o o o o o u u u r r o o o u Surf scoter. ©Mike Baird u a c r r o c o c a a u c c c o o o c o Osprey, Kites, Hawks and Eagles Osprey Bald Eagle *Northern Harrier Sharp-shinned Hawk *Cooper’s Hawk Northern Goshawk *Red-tailed Hawk Rough-legged Hawk Golden Eagle Habitat Sp S F W bf sbtf gs f f f fg g fg o c c u u r u r c c u u r u r r u c c u u r u gs tsf sb stf sg Gallinaceous Birds Ring-necked Pheasant *California Quail gh gfh o c m m mb Plovers Black-bellied Plover American Golden-Plover Pacific Golden-Plover ✔Snowy Plover Semipalmated Plover *Killdeer ts ts ts s st st Oystercatchers *Black Oystercatcher Sandpipers and Phalaropes Greater Yellowlegs Lesser Yellowlegs Solitary Sandpiper Willet Wandering Tattler Spotted Sandpiper u r Falcons and Caracaras American Kestrel Merlin Gyrfalcon Peregrine Falcon Prairie Falcon Rails Virginia Rail Sora American Coot u c c o u r o o r r o r u r o u o u r u o o c u c u c o o o o o o o o o o r o c u a o o a r u c r u c c c r u s c c c u tm tm ms st s st u o r r u o r r r o r r o o r r Common Name Habitat Sp S F W Whimbrel Long-billed Curlew Bar-tailed Godwit Marbled Godwit Ruddy Turnstone Black Turnstone Surfbird Red Knot Sanderling Semipalmated Sandpiper Western Sandpiper Least Sandpiper Baird’s Sandpiper Pectoral Sandpiper Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Rock Sandpiper Dunlin Stilt Sandpiper Ruff Short-billed Dowitcher Long-billed Dowitcher Wilson's Snipe Wilson’s Phalarope Red-necked Phalarope Red Phalarope ts m t t st st st t st mt ts ts ts mt mt s tsm m m tms tms m o o o c r o c c o o c r c c o o r r c r r u u o r o r o r u u c r r o u u o o c r c u r r u r r u u u u u c r u u o r o r u o c o o r a r o r A killdeer performs its broken wing act in an attempt to lure a predator from its nest. ©Greg Dahlman Common Name Common Name Habitat Sp S F Skuas, Jaegers, Gulls and Terns Parasitic Jaeger Bonaparte’s Gull Heermann’s Gull Mew Gull Ring-billed Gull California Gull Herring Gull Thayer’s Gull Western Gull *Glaucous-winged Gull Glaucous Gull *Glaucous-winged/Western Gull Black-legged Kittiwake *Caspian Tern Elegant Tern Common Tern *Arctic Tern Forster’s Tern ob tbso sobt stbo stbo stbo stbo stbo stbo stbo st stbo os bos bos bos bos bos o u c c u c r o u a r a r c r u r r Auks and Puffins Common Murre *Pigeon Guillemot ✔Marbled Murrelet Ancient Murrelet Cassin’s Auklet Rhinoceros Auklet Tufted Puffin o o o o o o o Pigeons and Doves Rock Pigeon Band-tailed Pigeon *Mourning Dove Barn Owls Barn Owl r u c o o r o u a r a u o o c u r u o o a o o c o a c c u u c u r r c u u c u o r c W u r c u u o u u c o a r Common Name Habitat Sp S F W f sfg sm f f sg f o o i r o u o r u r o o i r o u o o o i r o u o mfg o o o mfb mfg o u o u o u *Rufous Hummingbird f c c u Kingfishers *Belted Kingfisher btms c c u u Woodpeckers Red-breasted Sapsucker *Downy Woodpecker *Hairy Woodpecker *Northern Flicker Pileated Woodpecker f f f fg f o c u u o o c u o r o u o u r o u o u r Tyrant Flycatchers *Olive-sided Flycatcher Western Wood-Pewee Willow Flycatcher Hammond’s Flycatcher *Pacific-slope Flycatcher Tropical Kingbird Western Kingbird f f f f f g g u o o o c u o o r c u o o o u x g r f f f f u u u o Typical Owls Western Screech-Owl Great Horned Owl Snowy Owl Northern Pygmy-Owl Barred Owl *Short-eared Owl Northern Saw-whet Owl Nightjars Common Nighthawk Swifts Black Swift *Vaux’s Swift o o Hummingbirds u c o o r o gf f fg o o u o o u o o u o o u g o o o o Shrikes Northern Shrike r o o u u u u Vireos Belted kingfisher ©Kevin Cole *Cassin’s Vireo *Hutton’s Vireo Warbling Vireo Red-eyed Vireo u u o o Common Name Habitat Sp S F W f tf t f u u u c u u u c u u u u sg s x r Crows, Jays and Magpies *Steller’s Jay American Crow Northwestern Crow *Common Raven Larks Sky Lark Horned Lark x h h bmtg bmtgf bsmgf bsmg bsmg bsmg r c c c c c r c c c c c c c c c c r Titmice and Chickadees Black-capped Chickadee Mountain Chickadee *Chestnut-backed Chickadee f f f u u u u x c c c c f u u u u f c c c c f u u u u fh f f m u o c o u o c o u u c o c o Nuthatches *Red-breasted Nuthatch Creepers *Brown Creeper Wrens *Bewick’s Wren House Wren *Pacific Wren *Marsh Wren Chestnut-backed chickadee ©Alan Vernon Habitat Sp S F W *Golden-crowned Kinglet Ruby-crowned Kinglet fh fh c u c r c u c c Thrushes Western Bluebird Mountain Bluebird Townsend’s Solitaire *Swainson’s Thrush Hermit Thrush *American Robin *Varied Thrush g g f f fh fgm f r r r o u o c u r u r c u o o o c u r u u Starlings European Starling gmts u u u c Wagtails and Pipits American Pipit sgt o u r Waxwings Bohemian Waxwing Cedar Waxwing f r u u r u r f f f f f f f hmg f c r u u o u o u c c Kinglets u u u c Swallows Purple Martin *Tree Swallow *Violet-green Swallow *Northern Rough-winged Swallow *Cliff Swallow *Barn Swallow Bushtits *Bushtit Common Name Wood Warblers *Orange-crowned Warbler Nashville Warbler *Yellow Warbler *Yellow-rumped Warbler Black-throated Gray Warbler *Townsend’s Warbler MacGillivray’s Warbler *Common Yellowthroat *Wilson’s Warbler u u o u o u c c r u u o u o o u r r r o r Common Name Habitat Sp S F f u u o f f gs gs fh sgfh g hg hg f sg sg c o h c c c o c u c c o h c u c r c o c r c o r c c c o u u c r r *Black-headed Grosbeak f u u u Blackbirds and Orioles Red-winged Blackbird Western Meadowlark *Brewer’s Blackbird *Brown-headed Cowbird Bullock’s Oriole mgh gh gm fg fg o o u u o o o u u o o o o o r o o o r Finches Purple Finch *House Finch Red Crossbill White-winged Crossbill Common Redpoll Hoary Redpoll *Pine Siskin *American Goldfinch *Evening Grosbeak fgh g f f hg hg f gh f o o i o o i o o i c c i c c i i i c u i r o i r i i c r g o o o Tanagers *Western Tanager W Sparrows and Towhees *Spotted Towhee Chipping Sparrow Vesper Sparrow *Savannah Sparrow *Fox Sparrow *Song Sparrow Lincoln’s Sparrow *White-crowned Sparrow Golden-crowned Sparrow *Dark-eyed Junco Lapland Longspur Snow Bunting c r c c r o u c r r Cardinals, Grosbeaks and Allies Old World Sparrows *House Sparrow o Song sparrow ©Dow Lambert Mammals of Dungeness NWR Amphibians and Reptiles of Dungeness NWR Northern harrier © Roger Windemuth Terrestrial Mammals Many mammals are difficult to observe due to their nocturnal or secretive behavior. Although they may not be seen, watch for evidence of their presence, such as fresh tracks, scat or a burrow hole. Common Name Abundance Shrews and Moles *Marsh Shrew Pikas, Rabbits and Hares Snowshoe Hare u o Rodents Aplodontia (Mountain Beaver) Townsend’s Chipmunk *Douglas’ Squirrel (Chickaree) Northern Flying Squirrel *Deer Mouse *Southern Red-backed Vole Townsend’s Vole *Creeping Vole u u c u u u u u Carnivores Northern Raccoon *Short-tailed Weasel (Ermine) *Long-tailed Weasel Northern River Otter *Striped Skunk *Coyote Red Fox u u u u c u u Hoofed Mammals *Columbian Black-tailed Deer Columbian black-tailed deer USFWS c Common Name *Rough-skinned Newt *Northwestern Salamander *Western Toad *Pacific Chorus Frog *Red-legged Frog Northern Alligator Lizard *Northwestern Garter Snake Common Garter Snake Abundance a u o u u u u o Marine Wildlife of Dungeness NWR Field Notes Marine Mammals Have you seen me lately? Visitors often observe marine mammals in the waters around the spit. Only the harbor and elephant seals haul out (come out of the water) on the shoreline. Please report to Refuge staff any individual (single) seal or any other marine mammals observed on land. Common Name ✔Northern (Steller) Sea Lion California Sea Lion Northern Fur Seal *Harbor Seal Northern Elephant Seal ✔Orca (Killer Whale) Harbor Porpoise Dall’s Porpoise Gray Whale Minke Whale Sea Otter Abundance o o r a o o o o o o r Anadromous Fish, The following is a selected sample of fish and shellfish that visitors might Shellfish and see in Dungeness Bay. Included are Others anadromous fish, that is a term used for fish that hatch in fresh water, migrate to sea, and return to fresh water to spawn. Common Name ✔Chinook (King) Salmon Coho (Silver) Salmon Pink Salmon ✔Chum Salmon Sockeye Salmon Steelhead Cutthroat Trout (coastal) ✔Bull Trout Pacific Sand Lance Pacific Herring Surf Smelt Native Littleneck Clam Manila Littleneck Clam Date & time Observer Weather Species Behavior Comments Date & time Observer Weather Cockle Butter Clam Horse Clam Geoduck Softshell Clam Pacific Oyster (commercial) Mussel Dungeness Crab Red Rock Crab Oregon (Hairy) Shore Crab Horse Shore Crab Hermit Shore Crab Giant Pacific Octopus Species Behavior Comments If you find a rare, accidental or unlisted species, please share your observations with us. And remember, a picture is worth a thousand words. Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge 715 Holgerson Road Sequim, WA 98382 Telephone: 360/457 8451 Fax: 360/457 9778 http://www.fws.gov/washingtonmaritime/dungeness U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service http://www.fws.gov Refuge Information 1 800/344 WILD August 2014 Black oystercatcher. Peter Davis/USFWS